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FEB 8 1933 






Biographies of American Musicians 

Histories of the Principal Musical Institutions, Firms 
and Societies. 





Copyright, 1886, 
By F. 0. JONES. 


I deem it my first duty to apologize to my friends who have waited so long and so 
patiently for my "Dictionary of American and Foreign Music and Musicians" (commenced 
in 1878), which they had every reason to expect, from announcements made by myself, would 
be published ere this. Indeed, it was my own expectation at one time that it would be pub- 
lished three years ago, but the little matter of finding a publisher was one not easily accom- 
plished. The merit of the work was universally conceded, and three firms were only dis- 
suaded from undertaking it by its size, (about 700 octavo pages like these). Last autumn I 
determined to publish it myself, and made every arrangement to that effect. At the very last 
moment, however, for good and sufficient reasons, I substituted this little volume in its place, 
and sincerely hope it may prove useful to a degree far in excess of its size. 

The present volume contains everything relative to American music, musicians (both na- 
tive and foreign born), and musical subjects, which had been prepared for the larger work. 
None of the biographies or articles have been amplified or even changed. In every case has it 
been endeavored to give exact dates and facts, and to correct any errors which may have pre- 
viously existed. Much of the information was derived from first sources by correspondence. 
If in any particular it is incorrect, I will be glad to receive notice of the fact from those 
who know such to be the case. It will also give me pleasure to receive a copy of every publi- 
cation making any allusion to or criticism of my work, whether adverse or commendatory. 

Undoubtedly some worthy subjects have received no attention in these pages. This may be 
due to a limited reputation, to failure to gain the necessary information, even after the most 
persistent efforts, or to an oversight. Whatever deficiency exists in this respect will, if pos- 
sible, be remedied in a second edition. Lengthy articles are not always indicative of merit, 
nor short ones indicative of the reverse. In many cases, lack of information has made the 
article correspondingly brief. A thousand and one considerations and elements, of which the 
casual reader may never dream, enter into the preparation of a work like this. 

In conclusion, I wish to tender my hearty thanks to the following well-known musical 
writers, and to all others who have in any manner assisted me in my arduous task : Karl Merz, 
Wooster, Ohio; C. H. Brittan, Chicago; Wm. M. Thoms, New York; Wm. B. Tuthill, 
New York; E. M. Bowman, St. Louis; E. Eugene Davis, Cincinnati; P. J. Smith, Brooklyn. 

I trust that at no very far distant day my larger and complete work may appear. 


CANASERAGA, (Allegany Co.,) N. Y., February 15, 1886. 



American Music and Musicians. 

Abbott, Emma, was born in 1850, at Chi- 
cago, where her father was a music teacher. 
From the first she exhibited a great love of 
music, and was almost constantly singing in 
her childish way. In 1854 her father removed 
to Peoria, 111., where he had barely pupils 
enough to keep the wolf from the door. 
Miss Emma began to learn the guitar, on 
which she soon attained so much skill as to 
attract attention. This fact and her constantly 
increasing vocal powers led her father to 
think of bringing her out at a public concert 
with her brother, George, which he did with 
success. At that time she was nine years old. 
Encouraged by this venture, they visited and 
gave hundreds of concerts in other towns. 
At sixteen, in order to keep the family from 
want, Emma taught district school. She then 
started on a concert tour in Illinois, unac- 
companied by any one. At Joliet she joined 
a Chicago opera troupe, but when the troupe 
broke up she found herself at Grand Haven, 
Mich., without any money. With great Cour- 
age, however, she gave concerts and gradually 
worked her way to New York City, where 
she managed to hear Parepa-Rosa. But she 
failed to gain any recognition in that grea 
metropolis, and, utterly discouraged, borrowed 
money to return West. She then tried giving 
concerts in Chicago and Milwaukee, but with- 
out success. Finally, after a tour of some oi 
the small towns, she arrived at Toledo, < >hio, 
and gave a concert in the parlors of the 
Oliver House, which proved a failure. At 
ihis critical juncture she met Clara Louise 

Kellogg, who was so well pleased with her 
voice that she sent her to New York. This 
was in 1870, and for two years she studied 
hard, meanwhile singing in Dr. Chapin's 
Fifth Avenue Church. In May, 1872, having 
previously been furnished with the necessary 
means by a few of her friends, she went to 
Milan, and studied for some time under the 
best masters there. She then went to Paris 
and studied under Wartel, with whom she 
remained several years. After completing 
her education she was offered numerous good 
engagements in Europe. In 1880 she returned 
lo her native country, and was well received. 
She has since sung in many of the principal 
cities here. 

Academy of Music, New York. 
This is not an institution of learning, but a 
large building used for concerts and dramatic 
representations. It was opened Oct. 2, 1854, 
with a production of "Norma," Grisi and 
Mario in the chief idles. In 1866 it was 
destroyed by fire, but re-opened in February, 
1867. The Academy of Music, Philadelphia, 
which is almost equally as noted as that at 
New York, was opened with Mme. Gazzaniga, 
Sig. Brignoli, and Sig. Amadio, in "II Trova- 
tore," Feb. 26, 1857. It is said to be one of 
the finest arranged theatres in the world. 

Adams, Charles R., tenor singer, was 
born at Charlestown, Mass., about 1848, and 
early showed great musical talent. He studied 
with Mme. Arnoult, a French vocal teacher 
at Boston, and subsequently with Prof. 
Mulder, a French gentleman, whom he accom- 


panied to Europe. At Vienna he became a 
pupil of Barbiere, and made such a brilliant 
record that he was engaged as first tenor 
at the Royal Opera House, Berlin, where he 
remained three years. The ensuing nine 
years wen- spenl as first tenor at the Imperial 
Opera House, Vienna. Meanwhile he con- 
tinued his studies under the best teachers of 
Europe, and sang in opera two seasons at 
Covent Garden, London ; one season at La 
Scala, Milan, and one at the Royal Opera, 
Madrid, besides appearing at various theatres 
throughout Germany. As an exponent of 
Wagnerian music he was much admired, 
rendering the roles in "Lohengrin" and 
"Tannhauser" in a manner equaled by few 
artists. Since returning to this country he 
has sung one season in German opera with 
Mme. Pappenheim and one season in Ital- 
ian opera with the Strakosch company. In 
1879 he settled in Boston, where he is still 
(Jan., 1886) located, all his time aside from 
professional engagements being taken up in 
teaching. Mr. Adams is not only a line 
singer but a good actor, his impersonation of 
Raoul in "Les Huguenots" and Don Jose in 
"Carmen" being especially excellent. 

AtlaillS, L)R. F. W. A violin maker, 
born at Montpelier, Vermont, in 1787. Early 
in life he turned his attention to the making 
of violins, contending that the ancient Cre- 
monas might be equaled, providing the right 
kind of wood in the right condition was used. 
He chiefly employed pine and maple, taken 
from old and thoroughly seasoned trees. 
During his life he completed one hundred 
and forty instruments, which brought large 
prices. Frequently he would refuse to sell 
at any price. His violins became known far 
and wide for the power and sweetness of their 
tone. He died in 1859. 

Albani, Marie Louise Emma Cecilie, 
one of America's most noted singers, was 
horn in 1851, at Chambly, near Montreal.* 

* Moore's Encyclopedia of Music, page 5 of the 
Appendix, gives the year of her birth as 1850, and 
the place as PJattsburg, N. Y., with which most 
American writers agree. It appears that toe 
family, after leaving Montreal, first removed to 
I'lattsluirg, where a stay of considerable length 
was ma e, and from there to Albany. This may 
account for the conflicting statements. 

I ler father, Joseph La Jeunesse, was a French 
Canadian, and her mother a Scotch lady. 
As her father was a music teacher, she 
was brought up in a musical atmosphere. 
When she was five years of age the family 
removed to Montreal, and she entered 
the school of the convent of the Sacre 
Cceur, where she remained some years. In 
1864 the family went to Albany, and while 
studying Emma sang in the choir of the Cath- 
olic Cathedral. Her fine voice soon began to 
attract attention, and her father was urged to 
take her to Europe that her voice might W 
suitably cultivated. The necessary funds 
were raised by a concert, and in 1868 she 
left with her father for Europe. At Paris she 
studied for eight months with Duprez, and 
then proceeded to Milan, where she studied 
for some time with Lamperti. She made 
her debut at Messina, in "La Sonnambula," 
having previously adopted the stage name of 
Albani in memory of the city where her musi- 
cal career really began. Afterwards she sang 
at Pergola and Florence, and made her first 
appearance at London, at Covent Garden, 
April 2, 1872. She was well received and 
soon became a great favorite there. The 
same year she visited Paris and sang in the 
Italian Opera. Returning to Milan she 
continued her studies under her former 
master. In 1X73 she again sang at London, 
at St. Petersburg, ami during the winter of 
1873-74 made a flying visit to this country. 
She was married to Ernst Gye, who is lessee 
of Covent Garden, Aug. 6, 1878, and makes 
it her home at London. Her voice is a light 
soprano, sympathetic in quality, and especially 
effective in the upper register. Her princi- 
pal roles, which indicate great versatility of 
talent, are Amina in " Sonnambula," Mar- 
gherita in "Faust," Mignon, Ophelia, F.lsa in 
"Lohengrin," Lucia, Linda, Gilda in "Rigo- 
letto," and Elizabetla in "Tannhauser." 

Allen, CHESTER G., known as a teacher, 
composer and musical writer, was born Feb. 
15, 1S38, at Westford, Otsego Co., N. V. He 
edited or compiled several collections of 
music, for schools and churches, containing 
many pieces of his own composing, some of 
which are well esteemed. For some time he 
was editor of the " New York Musical Ga- 
zette," now defunct. At one time he was 
also teacher of music in the public schools of 


Cleveland, Ohio. He died at Cooperstown, 
N. Y., Oct. 18, 1878. 

American Art Journal (The) New 
York. A twenty-page weekly publication 
devoted to reviews and criticisms of music, 
art, literature and the music trades. It was 
founded in 1S63, by Henry C. Watson, who 
was for a long time its editor and proprietor. 
At present (Jan., 1886) it is edited by Win. 
M. Thorns. ' 

American College of Musicians. 

See College of Musicians, American. 
American Harmony. 1.— A col 

lection of hymn tunes compiled and published 
by Daniel Bailey of Newburyport, Mass. It 
was issued in two volumes, the first of which 
appeared in 1769 and the second in I77 1 - 
The first volume contains "A new and correct 
Introduction to the Grounds of Musik, Rudi- 
mental, Practical and Technical." Both 
volumes were made up from collections 
which had been published in England. 

2. — A similar collection was published in 
1792, at Charlestown, Mass., by Oliver 
Holden. In the preface the author says : "the 
whole entirely new," and styles himself "a 
teacher of music in Charlestown," though a 
carpenter by trade. Some of the tunes, which 
were harmonized in three and four parts, were 
undoubtedly of his own composing. 

3. — A third collection bearing the same 
name was published at Philadelphia, in 1801, 
by Nehemiah Shumway. It contained 220 
pages, and included a singers' manual. 

AlllOClio, ALESSANDRO, born at Naples, 
in 1831, was a fine baritone singer. At a 
very early age he was taught music, learning 
the Bute. Becoming enamored of the stage 
and failing to obtain his parents' consent to 
adopt it as a profession, he ran away from 
home and appeared at various places, earning 
considerable reputation. In 1855 he came to 
this country in company with the La Grange 
opera troupe, and traveled throughout the 
States. He afterwards went to Cuba and sang 
in the Tacon Theatre, Havana, and to Vene- 
zuela. Starting to return to New York, he 
was taken with a fever and died on the sea 
near Havana, in June, 1861. 

Alliodio, FREDRICO, brother of the pre- 
ceding, was born at Naples in 1833. He also 
possessed a fine baritone voice, and achieved 
some reputation as a singer in his native coun- 

try. He went to South America, and was 
with his brother when he died, after which he 
came to this country, arriving here in 1861. 
The Amodio family comprised six sons and 
two daughters. 

AnSChlltz, Carl, born in Germany 
about 1830, came to this country in 1857. 
He soon became prominently identified with 
its musical interests, taking a leading position 
among our musicians. He was largely en- 
gaged in conducting operas, and in 1861 was 
connected with the Academy of Music and 
the National Musical Institute, in New York. 
Mr. Anschutz came to the United States at a 
period when music was developing into a 
fresh, vigorous life, and did much to aid its 
growth, for which he will long be remem- 
bered. This excellent man died at his resi- 
dence in Boston, January 23, 1870. The dis- 
ease which hastened his end was cancer of the 
throat, and for four months previous to his 
death he lived entirely on fluids. Only the 
day before he died he bit his wife's finger to 
indicate his great hunger. 

ApollillO. A machine or instrument 
which could produce the sounds of twenty- 
eight different musical instruments, comprising 
a whole orchestra. It contained 25 flageo- 
lets, 25 clarinets, 25 imitations of birds, 4 
bugles, 8 French horns, and other instru- 
ments in proportion, which could be played 
singly or all together. A Mi. Plimpton was 
the inventor, and it was first exhibited at New 
York and Boston, in 1820. It was only one 
of the numerous attempts to combine many 
instruments into one, made about the same 
time. Its name was changed to Plimptonia 
and subsequently to Plimptortichord, after its 
inventor. One man assisted by a boy could 
run it. 

Appy, Henri, was bom at Hague, in 
1828. He was the oldest son of John Appy, 
w hoheld the position of solo violinist to 
King William I. of Holland, and inherited 
all his father's musical talents. Early in 
life he went on conceit tours through various 
countries. He was appointed solo violinist 
to William II. of Holland, in 1848, and in 
1850 gave concerts with Mile. Bertha Johann- 
sen. In 1851 he came to this countrv, and 
soon after made a tour of the States in company 
with Mme. Biscaccianti. He assisted at the 
Jenny Lind farewell concerts. In 1875 ne 


was residing in Rochester, N. Y., as a 
teacher and conductor. 

ArbUCkle, MATTHEW, cornet player, 
was horn at Lochside, near Glasgow, Scotland, 
in 1826. At the age of thirteen he entered 
the band of an English regiment, which 
he accompanied to China during the first 
"opium war" and to India during the Sikh 
war. On his return to England he studied 
under Wallace and Suckling, making very 
rapid progress. Soon after he came to 
the United States, and was for many 
years the leading cornet soloist of Gilmore's 
hand. In 1869 he greatly distinguished him- 
self at the great Peace Jubilee, playing the 
trumpet part while Mme. Parepa-Rosa sang 
the vocal part in " Let the bright Seraphim." 
He also won honors at the second Jubilee in 
1872, as well as at the Centennial Exhibition 
in 1870, where he played for thirty consecu- 
tive days. During the summer season he 
usually played at Coney Island. In August, 
1880, he became band-master of the Ninth 
Regiment band, a position that he ably filled 
until his death, which occurred (from pneu- 
monia) at his residence in New York, May 23, 
1883. He left a wife, a son and a daughter. 
The hitter, Miss Lizzie Arbuckle, is a promis- 
ing soprano. 

Arcadian Symphony. A work in E 

minor, by George F. Bristow, originally in- 
tended as the introduction of a cantata 
entitled "The Pioneers; or, Westward Ho! " 
Performed by the Philarmonic Society, New 
York, Feb. 14, 1874. The libretto of the 
cantata was written by Henry C. Watson, for 
William Vincent Wallace, who had sketched 
out some of the music at the time of his 

Archer, Frederic, was bom June 16, 
1838, at Oxford, England. Strange to relate, 
lie at first exhibited a positive dislike for 
music, and it was not until he was eight years 
of age that this dislike suddenly gave way to 
an intense love for sweet sounds. His father, 
an excellent musician, now taught him the 
elements of music, and in the short space of 
a few months he was able to play almost any 
piece within the scope of his fingers at sight. 
in 1847 he became a member of the choir of 
Margaret Chapel (now All Saints' Church), 
London, where he not only attracted atten- 
tion by his fine voice but by^frequently assist- 

ing the organist. He returned to Oxford in 
1S52. Some years later he made a tour in 
Europe. On his return he was appointed or- 
ganist of the Panopticon, now the Alhambra 
theatre. In 1859 he married Miss Harriet 
Rothschild (related to the celebrated finan- 
ciers of that name), who was his pupil, and 
for several years thereafter was engaged in 
conducting and giving organ recitals. He 
became organist and choirmaster of Christ 
Church, London, in 1864, and organist of 
Alexandria Palace in 1873. During his stay 
there he gave no less than 2000 organ recitals, 
but did not repeat a program. In 1877 he 
assumed the entire musical direction of the 
Palace. Notwithstanding the additional labors 
thus imposed, he found time to make visits to 
Glasgow as conductor, giving occasional reci- 
tals. In 1S80 he organized an English opera 
company and gave performances in various 
cities and towns with good success. He came 
to this country in 1881 and has since resided 
in New York. 

Mr. Archer's compositions are quite numer- 
ous and highly esteemed. Besides bis organ 
pieces and arrangements, he has written two 
operas, some orchestral works, and consider- 
able church, vocal, and piano music. As an 
organist he has complete control of his instru- 
ment and a wonderful faculty of sight 

Archers, The ; or, The Mount uneers 
of Switzerland. Probably the first Ameri- 
can opera ever composed. The words are by 
William Dunlop ; the music by Benjamin 
Carr. First produced at the John Street 
Theatre, New York, April 18, 1756. The 
opera is founded on the story of William 'Pell. 
Amheini. One of the few tunes which 
have survived from the days of the New Eng- 
land psalm singer, being still much used. It 
was composed by Samuel Holyoke when he 
was but fourteen years old (1785), and was 
the last tune he sang before his death in 1816. 
In all probability it was first published in his 
collection of sacred music, "Harmonia Amer- 
icana," which appeared in 1791. See HAR- 
MONIA Americana; also, Holyoke, Samuel. 
Arnheni, Mile., whose real name is 
Kate Larimer James, is the daughter of 
Judge James of Council Bluffs, Iowa. She 
was born there about 1862. Her mother was 
a Van Arnhem, born in Holland, and this 


name she adopted upon going upon the stage. 
Early in 1880 she went to Paris and became a 
pupil of Mme. La Grange. During her studies 
she memorized fifteen operas. She then 
went to London and studied ballad singing 
with Randegger. In 1881 she sang for Wil- 
helmj during his tour, and was frequently 
heard in the salons of ex-Queen Isabella of 
Spain at Paris. In the Spring of 1882 she 
appeared in the role of Marguerite at the 
Mechanics' Building, Boston, under Stra- 
kosch's management. Since then she has 
filled operatic engagements in Europe and 
this country. Her voice is a pleasing one, 
and her enunciation clear and distinct. 

Aronson, Rudolph, was born in 1856, 
at New York City. At an early age he stud- 
ied music under Leopold Meyer, then at 
Berlin, and finally at the Paris Conservatoire 
under Emile Durand, where he became well 
versed in harmony, counterpoint, and instru- 
mentation. After returning to New York he 
became prominently connected with musical 
affairs there. He has for several years con- 
ducted an orchestra of fifty performers, and 
given concerts after the manner of Strauss, 
Arban and Gung'l. Metropolitan Concert 
Hall and The Casino were his projections and 
in a large measure due to his efforts. His 
compositions are quite numerous. Among 
the most popular are "Sweet Sixteen," a 
waltz written expressly for the celebrated 
cornet soloist, J. Levy; " The Marche Tri- 
omphale ;" "Fete au Village," a fantasie;" 
"Mazurka Melodique," " Dwothy Waltz," 
and " Jockey Galop." He is at present 

(Jan., 1883) engaged on an operetta, "Cap- 
tain Kidd," to be produced in the spring. 

Arthur, Alfred, was born Oct. 8, 1844, 
near Pittsburgh, Pa. When he was quite 
young his parents removed to Mansfield, O., 
where he began the study of music. From 
1861 to 1864 he served in the army, the latter 
two years in the capacity of leader of the 
Eighth Brigade Band, under the]command of 
General Hayes. At the close of the war he 
went to Boston to perfect his musical educa- 
tion, studying at the Boston School of Music 
and under private teachers, among whom was 
Julius Eichberg. In 1870 he settled in Cleve- 
land, Ohio, as leader of the Germania Orches- 
tra and chorister of Trinity Church. The 
latter position he soon resigned to accept a 
similar one at the Euclid Avenue Baptist 
Church, where he remained seven years, 
when he became leader of the Bach Choir at 
the Woodland Avenue Presbyterian Church, 
of which he still (Jan., 1884) has charge. 
He is also conductor of The Cleveland 
Vocal Society and other musical organiza 
tions, and had charge of the Cleveland May 
Festival forces in 1880 and 1882. Mr. Arthur 
has been very successful as a vocal teacher as 
well as a conductor. Among his more noted 
pupils are Mrs. Berdie Hale-Britton and Miss 
Dora Henninges. His compositions are not 
very numerous. Of the larger and m ^re im- 
portant are the operas of " The Water Car- 
rier," first produced at Cleveland during the 
winter of 1872-73; "Cavaliers and Round- 
heads," and "Adeline." 

Bach Society, The, Cleveland, 0., 
was formed about 1878. The chorus consists 
of some eighty voices, with a string band of 
twelve pieces and an organ. The third an- 
nual concert was given Dec. 7, 1882. Though 
young, the society is an important factor in 
the musical affairs of the city. It forms the 
choir of the Woodland Avenue Presbyterian 
Church, and is one of the best models of 
chorus choirs in the United States. At present 
(Jan., 1884) Alfred Arthur is conductor, Miss 
F. J. Hopkins organist and J. H. Amme 
orchestral leader. 

Baeriliami, Cakl, was born in Bavaria, 
in 1839. He descended from a very eminent 
musical family and began his studies in the 
Conservatorium at Munich in 1850. In 
1857 he spent several months with Liszt. 
For some time after this he quietly devoted 
himself to teaching, marrying Beatrice von 
Dessauer in 1864. Upon the formation of the 
Royal School of Music at Munich, in 1867, 
he was appointed a professor of piano play- 
ing. In 1876 he was made royal professor by 
the King of Bavaria. Some time since he 
came to this country and made his d3ut as a 
pianist at a concert of the Philharmonic Socie- 
ty, Boston, playing Beethoven's fourth con- 
certo. He is at present (1883) a resident of 

Bailey, Thomas and Daniel, were pub- 
lishers and composers of music at Newbury- 
port, Mass. Thomas republished a portion of 
a work by Wm. Tansur (English) in 1755, 
entitled "A Complete Melody, in Three 
Parts." It contained about one-third as much 
as the English work. In 1764 Daniel Bailey 
and John W. Gilman, an engraver of Exeter, 
N. H., published a small work entitled "A 
New and Complete Introduction to the 
Grounds and Rules of Music, in Two Parts." 
In the first part was an introduction to the art 
of singing by note, taken from a work by 
Thomas Walter, A. M., and in the second 
part a new and correct introduction to the 
grounds of music, rudimental and practical, 
taken from Wm. Tansur's "Royal Melody." 

The work contained in all thirty-four tunes, 
arranged in three parts, for soprano, bass and 
tenor. Three editions were issued, appar- 
ently from the same plates but with different 
title pages and introductions, one for Bulkly 
Emerson and one for Mr. Bailey, at Newbury- 
port, and one for Mascholl Williams, at Salem, 
Mass. Mr. Bailey's edition contained fourteen 
additional tunes. In 1769 Daniel Bailey 
published a work entitled "Universal Har- 
mony," selected from Tansur's "Psalmody" 
and "Psalmody Evangelica" by Thomas 
Williams. The tunes in this were also 
in three parts. The Baileys are said to 
have published other works containing 
church tunes (always largely selected from 
English works), but no satisfactory trace of 
them can be found. 

Baker, Benjamin Franklin. Born at 
Wenham, Mass., July io, 181 1. When a 
young man he removed to Salem, and in 183 1 
commenced teaching music. In 1833 he 
traveled throughout the country as a member 
of a concert company. After this he studied 
with John Paddon, Boston, where, in 1839, 
he became musical director of Dr. Channing's 
church, a position which he retained eight 
years. In 1841 he began holding what were 
termed musical conventions, and soon after 
was appointed vice-president of the Handel 
and Haydn Society of Boston, holding the 
office six years. Commencing with 1842, he 
for six years was superintendent of musical 
instruction in grammar schools of the city. 
He subsequently became editor of the " Bos- 
ton Musical Journal," and principal of the 
Boston Music School, which was incorporated 
in 1857. Since that time Mr. Baker has 
resided in Boston, devoting most of his time 
to teaching, in which he has been very suc- 
cessful, consequently his works are compara- 
tively few. Among them are the " Burning 
Ship," " Storm King," and several other 
I secular cantatas. He has also written a treat- 
ise o* thorough-bass and harmony, which is 
published by O. Ditson & Co., of Boston, in 
1 vol. 8vo. 112 pp. 1870. 


Balatka, Hans, was born at Hoffnungs- 
thal, Moravia, Austria, March 5, 1827. He 
began his musical studies as choir-boy in the 
Olmiitz cathedral. When sixteen years old, 
his parents being in comfortable circum- 
stances, he was sent to Vienna to study law. 
However, he continued his musical studies 
under Proct and Sechter, and made such 
progress that in a year he was able to give 
some concerts. The Revolution of 1848 
drove him, as it did many others, to seek 
some other country, and after a short time 
spent in Dresden and Hamburg he sailed for 
New York, where he arrived in June, 1849. 
Without making more than a temporary stop, 
he proceeded on to Milwaukee, Wis. There 
he organized in the same year the Milwaukee 
Musikverein (musical society) and became its 
first conductor, a position which he retained 
ten years (See Milwaukee Musikveretn). 
About i860 he was invited to Chicago to 
bring out Mozart's "Requiem," and since 
then that city has been his home. His 
activity is unceasing. He has held position 
as leader of various English and German 
societies, and has often conducted the German 
Saengerfests. In 1869 he produced the "Cre- 
ation" at Chicago, with Mme. Parepa-Rosa 
as soloist, and in 1870 the "Messiah," 
besides repeating the "Creation" with 
Nilsson as soloist. Mr. Balatka is a good 
composer, and an excellent performer on the 
double-bass, violoncello, violin, guitar, and 
piano. His composition "The Power of 
Song" gained for him the silver goblet 
offered as a prize by the Ssengerbund held at 
Cincinnati in 1856. He has written besides 
several concertos, arias, songs, etc. 

Barns, Carl, was born Oct. 12, 1823, 
at Schuegast, Prussian Silesia. In 1838 he 
went to Brieg, where he took lessons of 
Forster the organist and of Cantor Fischer. 
Three years later he was at Breslau, studying 
harmony under . E. Richter and the organ 
under A. Hesse. He came to this country 
in 1849, landing at New York, but soon went 
to Saginaw, Mich., where he engaged in farm- 
ing. The love of music was too strong, 
however, and he soon relinguished this and 
went to Cincinnati, where he was organist 
of the St. Philomena Church and later of St. 
Patrick's. For over twenty years he also 
officiated at the Jewish Temple. He has been 

director at various times of the principal 
musical societies of the city. The following 
meetings of the North American Ssengerbund 
were conducted by him : The sixth, at Can- 
ton, O., 1854; the thirteenth, nt Columbus, 
0., 1865; the fifteenth, at Indianapolis, Ind., 
1867 ; the twentieth, at Louisville, Ky., 1877 ; 
and the twenty-first, at Cincinnati, 1879. At 
the meetings of the Indiana Soengerbund he 
conducted in 1858-59-60-68. During his long 
residence at Cincinnati, Mr. Barus did much 
towards its musical prosperity by his indefatig- 
able labors. He is now located at Indianap- 
olis, Ind. Of his numerous compositions 
none have as yet been published. 

Bassford, William K., was born in 
New York, April 23, 1839, and early gave 
unmistakable evidence of his musical talents. 
His first teacher in harmony and composition 
was Samuel Jackson, an excellent musician 
and for some time organist of St. Bartholo- 
mew's Church, New York. While still 
young he traveled quite extensively with a 
concert troupe as pianist. Not liking this 
mode of living and finding that it deprived 
him of the time necessary for study, he 
abandoned it and settled in New York as 
teacher and composer, and is still (Dec, 1885) 
located there. He has been very successful 
as a piano teacher, and some of his pupils 
have become brilliant players. But he is, 
perhaps, best known by his songs, of which a 
large number have been issued. His piano 
compositions are mostly salon and character- 
istic pieces. Among them are "Devotion," 
"Young Maiden and Flowers," "Meditation," 
"Morning Song," "Tranquility," and "Hunt- 
er's Song," all displaying more or less talent 
and ability. His sacred music consists of a 
mass in E flat and some other church pieces. 
He has written a two-act opera, "Cassilda," 
which is founded on a Spanish subject and 
contains some fine numbers. He was also 
engaged by Mme. Wallace to complete the 
opera of "Estrella," left unfinished by Vincent 

Baumbach, ADOLPH, was born in 
Germany, but when, we have been unable to 
ascertain, though probably about 1830. He 
came to this country when a young man, and 
was located in Boston as early as 1855. 
Afterwards, about 1863, he went to Chicago, 
where he resided during the rest of his life. 


He was a teacher of the piano and organ, a 
good player, and composed considerable 
music, especially teaching pieces for the 
piano. He was also the compiler of a popular 
collection for quartet choirs. His death 
occurred some time in 1880, at Chicago. 

Baxter, Lydia, was bom Sept. 2, 1800, 
at Petersburg, Rensselaer Co., N. Y. She 
is known as a poetess of considerable grace 
and beauty. Many of her hymns for the 
church and Sunday school have become very 
popular. Her well-known hymn, "Gates 
Ajar," has been sung in every Christian land, 
and is one of the jewels of hymnology. She 
died in New York, June 23, 1874. 

Bay State Psalm Book. A col- 
lection of psalms and hymns, edited by 
several Puritan clergymen. It was published 
at Cambridge, Mass., in 1640, and was the 
second book produced by the American 
Colonies. Some changes were made and a 
second edition issued in 1646. An edition, 
revised and greatly improved by a number of 
New England ministers, among whom were 
Welde, Eliot of Roxbury, and Mather of 
Dorchester, appeared in 1691. The work 
was printed in clear, new type, imported 
expressly for the purpose, by Stephen Daye, 
and in all passed through more than seventy 
editions. It was republished in London, 
England, in 1737, and in Scotland in 1738. 
It would appear that Henry Dunster had charge 
of the musical portion of the collection, which 
was sometimes known as the "New England 

Beckel, James C, a popular American 
composer, was born in Philadelphia, Dec. 20, 
181 1, his father being a German. When only 
13 years old he was able to take his father's 
place as organist at one of the churches in the 
city. For eighteen years he was organist in 
a P. E. church of Germantown (now a part of 
Philadelphia). In 1847 he became organist of 
the Clinton street Emanuel church (Presbyter- 
ian), a position which he held until 1858. In 
1875 he was tendered the position again, which 
he now (1883) holds. At various times dur- 
ing his long career he has been organist of 
many of the principal churches of his native 
city, always acquitting himself with great 

Mr. Beckel has written a great number of 
compositions, both sacred and secular, many 

of which remain in manuscript. Among his 
more important works are the cantatas of the 
"Pilgrim's Progress," "The Nativity," and 
"Ruth." The "Psalter" is a choice collec- 
tion of music for the church. His latest work 
is a method for the organ, published by Lee & 
Walker, which is being received with great 
favor. O. Ditson & Co., of Boston, and Lee 
& Walker of Philadelphia, are the principal 
publishers of his music. Although Mr. Beckel 
is well advanced in years, he is still active, 
and will probably live to accomplish consid- 
erable more in the musical line. 

Beethoven's Conservatory of 
Music, St. Louis, Mo. This institution 
was founded in the fall of 1871, by a few 
gentlemen desirous of cultivating a taste for 
music in that city. Five months later, it was 
bought of them by August Waldauer and 
Herman Lawitzky, who respectively had 
charge of the violin and the piano depart- 
ments. Under this excellent directorship the 
opening season was attended with success. 
The faculty comprised some of the best resi- 
dent musicians, and the Conservatory soon 
became popular. Since the death of Mr. 
Lawitzky, which occurred in 1874, it has been 
under the sole management of Mr. Waldauer, 
who has maintained its previous good reputa- 
tion. There have been engaged as teachers 
at various times, De Compi, Tamburello, 
Goldbeck, Hanchett, and others equally well 
known. A series of soirees and concerts are 
given by the pupils during each season, and 
a number who were thus first introduced to 
the public are now acknowledged artists. 

Belsliazzar. An "American opera" 
in five acts. Music by James A. Butterfield. 
First produced in 187 1, since when it has 
been given more than 350 times in different 
parts of the country, under the direction of 
the composer. 

Berg"lliann, Karl, well known in this 
country as a violoncellist and conductor, was 
born in 1821, at Ebersbach, Saxony, and 
came to the United States with the Germania 
orchestra in 1850. In 1857 he removed to 
New York, where he became conductor of 
the Philharmonic Society, the Arion, and 
occupied a leading place in musical affairs. 
Toward the end of life he became very des- 
pondent, and was eventually forsaken by 
nearly all his former friends. He died in a 


German hospital, New York, Aug. 10, 1876. 
Among his compositions are some orchestral 

Berge, William. An organist, pianist. 
teacher, and composer, native of Germany, 
who came to this country in 1846, and from 
that time chiefly resided at New York. He 
was noted for the number of his arrangements, 
transcriptions, etc., and for his abilities as a 
performer. His death occurred at New York, 
in March, 1883. 

Betlimie, Thomas Green. See Blind 

Bergner, Frederic, violoncellist, was 
born at Donaiischingen, Baden, Germany, in 
1827, and studied with C. L. Bohm and Kal- 
liwoda. In 1849 ^ e came to the United 
States, and settled in New York, which has 
since been his home. For several years he 
was violoncellist of the " Eisfeld Quartet," 
and afterwards of the "Mason-Thomas Quartet 
Soirees." He is at present member and one 
of the directors of the Philharmonic Society. 
As a player he possesses a fine technique, and 
is noted for the full, round, pure tone 
which he produces. 

Bial, Rudolf, was born Aug. 26, 1834, 
at Habelschwerdt, Silesia. His musical edu- 
cation was obtained at Breslau, and when 
only fifteen years old he became first violinist 
of the orchestra at the stadt theatre. For 
many years he labored in the opera at Berlin, 
and was instrumental in bringing out several 
first class artists there, among them Adelina 
Patti. In 1879 he came to this country, taking 
charge of the orchestra at Koster & Bial's, 
New York, and to his efficiency and good 
judgment much of the success of the concerts 
is due. In 1880 he became conductor at the 
Thalia theatre, and reorganized the orchestra 
there. During the summer of 18S1 he gave 
a series of concerts at Metropolitan hall, which 
were very popular. Mr. Bial was an excellent 
conductor, and understood as few do how t<> 
prepare and make attractive a concert pro- 
gram. He died in New York, Nov. 23, 1881. 

Biddle, Horace P., was born in 181 1, 
near Logan, Ohio, his father being one of the 
pioneers of the West. His early education 
was a limited one, but by close application and 
dilligence he has since become well versed not 
only in the various arts and sciences, but in 
Latin, French and German. He decided to 

follow the profession of law, and in 1839 was 
admitted to practice at the bar. Between this 
time and 1874 he was elected to various offices. 
In the latter named year he became judge of 
the Supreme Court of Indiana, and now 
resides at Logansport. Though not a profes- 
sional musician, Mr. Biddle has devoted much 
of his leisure time to cultivating the art, and 
written numerous essays on musical subjects. 

Big-low & Main, New York City. 
A music publishing firm, well-known in the 
United States, formed Feb. 15, 1868, by 
L. H. Biglow and Sylvester Main, as succes- 
sors to William B. Bradbury. Mr. Main died 
Oct. 5, 1873, a "d the business has since 
been carried on by the surviving partner, 
L. H. Biglow, under the old name. The firm 
does not publish sheet music, but confines 
itself exclusively to books of music, largely 
of sacred music. They are in part publishers 
of the "Gospel Hymns," by Bliss and Sankey, 
and have issued many popular collections of 
music. They are very successful, and have 
sold the almost incredible number of 18,000,- 
000 copies of their various publications. 
Since the agitation of the "Tonic Sol-fa" 
question, they have become the principal 
publishers of this system in America. 

Billings, William, is the first native- 
born American composer who can justly lay 
claim to the title. Previous to his time the 
Colonies had no music, except a few old 
tunes imported from England. He was born 
at Boston, Oct. 7, 1746. His early education 
was very limited. While still young he 
showed his inclination for music, a knowl- 
edge of which he picked up by degrees, for 
music was then little cared for and far still less 
understood. Being entirely self-taught, his 
knowledge was both limited and very imper- 
fect. Counterpoint was something he had no 
idea of, and he could have known but very 
little if anything about harmony, as his earlier 
pieces transgress the fundamental rules. 
Accent and rhythm were also disregarded. 
But we must remember the time when Bil- 
lings lived and the circumstances under which 
he wrote. Though incorrectly constructed, 
his pieces give evidence of considerable 
musical genius, and form a pleasing con- 
trast to the old English tunes then in use, being 
full of life and vigor. Later in life he wrote 
more correctly, while his pieces lost nothing 


in freshness. So popular did his music | 
become, it was sung to the exclusion of 
almost everything else, consequently he had 
many weak imitators. He wrote six works or 
collections of music, the first of which was 
"The New England Psalm Singer," published 
Oct. 7, 1770. This was followed by " The 
Singing Master's Assistant, " an abridgement 
of his first work, published in 1778; "Music 
in Miniature," published in 1779, and contain- 
ing 74 tunes, 31 of which were given to the 
public for the first time ; "The Psalm Singer's 
Amusement," published in 1781 ; "The Suf- 
folk Harmony," published in 1786, and "The 
Continental Harmony," published in 1794. 
These, with some anthems, " Except the Lord 
build the house," " Mourn, mourn, ye saints," 
" The Lord is risen from the dead," "Jesus 
Christ is risen from the dead," etc., comprise 
all of his music that has been published. In 
the collections named above the tunes were, 
with few exceptions, his own. Some of them 
still live, "Aurora" and "Majesty" being 
frequently sung at the present day. 

Billings may justly be considered as the 
founder of American church music, and 
though his efforts appear humble in compari- 
son with those of the present day, with him 
dawned an era which has ever grown bright- 
er and which has not yet had its fulfillment. 
He died in Boston, Sept. 26, 1800. 

Biscaccianti, Signora, (whose maiden 
name was Ostinelli), was born at Boston, Mass., 
in 1825. Her father, Louis Ostinelli, an Ital- 
ian, resided for many years in Boston, where 
he was leader of the principal orchestras, and 
her mother was a New York lady- She early 
manifested a love for music, possessing a won- 
derful voice. A subscription was raised, and 
in 1843 sne > i° company with her father, went 
to Italy for the purpose of studying. She was 
brought to the notice of Pasta, from whom she- 
received instruction for some time, and subse- 
quently was a pupil of Vaccai, Nani, and 
Lamperti. In May, 1847 (previous to which 
she had been married), she made her dilntt at 
the Carcano theatre, Milan, in " Ernani." 
She returned home in the summei of the same 
year, and sang in many of the principal cities 
here with great success. Afterward she made 
a trip to Europe, where she was well received. 
In 1853 or 1854 she was in California, and 
subsequently sang in various parts of the coun- 

try. Her later history we have been unable 
to learn, except that she is now a resident of 

Bishop, ANNA, born in 1814, wife of 
Sir H. R. Bishop, whom she married in 1832, 
was educated at the Royal Academy of Music, 
London, and made her first appearance in that 
citv, July 5, 1.830. She soon after went on a 
tour through the principal countries of Europe, 
which extended down to 1843. From this 
time until 1846 she remained in Italy, and 
was at one time prima donna at the San Carlo, 
Naples. After her stay in Italy she returned 
to England, but in 1847 came to this country, 
remaining here until 1855, when she sailed 
for Australia. She then again made a brief 
visit to England, and in 1859 came to this 
country for the second time. Her stay was 
prolonged to 1866 (with a brief visit to Mexico 
and Cuba), when she sailed for the Sandwich 
Islands, visited China, India, Australia, 
Egypt and England, arriving in the United 
States again about 1869. During all her 
wanderings down to 1855 she was accompanied 
by Bochsa, the eminent harpist, with 
whom she ran away from her husband. Her 
success in this country, though nothing phe- 
nomenal, has been uniform and decided. 
To recount all her wanderings or give any- 
thing like a complete history of her life would 
fill volumes. No singer that ever lived 
traveled so much or sang before so many 
people. She visited nearly every country on 
the globe, and the most of them repeatedly. 
In 1858 she married Martin Schultz, an 
American gentleman, and made it her perma- 
nent home at New York. She died there 
March 18, 1884, from a stroke of apoplexy. 
Her last public appearance was at a concert in 
New York city in the spring of 1883. Her 
voice was remarkably well preserved for one 
so far advanced in years and she retained some 
of her youthful appearance. No doubt if her 
biography were written it would prove very 

Blake, Charles D., a popular American 
composer, was born at Walpole, Mass., in 1847. 
At the age of seven years he commenced the 
study of music, and at ten produced his first 
composition, after which his progress was very 
rapid. He has been a pupil of J. K. Paine, 
J. C. D. Parker, Ryder, and Pond. Mr. Blake 
aims only at producing music for the masses, 


in which he has been successful to an unusual 
degree. His compositions number about three 
thousand, a large part of which are for the 
piano, but including many songs. He has also 
written some larger works, one of which is 
the " Light-Keeper's Daughter'' (libretto by 
Geo. M. Vickers), produced for the first time 
at the American Casino, Boston, June 12, 
1882. He is at present (1884) a resident of 
Boston, where he is connected with the music 
publishing house of White, Smith & Co. 

Blake, George E., was born in 1775. 
He commenced publishing music at Philadel- 
phia, in 1802, and was the oldest music pub- 
lisher in America. He died in Philadelphia, 
Feb. 24, 1S71, at the great age of ninety-six. 

1>I i 11(1 Tom, as he is generally known, 
whose real name is Thomas Green Bethune, 
was born near Columbus, Ga., May 25, 1849. 
He was blind from his birth, but as a compen- 
sation therefor nature seems to have endowed 
him with wonderful musical abilities. Being 
by birth a slave, he was as such purchased by 
Perry H. Oliver, in 1850. When not more 
than five years old he had already become 
quite familiar with the piano, and in 1858 
made his first public appearance as a player. 
Since that time he has made repeated concert 
tours in this countiy, visiting the principal 
cities and towns and always drawing good 
houses, and even visited Europe, where he at- 
tracted considerable attention. He is now 
(December, 1882) again making a tour of the 
States. Blind Tom can not be classed as a 
musician in a strict sense of the word, having 
never been educated as such, and consequently 
his few compositions are of no value. Yet his 
musical talents are indisputable, and that he 
is in some respects a player of exceptionable 
ability is also equally true. In fact, his seems 
to be one of nature's eccentrical bestowals of 
genius with which we sometimes meet, but 
difficult to be explained or accounted for. 

Bliss, Philip Paul, was born in Clear- 
field County, Pa., July 9, 1838. He was very 
fond of music, and when a young man taught 
snging schools. Later, he held conventions, 
etc., for Root & Cady, in various parts of the 
West. During the latter part of his life he 
was connected with Moody and Sankey, and 
sang in the gospel meetings of Maj. D. W. 
Whittle. He only calls for notice here as be- 
ing the composer of several remarkably pop- 

ular religious tunes, of which it is but neces- 
sary to specify " Hold the Fort," "Only an 
Armor Bearer," " Pull for the Shore," "Res- 
cue the Perishing, "jetc. He perished in the 
terrible accident at Ashtabula, Ohio, Dec. 29, 

Boise, Otis B., was born Aug. 13, 1845, 
at Oberlin, Ohio, where his father was a phy- 
sician. Music had a special charm for him 
from an early age, and when fourteen years 
old he became organist of St. Paul's church, 
Cleveland. He in 1861 went to Leipsic, study- 
ing theory and composition there under Haupt- 
mann, Richter, Moscheles, Menzel and others. 
After a stay of three years in Leipsic, he went 
to Berlin, where he studied with Kullak. Ar- 
duous labor, however, told upon him, and he 
was taken with a sickness which nearly termi- 
nated his life. Upon recovery, in 1864, he 
returned home and became organist at Euclid 
Avenue Presbyterian Church, Cleveland. In 
1870 he removed to New York, where he held 
a similiar position in Dr. Hall's church and 
taught in a conservatory. On account of de- 
clining health he in 1876 again went to Europe 
and visited Leipsic, where a motet of his elici- 
ted favorable comments. The year 1877 was 
spent at Weisbaden, and there he made the 
acquaintance of Raff. In 1878 he returned to 
New York. Jan. 30, 1879, ne g ave a concert 
at Chickering Hall, the program of which was 
entirely made up from his own works — cer- 
tainly a bold step for a composer so young. 
His compositions consist of a psalm for chorus 
and orchestra, symphonies, concertos, over- 
tures, smaller instrumental pieces, etc 

Bonawitz, Johann Heinrich, was born 
Dec. 4, 1839, at Durkheim, Germany, and at 
an early age entered the Conservatorium at 
Liege, where he remained until he was about 
thirteen years old. In 1852 the family re- 
moved to the United States, and soon located 
at Philadelphia. Young Bonawitz played at a 
concert of the Philadelphia Musical Fund 
Society, in the winter of 1854-5, creating great 
enthusiasm. He was a great admirer of 
Mozart's music, and would save up all his 
money to purchase the works of that great 
master. In this way his ambition to become a 
composer was stimulated, and he wrote a 
sonata and an overture (played by the orches- 
tra of the Walnut Street Theatre), though at 
that time he was sadly deficient in knowledge 



of composition. In 1861 he went to Europe, 
first visiting England and then proceeding to 
Germany, everywhere meeting with great suc- 
cess as a pianist. He took up his residence 
at Weisbaden in 1862, where he remained 
four years. In the autumn of 1866 he gave a 
farewell concert and departed for Paris. 
There he both taught and studied, becoming 
much in demand on account of his abilities as 
a player. While in Paris he wrote his opera 
of "The Bride of Messina." In 1873 he 
returned to this country and settled at Phila- 
delphia. Soon after, " The Bride of Messina " 
was brought out at the Academy of Music and 
met with a favorable reception. For some 
time he traveled for Decker Bros., New York, 
giving concerts on their pianos. In 1875 he 
was appointed conductor of music at the Cen- 
tennial, but refused to act. Some unpleasant- 
ness arising, he in 1877 went to Europe for 
the second time and located at Vienna, where 
he still remains, devoting himself to teaching 
and composition. During the winter of 1879-S0 
he made a concert tour of Germany. He has 
written a second opera, " Ostrolenka " ( 1873 
or 1874), which has not yet been performed. 

Boston. Boston is noted for its musical 
culture, and some account of its principal mu- 
sical societies and institutions is here given. 
Its leading musical manufacturers and pub- 
lishers are noticed in their alphabetical order. 

Boston Conservatory of Music. This 
institution, one of the leading ones of its kind 
in America, was established in 1867, by Julius 
Eichberg, who is still (Jan., 1886) its director. 
Thorough instruction in all branches of music- 
is given by experienced teachers, and the ad- 
vantages for rapid and sure progress on the 
part of the pupil are as great as can anywhere 
be found. The Conservatory has had a pow- 
erful influence in raising the standard of musi- 
cal taste, not only through the 15,000 pupils 
who have passed through its courses and are 
scattered all over the country, but through the 
numerous public concerts given, which are 
always of high order. 

The violin school, which is under the per- 
sonal direction of Mr. Eichberg, deserves es- 
pecial notice. By common consent it is re- 
garded as having no equal in America and 
scarcely surpassed in Europe. The artistic 
and highly refined performances of its pupils 
give evidence of rare musical ability and train- 

ing skill in its director and have won the high- 
est praise. Mr. Eichberg has done much to- 
ward removing the prejudice existing in this 
country against the violin as a suitable musical 
instrument for ladies. The Eichberg String 
Quartet, composed entirely of Mr. Eichberg's 
pupils, recently returned from Europe, where 
it was accorded a flattering reception for its 
masterly interpretations of the best works. 
No one is so well qualified as Mr. Eichberg 
for the work he has in hand, and his success 
will mark an era in the musical history of this 

Boston University. There is connected 
with this University a College of Music, of 
which Dr. Eben Tourjee is dean. Students 
having completed the course of study of any 
conservatory are admitted, after passing a 
satisfactory examination, to the study of the 
higher branches. Three years are generally 
necessary to complete this course, and the 
student may at the close receive the degree of 
Bachelor of Music, provided he is a graduate 
of any college of art, or if not, by passing an 
examination in the following branches : Eng- 
lish composition, history, and literature, a 
modern language (French, German, or Ital- 
ian), Latin (or a second modern language), 
and mathematics. After obtaining this degree, 
that of Doctor of Music may be obtained by 
pursuing an additional four years' course of 
study, and passing examinations in arithmetic, 
grammar, geography, modern history, ele- 
ments of physics, elements of chemistry, 
ancient history and geography. In both cases 
the candidate is required to present satisfac- 
tory vouchers for his good moral character. 

Boston Academy of Music A society 
formed in 1833, in Boston, having for its 
object the advancement of music in general, 
but more especially of sacred muisc. It was 
under the direction of Dr. Lowell Mason 
and George James Webb, two of the pioneer 
musicians of this country. Dr. George F- 
Root was also at one time prominently con- 
nected with it. The following was its pro- 
gram, a formidable one, surely, but none the 
less worthy of adoption : 

1. — To establish schools of vocal music and 
juvenile classes. 

2. — To establish similar classes for adults. 

3. — To form a class for instruction in the 
methods of teaching music, which may be 



composed of teachers, parents, and all other 
persons desiring to qualify themselves for 
teaching vocal music. 

4. — To form an association of choristers and 
leading members of choirs, for the purpose of 
improvement in conducting and performing 
sacred music in churches. 

5. — To establish a course ofpopularlectures 
on the nature and object of church music, and 
style of composition and execution appropriate 
to it, with experimental illustrations by the 
performance of a select choir. 

6. — To establish a course of scientific lec- 

7. — To establish exhibition concerts. 
8. — To introduce vocal music in schools. 
9. — To publish circulars and essays. 
The influence of the Academy was felt all 
over the United States, and at one time it was 
considered an authority in everything relating 
to music. In 1S47 it ceased to exist, giving 
way to the more recent societies of Boston, 
but not until it had performed an important 

Boston Music Hall. A building erected 
in 1852 for musical purposes. The main hall 
is 130 feet long, 78 feet wide, and 65 feet high, 
with two balconies. The seats are so placed 
that every person can easily see and hear. 
Doors at short intervals lead from the floor 
and balconies to means of exit, so that the 
hall, which holds 3,000 people, can be emptied 
in a very few minutes if necessary. The build- 
ing contains besides the hall numerous other 
rooms which may be used for any desired 

Boylston Club. This musical society, 
composed exclusively of gentlemen, was orig- 
inated in February, 1872. During the ensuing 
season several pleasant evening entertainments 
were given, but it was not until Feb. 21, 1873, 
that the first real concert occurred. The 
second season, which was opened with a pub- 
lic rehearsal at Parker Memorial Hall, Nov. 
28, 1873, proved a prosperous one, and soon 
the Club took its place among the recognized 
and influential musical organizations of Bos- 
ton. In 1875 Carlyle Petersilea became its 
pianist, a post which he still retains. In 1876 
it was voted to invite the ladies to assist at 
the concerts, but the membership is still ex- 
clusively male. Eben Phinney was its first 
director, but was soon succeeded by 

J. B. Sharland. Mr. Sharland resigned his 
position in 1875, when George L. Osgood be- 
came director, a capacity in which he still 
(Jan., 1883) acts. Under his able leadership 
the Club not only continued to prosper but 
improved its high musical standard, so largely 
due to the efforts of Mr. Sharland. The per- 
formances of the Club are of the highest order, 
and the programs comprise the best works, such 
as Mendelssohn's " Athalie," Schumann's 
" Pilgrimage of the Rose," Bach's "Motet in 
B flat," Brahm's "Choral Hymn," David's 
"Desert," and Paine's "Realms of Fancy." 

Apollo Club. This society was formed in 
July, 1871. Its object is the cultivation and 
performance of music for male voices only. 
The number of regular or active members was 
at first fifty, which has gradually increased to 
seventy-five, with five hundred "associate" 
(those who are subject to an annual assess- 
ment but take no part in the performances) 
members. In March, 1873, the Club was in- 
corporated under a special act of the Massachu- 
setts Legislature. Weekly rehearsals have 
been held from the first, and up to 1882 seven- 
ty-four concerts had been given, under the 
care of its efficient conductor, B. J. Lang. 
Among the works brought out (always with 
full orchestral accompaniment where existing) 
are Mendelssohn's "Antigone," " CEdipus 
at Colonus," and "A Vintage Song; " Schu- 
mann's "The Luck of Edenhal] " and " For- 
ester's Chorus;" Beethoven's "Chorus of 
Dervishes;" Bruch's "Scenes from the 
Frithjof-Saga " and " A roman Song of 
Triumph;" Raff's "The Warder Song;" 
Rubenstein's " Morning; " Buck's "The Nun 
of Nidaros " and "King Olaf's Christmas ; " 
Whiting's "The March of the Monks of Ban- 
gor ;" Paine's " CEdipus Tyrannus ; " Chad,. 
wick's " The Viking's Last Voyage;" etc- 
The officers of the society consist of a presi- 
dent, vice-president, secretary, treasurer, and 
librarian, who constitute the board of directors; 
besides which there is a committee of three on 
music, and a committee of four on voices. 

Cecilia, The. This society of mixed 
voices was originated in 1874 by the Harvard 
Musical Association, and was designed to 
assist at its concerts. There was no regular 
organization and it remained under the patron- 
age of the Harvard Association until the spring 
of 1876. At that time a separation took place, 

1 8 


and the Cecilia was remodeled and placed on 
a permanent footing of its own. The number 
of active members was lixed at 125 and the 
number of associate members (those subject 
to assessments but taking no part in the musi- 
cal exercises) at 250. The concerts of the 
society were held in Tremont Temple until 
that building was destroyed by fire in 1879, 
when they were temporarily held in the Music 
Hall, and the number of active members in- 
creased to 150. B. J. Lang has from the first 
been its conductor, and under his direction it 
has given many important works. 

Euterpe (The). This society, though 
young, has a strong board of officers and occu- 
pies a prominent position. It was organized 
Dec. 13, 1878, and gave its first concert on the 
15th of January following. Its object is the 
encouragement of chamber music and the 
production of the best compositions in this line. 
The number of members is 150, and all money 
received is expended on the concerts, after 
allowing for the necessary running expenses. 
Connected with the society are some of Bos- 
ton's most prominent musicians, among whom 
are C. C. Perkins (president), B. J. Lang 
(vice-president), W. F. Apthorp (treasurer), 
Julius Eichberg, John Orth, S. B. Whitney, 
J. C. D. Parker, etc. F. H. Jenks is (Dec, 
1882) secretary. 

Handel and Haydn Society. The 
largest and most noted musical association of 
the United States. It was founded March 30, 
1815. At that time sixteen gentlemen came 
together in response to an invitation dated 
several days before, and signed by Gottlieb 
Graupner, Thomas S. Webb and Asa Peabody. 
A second meeting was held a fortnight later, at 
which a set of rules was adopted and Matthew 
S. Parker elected secretary; but it was not 
until the third meeting, April 20, 1S15, that 
the board of government was completed by 
the election of Thomas S. Webb, president ; 
Amasa Winchester, vice-president ; Nathaniel 
Tucker, treasurer, and nine trustees. 

The Society, whose avowed object was the 
cultivation and improvement of sacred music 
and the introduction of the works of eminent 
composers, was thus perfected in form, but as 
yet had showed no signs of life. Early in 
September, 1815, there was talk of a public 
exhibition, which took place the following 

Christmas night, before an audience of 1000. 
The chorus numbered about 100 performers, 
and the orchestra a dozen, which, with an 
organ, executed the accompaniments. The 
program included selections from "Messiah," 
"Creation," and other of Handel's works. 
An enthusiastic reception was tendered this 

February 9, 1816, the State legislature 
granted a special charter, in which the aim of 
the Society was recognized, and a new set of 
rules was adopted, calculated to strengthen 
the association. It was not until the seven- 
teenth concert, Dec. 25, 1818, that an oratorio 
entire was performed, which was the " Mes- 
siah." Six festivals, resembling those of 
Birmingham (Eng.), have been held, the first 
occurring in 1857. In May, 1865, the fiftieth 
anniversary of the Society was held. Since 
1868, triennial festivals have regularly been 

Many of the works of the masters have 
been produced for the first time in this coun- 
try by the Society, at whose concerts numbers 
of the most renowned singers, both native and 
foreign, have appeared. Until 1847 the presi- 
dent performed the duties of a conductor, but 
in that year they were assumed by Charles 
E. Horn. In 1850, C. C. Perkins, also presi- 
dent, assumed the conductorship. Since then 
the conductors have been J. E. Goodson, 185 1 ; 
G. J. Webb, 1852; Carl Bergmann, 1852; 
Carl Zerrahn, Aug. 24, 1854, who is still 
conductor. The organists have been S. Stock- 
well, S. P. Taylor, S. A. Cooper, J. B. Taylor. 
Miss Sarah Hewett, Charles Zeuner, A. N. 
Hayter, G. F. Hayter, F. F. Mueller, 
J. C. D. Parker. B. J. Lang, elected Sept. 15, 
1859, is the present organist. Rehearsals are 
regularly held Saturday evenings, from Octo- 
ber to April. Up to 1878, 610 concerts had 
been given. 

The Society is composed of about 300 
members, active and retired. lis influence 
on the musical affairs of this country has 
been very marked. 

The choral force is about 600 strong. A 
membership fee of % is charged. 

The following is a list of the principal 
works performed by the Society up t<> t88i : 




Vo. Timci 


I 8 1 s. 














Dettingen Te Deum, 





The Intercession, 




Mass (B flat major), 





Mass ( C major), 



J 3 


. Mass (F major), 




The Storm," 

183 1. 




Te Deum (C major), 





1 Mr to Washington, 





Christ on the Mount of Olives, 










The Remission of Sin, 





Hymn of the Night 





The Power of Song, 





Mount Sinai, 





The Transient and the Eternal 





The Fast Judgment, 





St. Paul, 

i8 4 3> 




Stabat Mater, 










Moses in Egypt, 





Judas Maccabseus, 





Eli i all, 





The Martyrs, 










Ninth Symphony (Choral), 







Jan . 



Requiem Mass, 





Eli, .... 





Hymn of Praise, 



l 3 


Israel in Egypt, 





Ode on St. Cecilia's Day, . 





Overture, " Ein' feste Burg," 




Psalm 42, 






1 868, 




Psalm 95, 










The Woman of Samaria, 









Hear my Prayer, 




Psalm 46, 





Passion music (St. Matthew), 




St. Peter, . . 













x 7 


Christmas < >ratorio Parts I, II. 





Song of Victory, 





Psalm 18, 





Redemption Hymn, 





Noel, - 





Requiem Mass, 




Flight into Egypt, 





Prodigal Son, 





Psalm 43, 





Le Deluge, . 

Harvard Musical Association. One 
of the most important and leading musical 
societies of the United States. It was formed 
Aug. 30, 1S37, from a social and musical club 
comprising undergraduates in Harvard Uni- 
versity, which dated back to 180S and was 

( 'omposcr. 



















































Saint— Saens. 






known as the "Pierian Sodality." The 
objects of the society were to improve the 
musical taste in the college, to provide a way 
for a professorship of music there, and to 
collect a library of music and its literature, all 
of which have been faithfully carried out. 


Fourteen series of concerts have been given 
(they were discontinued in 1880), comprising 
from six to ten concerts each, beginning in 
1865. They have been, with a few excep- 
tions, under the efficient leadership of Carl 
Zerrahn. The programs have comprised 
standard orchestral works and vocal and 
instrumental solos of the best class. These 
concerts have not only been an important factor 
in raising the standard of musical taste in 
Boston, but their influence has been felt in 
other parts of the country. Of the original 
members of the society only three are now 
living. They are John S. Dwight, president; 
Henry W. Pickering, vice-president, and 
Henry Gassett. Mr. Dwight was the founder 
and editor of "Dwight's Journal of Music'' 
(which see), and is well known all over the 
United States as a clear, forcible writer on 

The library of the Association comprises 2500 
volumes, and is constantly receiving addi- 
tions. It is now one of the largest and best in 
this country. Great care is exercised in 
making selections and that the sets be com- 

Mendelssohn Quintet Club, one of 
Boston's oldest musical organizations, was 
formed in 1849 by August Fries. The orig- 
inal members were August Fries, 1st violin ; 
Heir Gerloff, 2nd violin ; Theodore Leh- 
mann, 1st viola ; Oscar Greiner, 2nd viola ; 
and Wulf Fries, violoncello. The immediate 
cause of its formation was the performance of 
Mendelssohn's Quintet in A, at the house of 
John Bigelow, a great lover of classical cham- 
ber music. For many years the Club held a 
leading position and was very influential in 
promoting a taste for good music. It still ex- 
ists, though the members are somewhat scat- 
tered, but has in a measure been superseded 
by the Beethoven Quartet Club, a more recent 
organization consisting of C. N. Allen, Gustav 
Dannreuther, H. Hemdel, and Wulf Fries. 
August Fries was for ten years the leader, at 
the end of which time he was succeeded by 
William Schultze. 

New England Conservatory of Mink. 
This institution, one of the largest and best 
of its kind in this country, was incorporated 
under its present name by an act of the Legis- 
lature of Massachusetts, passed March 18th 
.ind approved by the Governor, William 

Claflin, March 19th, 1870. Its origin, how- 
ever, dates back to 1853, when the present 
director organized a sort of musical school at 
Providence, R. I. In 1859 this was enlarged, 
and in 1864 chartered under the name of 
Providence Conservatory of Music. It was 
removed to Boston, in February, 1867, when 
it became a conservatory in the present sense 
of the word, and in 1870 was incorporated as 
previously stated. 

The Conservatory is conducted on the most 
approved plan, and embodies the best features 
of the European institutions. The various 
branches taught are piano, organ, violin, 
flute, all orchestral and band instruments, 
notation, formation and cultivation of the 
voice, solo singing in English, German and 
Italian, sight singing, part singing, dramatic 
action, lyric art and opera, ensemble playing, 
harmony, counterpoint, fugue, art of teaching 
vocal music in public schools, tuning and 
acoustics, art of conducting, normal instruc- 
tion, church music, oratorio and chorus prac- 
tice, the languages, science of music, etc. 
The corps of professors and teachers numbers 
nearly one hundred, among whom are W. F. 
Apthorp, Gustav Dannreuther, L. C. Elson, 
S. A. Emery, Wulf Fries, B. J. Lang, 
J. C. D. Parker, J. H. Wheeler, S. B. Whitney, 
Carl Zerrahn, and others equally well known. 

Up to 1882, the Conservatory had occupied 
rooms in the Music Hall building, Boston, but 
in that year it was found necessary to obtain 
larger accommodations. Accordingly, through 
the generous loans and gifts of the people of 
the city, the large and handsome building 
with grounds, known as St. James Hotel, 
located on Newton and St. James streets and 
fronting on Franklin Square, was purchased 
as its permanent home. The building is of 
brick and granite, 185 by 210 feet and seven 
stories high, has every possible modern con- 
venience, and is without doubt the finest con- 
servatory building in the world. The total 
cost will reach about #700,000. There are 
accommodations for 550 lady students (the 
ladies only being allowed to board in the 
building), besides class rooms for 3,000 pupils, 
and a large hall, which is to be used for the 
Conservatory concerts, etc. The building was 
first opened as a conservatory Sep. 14th, 1882. 

The director of the Conservatory is Dr. Eben 
Tourjee- The board of trustees consists of 


the following gentlemen : Henry Baldwin, 
A. I. Bcnyon, L. A. Chase, W. R. Clark, 
D. D., G. R. Eager, L. T. Jefts, E. Tourjee, 
A. S. Weed, L. Whitney, and Carl Zerrahn. 
There is besides an advisory board, composed 
of about twenty- five of the leading men, liter- 
ary, musical and business, of Boston and vicin- 
ity. The number of students timing the three 
terms of the year averages upwards of 900, 
and the expense for each student ranges from 
#350 to #480 per year, or one-third of that for 
a single term. A museum somewhat similar 
to that at South Kensington has been formed 
at the Conservatory, and already contains quite 
a large number of specimens of ancient musi- 
cal instruments, etc. It is to be earnestly 
hoped that the managers will give special at- 
tention to increasing this collection by every 
possible means. 

Philharmonic Society. This Society is 
comparatively young. In 1879 the Boston 
Philharmonic Orchestra was organized for the 
purpose of giving performances of a higher 
order than had previously been done. At the 
end of two seasons, however, it was found 
that the scheme would not support itself. It 
was then proposed by several gentlemen that 
a society be organized to bear the financial 
burdens, while the orchestra continued to 
carry out its aims. This was done, and the 
third season proved a successful one. The 
orchestra is one of the best in the United States, 
and the Society has already produced some im 
portant works, among which are Raff's sym- 
phony, " Im Sommer," and Rheinberger's 
" Wallenstein " symphony. The following 
have been the conductors : Bernhard Liste- 
mann (1879), Dr. Louis Maas (1880), and 
Carl Zerrahn (1881-82). The officers for 
1881-82 were Dr. Angell, president; Rev. 
Dr. J. T. Duryea, vice-president ; and Oliver 
Ames, treasurer ; besides which there are a 
clerk, three auditors, and a board of twenty- 
three directors. 

There was in Boston an early Philharmonic 
Society. It was organized in 1810, by Gott- 
lieb Graupner, a German, and some of his 
friends. A large proportion of the members 
were amateurs, and the meetings, which were 
held Saturday evenings, had more character 
istics of social gatherings than anything else, 
although Haydn's symphonies and other or 
chestral works were practiced. Concerts were 

given at intervals, the last one taking place 
Nov. 24, 1824, soon after which the Society 
ceased to exist. The band consisted of only 
about sixteen pieces — violins, a viola, a violon- 
cello (bass-viol), a double-bass, aflute, a clari- 
net, a bassoon, a French horn, a trumpet and 

Bowman, Edward Morris, organist, 
was born in the town of Barnard, Vermont, in 
1848. He began the study of the piano when 
ten years old at Ludlow Academy, and contin- 
ued it at Canton, N. Y., under a Miss Brown, 
and later under A. G. Faville, a teacher of 
some repute. From the latter he also gained 
some knowledge of theory and organ playing. 
In 1862 the family removed to Minneapolis, 
Minn., where he became organist of Holy 
Trinity P. E. Church and began giving music 
lessons. He went to New York in 1866 and 
studied the piano with Wm. Mason and the 
organ and theory with John P. Morgan, and 
was for several months organist of Old Trinity 
Church, (Dr. Dix). In August, 1867, he lo- 
cated in St. Louis, Mo., where in 1870 he 
married. From 1872 to 1874 he sojourned in 
Europe in company with his wife, an artist of 
some ability. The most of this time was spent 
in Berlin, with Franz Bendel (piano), Haupt 
(organ), and Weitzmann (theory and compo- 
sition) as teachers. Part of 1873 was spent in 
studying registration with Batiste at Paris. Re- 
turning to St. Louis in 1874 he became organ- 
ist of the Second Presbyterian Church (Dr. 
Xicoll's), and in 1879 was called to a similar 
post at the Second Baptist Church(Dr. Boyd's), 
which he still (May, 1883) holds. Mr. Bow- 
man passed, in 1881, the examination of the 
Board of Examiners (consisting of Turpin, 
Gladstone, Stephens, Arnold, Gadsby, and 
Hopkins) of the London Royal College of Or- 
ganists, and was congratulated and dined by 
the board on being the first American to do 
so. In July, 1882, he was also elected presi- 
dent of the Music Teachers' National Associa- 
tion. He is one of our best organists and a 
thorough musician. Some time since he pub- 
lished "Bowman's Weitzmann's Manual of 
Musical Theory," a very excellent work. 

Bradbury, William B., one of the 
pioneer American musicians, to whom we 
owe much, was born at York, Maine, in 1816. 
He descended from a good family, his grand- 
father being an old revolutionary soldier who 


was highly esteemed. Both his father and 
his mother had a local reputation as musicians, 
his father being a choir leader and singing 
master. Young Bradbury thus inherited a 
taste for music which early manifested itself. 
He was employed on his father's farm, but 
spent all his spare time in dilligently practic- 
ing on such musical instruments as came 
within his reach, becoming quite proficient 
on some of them. 

In 1830 his parents removed to Boston, 
where he saw and heard for the first time a 
piano and organ, as well as various other 
instruments. The effect was to lead him to 
devote his life to the service of music. Ac- 
cordingly he took lessons upon the organ, and 
as early as 1834 had achieved some reputation 
as an organist. He commenced his career as 
a teacher in New York, in 1840, and as a 
composer about the same time, meeting with 
the trials and discouragements which usually 
fall to the lot of a young and unknown 

In 1847 ^ ir - Bradbury and his family went 
to Europe, traveling in Germany and Switzer- 
land. At Leipsic he studied for some time 
under the best masters, gaining a deeper 
insight into music. After his return 
home, in 1849, he devoted his entire time to 
teaching, composing, and editing various col- 
lections of music. He was also called to 
various parts of the country to conduct musical 
conventions, then just beginning to be held. 
In 1854 he, in conjunction with his brother, 
E. G. Bradbury, commenced the business of 
manufacturing pianos, and the Bradbury 
instruments were at one time quite popular. 
The business is now carried on by Freeborn 
G. Smith. 

Mr. Bradbury was one of the great trio (the 
other two being 1 >r. Lowell Mason and Dr. 
George F. Root) to which church and vocal 
music in this country owe so much. His mu- 
sic, though not classical, is far from being 
puerile, and was exactly fitted to the needs of 
the time. He was unceasingly active, having 
edited more than twenty collections of music, 
a large part of which was his own. His most 
popular collection was "The Jubilee," pub- 
lished in 1858, which attained a sale of over 
200,000 copies. Of his other collections we 
have space to mention only a few, viz : " The 
Young Choir "(1841), " The School Singer" 

( 1843), " Social Singing Glee Book " (1844), 
" Psalmodist" (1844), "Young Melodist" 
(1845), "The Choralist" (1847), "Musical 
Gems for School and Home " (1849), " Men- 
delssohn Collection" (1849), "Sabbath-School 
Melodies" (1850), "Alpine Glee Singer " 
(1850), "Metropolitan Glee Book" (1852), 
"Psalmista" (1851), " The Shawm " (1853), 
"New York Glee and Chorus Book" (1855), 
"Sabbath-School Choir "( 1856), and "The 
Jubilee" (1858). He also composed sev- 
eral cantatas, one of which is "Esther," pro- 
duced in 1856, and assisted in composing 

Mr. Bradbury died at his residence, Mont- 
clair, N. J., Jan. 8, 1868, leaving a widow, 
four daughters, two of whom are married, and 
a son. He will always occupy a prominent 
place in American musical history. 

Brainard, Silas, was born Feb. 14, 
1814, at Lempster, N. H. In 1834 he removed 
with his parents to Cleveland, Ohio, and be- 
came a leading member of a musical society 
organized there in the following year, arrang- 
ing music for the orchestra and chorus. He 
gained some notoriety as a flutist in his youth. 
In 1836 he established a music store in Cleve- 
land, and in 1845 began the extremely hazard- 
ous business of publishing music, founding the 
present extensive house of S. Brainard's Sons 
(See Brainard's Son's, S.). He was the 
author of several musical instruction books. 
He died at his home in Cleveland, April S, 
187 1, leaving two sons, Charles S. and Henry 
M. Brainard, who now conduct their father's 
business as publisher. 

Brainard's SOUS, S. This music-pub- 
lishing firm, ranking among the foremost in 
the United States and one of the most exten- 
sive ones in the West, was founded at Cleve- 
land, Ohio, in 1836, by Silas Brainard, a 
native of New Hampshire. At that early day, 
it was considered a particularly hazardous 
venture, but by careful management combined 
with the rapid development of the country, 
the business was successful and soon became 
established on a sound footing. The subse- 
quent career of the firm has been one of steady 
progress to its present high position, necessi- 
tating several removals to larger buildings. 
In 1876 the business was removed to the new 
building on Euclid Avenue, erected expressly 
for the purpose, within the walls of which its 


2 i 

various branches are conveniently located. 
The firm has, in addition, an electrotype 
foundry and bindery. Nearly 20,000 pieces 
of sheet-music are published by them, besides 
many music-books, and they deal largely in 
the leading makes of all kinds of musical 
instruments. They have a branch house in 
Chicago and numerous agencies throughout 
the country. 

In 187 1, Mr. Silas Brainard, the founder of 
the firm, passed away, and was succeeded by 
his two sons, Charles S. and Henry M. Brain- 
ard, who had long been associated with him. 
They have since carried on the business under 
the firm name as given above. 

Brainard' s Musical World. A 32- 
page musical monthly established in 1863 and 
published by the above firm. It is one of the 
leading journals of music in America, being 
ably conducted and devoted to the advance- 
ment of the art in all its branches. Ka>rl 
Merz became its editor in 1868, a position 
which he still (Jan., 1886) holds. 

Brandt, Hermann, was born at Ham- 
burg, Germany, in 1842, and in 1864 became 
a violin pupil of Ferdinand David. Having 
appeared with success in various German 
cities, he in 1868 was appointed concertmeister 
of the German Theatre, Prague. He came to 
this country in 1873 as chief violinist of the 
Thomas orchestra, but settled in New York 
after that organization disbanded. He is now 
concertmeister of the Philharmonic Society. 

Brandeis, Fredertk, was bom at 
Vienna in 1835, and studied the piano under 
Fischhof and Czerny and composition under 
Rufinatscha. In 1848 he came to the United 
States and settled at New York, where he has 
since resided, much esteemed as a teacher and 
composer. He has written a considerable 
number of piano compositions and songs. 
Among his larger pieces are an "andante" for 
small orchestra; "The Ring," ballade for 
solos, chorus and piano ; and a sonata for the 

Bride of Messina. An opera by Jean 
Henri Bonawitz. Produced for the first time 
at the Academy of Music, Philadelphia, 
April 22, 1874, when it met with a good 
reception. It has since been produced in 
many of the other principal cities and towns. 

Brignoli, Pasquilino. An Italian tenor 
singer of some eminence who came to this 

country in 1855, ar| d wno was wel l known 
here, having sung in nearly every city of 
importance. During the season of 1882-83 he 
traveled throughout the West with the 
Kellogg-Brignoli Concert Company. He died 
at the Everett House, New York, Thursday 
afternoon, Oct. 30, 1884, attended by only 
two or three faithful friends. 

Brinkerhoff, Clara M., {nee Rolph), 
well known as a concert and oratorio prima 
donna, was born in London, England, about 
1830. Her parents, Mr. and Mrs. John A. 
Rolph, who were highly cultivated people, 
removed to this country when she was little 
more than an infant. For seven years, begin- 
ning at the age of five, her vocal studies were 
conducted by her mother, according to the 
old Italian method. Upon the death of her 
mother, at the end of that time, she was 
placed under the care of Mr. Derwort, a 
German musician, with whom she remained 
some time. She subsequently studied with 
Mme. Arnault, and also with George and 
Eliza Loder in English and oratorio music. 
In her sixteenth year she made her debut 
under the direction of Henry Meiggs at a con- 
cert given in Apollo Hall, on Broadway, with 
decided success. Dec. 25, 1848, she was 
married to Mr. C. E. L. Brinkerhoff, but did 
not forsake her profession. She has sung 
much in concerts in New York city, and in 
various States of the Union. In 1861 she vis- 
ited Europe and was the recipient of many 
flattering favors in Paris and London. Mme. 
BrinkerhofTs voice is a rich soprano of nearly 
three octaves range, full and clear in quality. 
She resides in New York City, and much of 
her time is devoted to teaching. She has 
composed a number of songs, of which "Clar- 
itta " and "One Flag or no Flag" have 
gained some popularity. She has also written 
a romance called "Alva Vine; Art Versus 

Bristow, George Frederick, one of 
America's representative musicians, was born 
in Brooklyn, N. Y., Dec. 19, 1825. At the 
age of five years he regularly began the study 
of music under a competent master, and when 
thirteen became second leader of violins in an 
orchestra. A year later his first composition 
was published. In 1836 he received his first 
professional appointment as violinist in the 
orchestra of the Olympic Theatre, then led by 


George Loder. Upon the organization of the 
New York Philharmonic Society, in 1842, he 
entered the orchestra as violinist, a position 
which he has retained down to the present 
time, February, 1883. His first overture was 
performed by the Philharmonic Society while 
he was yet in his seventeenth year. His con- 
cert overture (op. 3) was also performed by 
the Society, and attracted considerable atten- 
tion. It was followed in 1845 by a symphony 
in E fiat. He in 1849 wrote the orchestral 
score to " Eleutheria," a cantata by G. H. Cur- 
tis, which was performed at the Tabernacle. 
1 Hiring the brilliant career of Jenny Lind in 
this country he held the position of concert ineis- 
ter under Sir Jules Benedict, and was engaged 
in the same capacity by Jullien, for whom he 
wrote a symphony in I) minor, receiving 
therefor £200, which was considered a large 
price in those days for a production by an 
American composer. It was a work of more 
than ordinary merit, and proved a profitable 
investment for Mr. Jullien. Bristow's romantic 
opera, " Rip Van Winkle," was produced at 
Niblo's Garden, New York, Sept. 27, 1855, by 
the Pyne-Harrison English Opera Company. 
Such was its success that it ran for thirty con- 
secutive nights. The libretto is by J. H. Wain- 
right. The work is of more than ordinary 
merit, containing many fine and powerful num- 
bers, and deserves to be revived by some 
impresario. It was translated into Italian, new 
scenery, costumes, etc., were prepared, and 
it was just about to be reproduced under the 
direction of Max Maretzek, with Clara Louise 
Kellogg as the heroine, when the New York 
Academy of Music was destroyed by lire in 
1865. It has not yet been published in com- 
plete form. Some time after the production of 
" Rip Van Winkle," Mr. Bristow wrote his 
first oratorio, "Praise to God." It was thrice 
performed, and greatly added to its composer's 
reputation. The third performance was given 
by the New York Harmonic Society (of which 
Mr. Bristow was leader) at the Brooklyn Acad- 
emy of Music, and netted over #2,000, the 
composer receiving only #25 for his services. 
Mr. Bristow's second oratorio, " Daniel," was 
first performed under his own direction at 
Steinway Hall, Dec 30, 1867, by the Mendels 
sohn Union. Mme. Parepa-Rosa assumed the 
leading role, and the orchestral and choral 
forces were in excellent training. The work 

aroused unusual interest, and was very favor- 
ably received. As compared' with his previ- 
ous works it shows greater maturity, depth, 
and earnestness and certainly entitles Mr. 
Bristow to rank as the foremost of American 
oratorical composers. His Arcadian sympho- 
ny was performed by the Philharmonic Society 
at the Academy of Music, New York, Feb. 14, 
1874. It was written as the introduction to the 
cantata of "The Pioneer ; or, Westward Ho ! " 
which was begun by William Vincent Wallace 
and which Mr. Bristow is engaged in complet- 
ing. When produced it will undoubtedly 
greatly enhance his reputation. 

Mr. Bristow's talents are varied as well as 
of the highest order. He is an accomplished 
organist, an excellent orchestral conductor, 
a good choral drill master, an experienced 
teacher, and a fine violinist. For half <>f a 
lifetime he has taught music in the public 
schools of New York, and in this capacity he 
has exercised an untold influence for good. 
His life has been a simple and uneventful one. 
He appears but little in society, and his home 
for many years has been a cottage in Morris- 
ania. The usual methods of gaining fame and 
popularity are despised by him, but he is most 
highly esteemed both as a gentleman and a 
musician. All of his works are written with 
much care and are frequently subject to repeat- 
ed revisions before being presented tothe pub- 
lic. Many of them exhibit a purity of form, 
nobility, inspiration, and masterly treatment 
which will render them in a measure classics, 
and perpetuate the name of their composer. 
The total number of Mr. Bristow's works is 
above 60, the most of which remain in manu- 
script. A complete list is as follows: 

Op. Name. 

1. Quartet, in F. 1st and 2nd violins, viola, 

and 'cello. 

2. Quartet, in G minor. 1st and 2nd vio- 

lins, viola, and 'cello. 

3. Concert Overture, in E flat. Grand or- 


4. La Belle Amerique, nocturne. Piano. 

5. Duo, "La fille du Regiment," 4 hands. 


6. Waltz, in E flat. Piano. 

7. La toile du noir, nocturne. Piano. 

8. La Serenade, nocturne. Piano. 

9. La pensee, nocturne. Piano. 

10. Symphonie, in E flat. Orchestra. 

11. La Belle du joir, nocturne. Piano. 

12. Sonale, in G. Violin and piano. 


Fantasie (violin); "Cracovienne," violin 

and piano. 
"Innocence," nocturne. Piano. 
Sentence, in E flat, " The Lord is in His 

hoi)' temple." 
Waltz, in E flat. Piano. 
" Zampa." Solo violin and orchestra. 
Polonaise, in E flat. Piano. 
Morning service, in E flat. ( >rgan accompt. 
" La Belle nuit," nocturne. Piano. 
" Life on the ocean wave," variation. 

" Rip Van Winkle," opera. 
Sentence, in E. Organ accompt. 
Symphonie, in I) minor. Orchestra. 
Friendship, nocturne in E. Piano. 
Symphonic, in F sharp minor. Orchestra. 
Blue Bell, nocturne. Piano. 
Pot-pourri. Organ. 
Waltz, in E Mat. Piano. 
Overture, " Winter's Tale." Orchestra. 
Canzonet, " The Abode of Music." Piano 

Oratorio, " Praise to (led." Solo-, chorus, 

and orchestra. 
Overture, "Columbus." Orchestra. 
Burial service. Organ accompt. 
Waltz, in E. Piano. 
Evening service, in D. 
"Canary Bird." Piano solo. 
" Eroica." Piano solo. 
Easter anthem, in E flat, "Christ our Pass- 
Sentence, "The Lord in his holy temple." 
Epigram, in A flat. Piano. 
Oratorio, "Daniel." Solos, chorus, and 

"Rain Drops." Piano solo. 
Collection of Psalmody, Chants, etc. 
Six organ pieces. 
Piano piece, in A flat. 

Overture, "Great Republic." Orchestra. 
Ascription. Voice and organ. 
Cantata, " The Pioneer." Solos, chorus, 

and orchestra. 
Symphonie, "Arcadian." Orchestra. 
Morning service, in B flat. 
"No More," cantata. Solos, chorus, and 

Chromatic Fantasie and Fugue, by Bach, 

instrumented for the orchestra. 
Morning service, in C. 
La Militaire. Piano solo. 
Evening service, in G. 
Impromptu, in B minor. Piano. 
Morning service, in F. 
Piano piece, in G flat. 
Military March. 
Piano piece, in F. 
Salterello, in A flat minor. Piano. 
Mass, in C. Solos, chorus and organ. < 

This list does not include many unfinished 
sketches. Mr. Bristow is at present engaged 
in composing two operas, two oratorios, and a 
symphony, which, we doubt not, will surpass 
any of his previous works. 

Brooklyn. See New York and Brook- 

Buckley, FREDERICK, was born in Eng- 
land early in the present century, and came to 
this country some time about 1840. lie, with 
his father, James Buckley, and his two 
brothers, George S. and R. Bishop, formed 
the famous Buckley Minstrels. He was a fine 
solo violinist, but will be chiefly remembered 
as the composer of a number of popular songs. 
Among them may be mentioned, " I'd Choose 
to be a Daisy," "Come in and Shut the Door," 
"1 am Dreaming, Sadly Dreaming," "Mother, 
<> Sing me to Rest," "Gentle Annie Ray," 
"For Thee and Only Thee," "Softly Falls the 
Moonlight," "She is Waiting for Me There," 
"My Home is on the Sea," "Angry Words 
are Lightly Spoken," and "Our Union Right 
or Wrong." He died at his residence, East 
Canton Street, Boston, in October, 1864. 

Buck, Dudley, one of America's most 
p eminent musicians, was born March 10, 
183c, at Hartford, Conn., where his father was 
a prosperous merchant. A love and aptitude 
for music showed itself at an early age, but 
as he was designed for a business career, it 
was not encouraged. He was, however, 
allowed to attend singing school, and when 
twelve years of age learned to play upon a 
flute which he had borrowed of one of his 
acquaintances. < hi his next birthday his 
father, in order to gratify what he considered 
as merely a youthful desire, presented him 
with a flute. About two years later his father 
also ] "resented him with a melodeon. He 
now dilligently applied himself to study, and 
soon became able to play some of the accom- 
paniments to Haydn's and Mozart's masses, 
though he had no teacher. When sixteen 
years of age he received a piano, and for a 
short period had a teacher in the person of 
W. |. Babcock. About the same time he was 
appointed deputy organist at St. John's Church 
in his native city, a post which he held some 
time. His father now saw that nature had 
intended him for a musician, and wiseiy con- 
cluded to give him a good musical education. 
In the summer of 1S58 he left home for 
Europe. He first went to Leipsic, where he 
studied the piano under Plaidy and Moscheles, 
instrumentation under Julius Rietz, and the- 
ory and composition under Hauptmann and 
Richter, both at the Conservatorium and in 


private. Among his fellow pupils at the 
Conservatorium were S. B. Mills, A. S. Sulli- 
van, J. F. Barnet, Walter Bach, Carl Rosa, 
Madeline Schiller, Edward Dannreulher, etc. 
After remaining a year and a half at Leipsic, 
he went to Dresden and placed himself under 
Johann Schneider, for the especial study of 
Bach's works. It so happened that soon after 
Rietz was called to Dresden, which gave him an 
opportunity to continue his studies with his for- 
mer master. Having spent three years in Ger- 
many, he proceeded to Paris, where he 
became acquainted with French music and 
musicians. In i86_> he returned to the United 
States, an 1 in deference to the wishes of his 
parents settle 1 at Hartford, accepting the post 
of organist at Park Church. About this time 
he commenced his career as a composer, 
signing his compositions with " Dudley Buck, 
Jr." He was, however, little satisfied with 
his position at Hartford, and longed for more 
cultivated musical society and extended op- 
portunities. After the death of his parents he 
removed to Chicago, where he accepted the 
post of organist at St. James' Church and 
engaged in teaching. The great Chicago fire 
of October, 1871, destroyed his home and 
many of his compositions which were in 
manuscript. Soon after the fire he returned, 
with his wife and child, to Boston. There he 
was appointed organist at St. Paul's, and sub- 
sequently of the Music Hall Association, 
which included charge of the great Music 
Hall organ. After remaining for three years 
in Boston, he again removed, this time to 
New York. He speedily acquired a high 
position as an organist and teacher, which he 
has since fully maintained. At present ( 1883) 
he is organist of the Church of the Holy 
Trinity, Brooklyn. 

Mr. Buck is one of our most talented and 
thorough musicians, and his music is of a high 
order, possessing qualities which make it of 
more than ordinarily lasting value. We have 
been unable to obtain a complete list of his 
works, but among some of the larger and more 
important ones are "The Golden Legend," 
a prize cantata, first performed at the Cincin- 
nati May Festival in 1880 (See Golden 
Legend); " Don Munio," a cantata-; a Cen- 
tennial cantata, written for and first produced 
at the Centennial of 187!), the original copy of 
which has been deposited in the archives of 

the Connecticut Historical Society, an Easter 
Cantata, published by S. Brainard's Sons; 
" Forty-Sixth Psalm," for solos, chorus, and 
orchestra, performed by the Handel and 
May In Society of Boston; " Buck's Motet 
Collection," in two volumes; several organ 
sonatas; a symphonic overture on Scott's 
" Marmion," performed by the Brooklyn 
Philharmonic Society; six songs for male 
voices; "Illustrations in Choir Accompani- 
ment, with Hints in Registration," etc. 

Bull, Olous Bornf.maxn, one of the most 
renowned violinists of the present century, 
was born at Bergen, Norway, Feb. 5, 1810, 
and was the eldest of ten children. His sus 
ceptibilty to the charms of music became 
plainly evident when he was a mere infant, 
and so strong did the passion grow that when 
five years old his uncle presented him with a 
yellow violin. At first he had no teacher but 
afterwards received some instruction from a 
certain Paulsen. It was his own inherent 
genius that taught him most, however, and 
when he had arrived at the age of eight he 
was able to take part in his uncle's quartet. 
A year later he led the violins in the orchestra 
of the theatre. In 1822 he for a short time 
received lessons from Lundholm, a Swedish 
violinist. At this period his mother taught 
him the 24 caprices of Paganini, which he 
faithfully practiced. He was sent to the Uni- 
versity at Christianiain 1828, after having been 
under a private tutor for a number of years, but 
he made poor work with his lessons. Music- 
was the only thing which had any attraction 
for him, and it must have been a great joy to 
him when he was appointed conductor of the 
Philharmonic and Dramatic Societies. In 
May, 1829, he visited Cassel to hear Spohr, 
but was coldly received by that great violinist. 
However, he spent several happy months at 
Gottingen before returning to his native place. 
It now became his absorbing idea to go to 
Paris, and in August, 1831, he arrived in that 
city. This is the commencement of a period 
of privation and suffering, to which he had 
hitherto been a stranger. The terrors of the 
Revolution had hardly passed and everything 
was at fever heat. He had brought sufficient 
money to carry him through the winter, but 
being robbed by a fellow boarder he was left 
in extremely reduced circumstances. At this 
juncture an incident of strange character hap- 


pened. One morning at breakfast he was met 
by a middle-aged gentleman who seemed to 
take a kindly interest in him. Upon the 
advice of this stranger he was induced to try 
his luck at gambling. As he had no money of 
his own, he borrowed five francs and in the 
evening repaired to the establishment indi- 
cated. Placing his money on the red as 
directed he let it remain there. Once, twice, 
thrice, again and again it wins, until 800 
francs are his. His feelings may better be 
imagined than described. Suddenly a small 
white hand grasps the money, but the Norwe- 
gian was too quick. A calm, clear voice near 
by commands the woman to release her hold 
and Ole to take his money. Turning about he 
recognizes his friend of the morning, whom 
he afterwards learned was none other than 
Vidocq, the famous Parisian chief of police. 
His wants were thus relieved, but it was only 
temporarily, and he at one time became so de- 
spondent as to think of suicide. He tried for 
various positions without success. Finally^ 
in April, 1832, he gave his first concert, under 
the patronage of the Duke of Montebello. 
This was the opening of his career as an 
artist. Soon after he made a tour of Switzer- 
land and Italy, remaining some time in the 
latter country. In Bologna occurred his 
encounter with Malibran, when he was dragged 
from bed at night to satisfy the clamorings of 
an audience she had disappointed. He visited 
Pisa, Leghorn, Lucca, Rome, and other cities, 
everywhere meeting with great success, and 
it was not until May, 1835, that he returned to 
Paris. In the summer of 1836 he was married 
to Felicie Villeminot, daughter of one of his 
former landladies. The match was a happy 
one, and she died in Norway in 1862, having 
borne him one son. After his marriage he 
traveled in France, England .(he had appear- 
ed in London previous to that event), Ger- 
many, and Russia, returning to his old home 
in Norway. In 1838 he starte 1 on his second 
continental tour, during which he became a 
firm friend of Liszt. 

By this time "Ole's" reputation as a virtuoso 
of the first order was fully established in 
Europe. Acting upon the advice of Fanny 
Elssler, he determined to visit America. 
He arrived in Boston, by the way of Amster- 
dam and London, in November, 1843, but 
immediately went to New York, where he 

gave his first concert November 23. During 
the month of December he gave concerts in 
New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Wash- 
ington, Richmond and Petersburg. From the 
latter place he went to Mobile, New Orleans, 
and other southern cities. During his travel 
in the South he met with many adventures, 
only one of which we will relate. On one 
occasion he took passage on a Mississippi 
steamboat which had on board a lot of rough 
western men. He was invited to drink, but 
politely refused. Anyone who is acquainted 
with the customs of those men knows that to 
refuse to drink is a deadly insult, and it soon 
became evident that the matter could only be 
settled by a test of strength. Ole, to avoid 
what might have been unpleasant circum- 
stances, offered to meet any man of the com 
pany in wrestling. A big fellow was chosen, 
who stepped forward and grasped the violinist 
around the waist, but was immediately thrown 
over his head and lay senseless on the deck 
amid the laughter of his companions. This 
same man subsequently called an editor to 
account for some adverse criticism on "Ole's" 
playing. After visiting Cuba, he made 
another tour of the United States, in- 
cluding Canada also. Dec. 3, 1845, he left 
for Paris, where his family awaited him. 
During the next two years he visited various 
cities in FYance and Spain, and even made a 
trip to Algiers. In January, 1852, he again 
came to this country, landing at New York. 
He visited the principal cities and was re- 
ceived with even more than his old cordiality. 
During this visit he purchased a large tract of 
land in Potter county, Pennsylvania, for a 
Norwegian colony, but the title was defective 
and he lost nearly the whole of it. This was 
not the only misfortune which befell him, for 
in one way and another it involved him in 
numerous lawsuits. Then came a fever which 
greatly impaired his health, and it was not 
until 1857 that he returned to Europe for the 
second time. From 1863 to 1867 he gave 
concerts in Germany, Poland, Russia, and 
other countries. In December of the latter 
year he came to the United States for the 
third time. The visit lasted until April, 1870. 
In the autumn of that year he married his 
second wife, a lady of Madison, Wis., who 
still survives him. The event was solemnized 
in Norway. Thenceforth his time was mainly 



divided between this and his native country. 
At length his health began to fail and it 
became such a serious matter that some time 
was spent at the famous German baths, Wies- 
baden. No permanent improvement resulted. 
It was decided that he should remain here 
during the winter of 1S79-S0, and he took a 
residence at Cambridge, Mass., where some 
of his friends celebrated his seventieth birth- 
day, Feb. 5, 1SS0. In the spring he sailed 
for his old home in Norway, but rapidly grew 
weaker, and died there Aug. 10, 1SS0, greatly 
esteemed and lamented. No one could help 
liking both the artist and the man. Thor- 
oughly unselfish, he often gave not only his 
services but large sums of money for charitable 

There is a "Memoir" of Bull, edited by 
Sara C. Bull, his wife, and published by 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston, in 1 vol., 
1883. It deals in a pleasing manner with the 
life of the great violinist and contains an ap- 
pendix illustrating his methods of holding his 
instrument. When playing he always stood 
upright and his fingers re-ted on the finger- 
board at an acute angle. He can hardly be 
called the representative of any school of 
violinists, though, perhaps, his style was more 
largely founded on the Italian than any other. 
He was, in fact, both individual and original, 
and in many respects unlike anyone who 
preceded him. His playing was distinguished 
for animation, feeling, and ease of execution. 
He was emphatically a master in his own 
sphere of playing, and possessed the rare 
faculty of quickly putting his audiem 

with himself. Even his appearance on 
the stage was generally a signal for applause. 
To these qualities is due the wonderful suc- 
cess of his tours and the fact that he never 
failed of having a good house wherever he 
went. Greater artists than he may have lived, 
but it may safely be asserted that none have 
had in such a wonderful degree the gift of 
appealing to an 1 arousing the feelings of the 

Butterlicld, James A., was born in 

Berkhampsted, England, May iS, 1837. 

When only four years of age he could play 

easy tunes on the violin by note. At the age 

of eight he performed the 1st violin pari of 

Handel's "Hallelujah Chorus" before Ste- 
phen Glover, to thai musician's great delight. 
His fine voice gained him several requests to 

11 a choir-boy of Westminster Abbey, 

but to this proposal his parents would not lis- 
ten. He early became a member of the Phil- 
harmonic Society of his native town, and once, 
though but ten years oil, directed a perfor- 
mance of the "Messiah" in absence of the 
conductor. Later, he was a pupil of John 
Hullah for some time. 

In 1S55 he came to the United States, but 
after three years returned to England and re- 
sumed his musical studies. He soon came 
back to this country, however, and was ap- 
pointed principal of a musical academy in 
the South. Being forced to come North by 
the outbreak of the Rebellion, he located in 
Indianapolis, Ind., as a teacher of music. 
After residing in Indianapolis for six years 
and a half, he removed to Chicago, where he 
took a prominent position as teacher and con- 
ductor. He was at one period director of the 
Chicago Oratorio Society, and had charge of 
the chorus of the Chicago Jubilee in 1873. 
Quite recently, on account of ill health, he 
decided to come East, and located in Norwich, 
Conn., where he now (March, 1885) resides. 
Of his four operas " Belshazzar " is the most 
important and most popular, and has often 
been produced throughout the country. A 
complete list of his works is as follows: 

Seventy songs, written between iS^o and 
1873, °f which " When you and I were 
young, Maggie," sold in (he extent of 250,- 
coo copies ; "The Star of the West," a text book 
for schools (1863); " Butterlield's Anthems" 
(1861 1; Butterfield s Collection," consisting of 
sacred music ( 1S70); "Belshazzar," an opera 
in five acts, for solos, chorus, and orchestra, 
given under' the composer's direction more 
than 350 times | [87] |; " Ruth, the Gleaner," 
an opera in live acts, for solos, chorus, and 
orchestra, performed under the author's direc- 
tion 39 times (1S75); "The Requisite," for 
singing schools and conventions ( 1.S78); "The 
Race for a Wife," a comedy in three acts, 
I 1871 1; "Window Glass," a comedy intwoacts 
given three times ( 1880); " Butterfield's 
System of Vocal Training and Music Readers 
for Children," in three books. 

Calliope. A musical instrument, the 
tones of which are produced by steam instead 
of wind. It has a cylinder, along the top of 
which are valve chambers connected with 
whistles tuned according to the diatonic scale. 
The instrument may be played from a key- 
board similar to that of an organ, or the cylin- 
der can be set to certain tunes and made to 
revolve as in barrel organs. It was invented 
by I. C. Stoddard of Worcester, Mass. The 
tones may be heard five miles or more, and at 
a distance are quite pleasing. 

Candidas, William, was born in 1845, 
at Philadelphia, of German parents. He 
received a good general education, to which 
was added an excellent musical training. He 
played the piano and organ, and became a 
baritone singer in a German musical society of 
Philadelphia. His mother was a good singer 
and helped to form his taste. He followed 
the trade of his father, that of a piano key- 
board maker. Being called to New York by 
the Steinways, he there had an opportunity to 
hear nearly all of the great artists. He made 
his first operatic appearance as Max in "Frei- 
schiitz," with such success as to lead him to 
devote himself to the stage. Accordingly he 
went to Germany and studied for some time, 
making his professional debut at Weimar in 
" Stradella." He was offered and accepted 
an engagement at the Royal Opera, Hanover, 
and afterwards at the Hamburg opera. In 
1865 he had married the widowed daughter of 
the late Henry Steinway, but just after leaving 
Hanover his wife died. This caused him to 
give up the stage, but he devoted himself more 
closely than ever to his art. He went to Italy 
and studied under Rouchette at Milan. After 
this he appeared in the principal cities of 
West Germany, and was well received. 
During a portion of 1879 and 1880 he sang at 
Her Majesty's, London, and in the autumn of 
1880 accepted an engagement at Frankfort-on - 
the-Main, where he still (1883) remains, 
making occasional visits to this country. In 
June, 1 88 1, he sang at the Chicago Samgerfest, 
and at the New York, Cincinnati, and Chica- 
go Mav Festivals of 1882. 

Cappa, Carlo Alberto, one of jhe 
most celebrated of American bandmasters, 
was born at Allessandria, in the kingdom of 
Sardinia, Dec. 9, 1834. His father was a 
major in the Sardinian army, and fought under 
Napoleon in the great campaign against Rus- 
sia. At the age of ten years he entered the 
Royal Academy at Asti (to which only sol- 
diers' sons are admitted) and remained there 
five years. He then enlisted in the band of 
the Sixth Lancers and was present at the bat- 
tle of Novara in 1849. He remained in the 
army six years, and then enlisted in the 
U. S. Navy, shipping on board the frigate 
Congress at Genoa. The cruise lasted two 
years. On Feb. 22, 1858, he arrived at New 
York. As a member of Ned Kendall's band 
he visited the principal American cities. 
Later, he became a member of Shelton's 
band, and in i860 entered the 7th Regiment 
band, of which he was elected bandmaster in 
1881. For seven years, beginning with 1869, 
he was first trombone player in Thomas' 
orchestra. As conductor of the concerts in 
Central Park, at Coney Island, Brighton 
Beach, and other places, he has given great 
satisfaction and won a substantial reputation. 

Carlberg, Gotthold, was born June 13, 
1838, at Berlin, where his father was a mer- 
chant. Almost from infancy he was used to 
hearing matinee performances of chamber 
music (held in the sa/011 of Leon de St. Lubrin, 
violinist, who lived in the same house) in 
which Liszt, Mendelssohn, Schulhoff, Rice, 
and other eminent musicians took part. At 
he age of four years he began the study of the 
piano under the organist Thiele. When nine 
he left school and entered the gymnasium. He 
was intended for a physician by his father, but 
never relinquished the study of music, and at 
fifteen began to take harmony lessons of Dr. 
A. B. Marx. On arriving at the age of eigh- 
teen his father gave up his long cherished 
desire and allowed the young man to follow 
the bent of his nature. Soon after he went to 
Paris, and from there to London. In 1857 he 
came to New York, where he finally succeed- 
ed in obtaining the post of musical editor of 


the "Staats Zeitung." Becoming acquainted 
with Carl Anschtltz, he continued his musical 
studies with that gentleman, and received his 
first initiation into the art of conducting. In 
1S61 he was compelled to return to Europe 
and enter the ranks of the Prussian army, 
being a Prussian subject. After eight months 
of service he was released on account of sick- 
ness, and became editor of the "Neu Berliner 
Musikzeitung." In 1863 he organized an 
orchestra, called " Carlhergscher Orchester- 
verein," with which he gave over 150 con- 
certs. He left Berlin in November, 1864, 
and proceeded to Vienna, where he studied 
the voice under Lugi Salvi and H. M. Wolf. 
He was persuaded to organize an orchestra 
for the purpose of giving classical concerts, 
but the scheme proved a failure. The ensuing 
three years were spent in Brunn as leader of 
the philharmonic concerts and teacher of 
singing. In 1869 he returned to Vienna, and 
wrote two works, " Ueber Gesangkunst und 
Kunstgesang," a treatise on the culture of the 
voice, and " Die Kunst Saenger zu Werden." 
During the season of 1870 he was engaged as di- 
rector of the opera at Trieste, after which he 
made a tour of Northern Italy. Returning to 
Vienna again in June, he was engaged by 
Strauss for a season at Warsaw, Poland. From 
there he in June, 1871, went to St. Petersburg 
in the capacity of conductor. Not long after he 
came to the United States for the second t ime 
having been engaged by Prince George 
Galitzin to conduct a series of Russian con- 
certs here. These proved a failure, and he 
was engaged by Max Maretzek. For the next 
few years he was teacher, writer and con- 
ductor, and engaged in various enterprises. 
In 1877 he became editor of the "Music Trade 
Review," New York, which was discontinued 
about the beginning of 1880. During the 
season of 1878-7^ he gave a series of sym- 
phony concerts at Checkering Hall, wielding 
the baton over Thomas' orchestra. Mr. Carl- 
berg died at New York, April 27, 1881, just a 
few days before he intended to set sail for 
Germany. His death was caused by overwork. 
CillTOllO, TERESA, the well-known pian- 
ist, was born at Caraccas, Venezuela, South 
America, Dec. 22, 1S53. She descended from 
a distinguished Spanish family. When only 
two years old she could sing operatic airs, and 
at the age of seven had mastered Thalberg's 

fantasia on "Norma." Her earliest lessons 
were received from her father. Subsequently 
for a short time she received lessons of Julius 
Hoheni, a German professor. In the latter 
part of 1862. being only nine years of age, she 
appeared in New York, where she had an in- 
terview with Gottschalk and played with him 
on the piano a four-hand piece. In a short 
time she had learned his "Jerusalem" and 
" Bananier" so as to be able to play them 
without the score, he kin lly giving her some 
advice concerning the rendering of the pieces. 
After appearing in New York she went to Bos- 
ton, and at both places created a great sensa- 
tion on account of her remarkable playing for 
one so young. Since that lime she has travel- 
ed extensively, giving concerts in various 
parts of the country and elsewhere. She 
has written a few piano pieces of fair 

Cartel*, Henry, was born at London, 
England, in 1S37, and commenced his career 
as an organist in that city. Early in life he 
went to Canada, and at the age of seventeen 
became organist of the English Cathedral of 
Quebec, where he established the first Cana- 
dian oratorio society and successfully gave 
eight oratorios. Upon the erection of (he 
organ in the Music Hall, Boston, he removed 
there and became one of the regular perform- 
ers on the instrument, and also chorister of 
the Church of the A Ivent. He subsequently 
removed to Providence, R. I., and in 1S73 t(> 
New York, his weekly recitals on the large 
organ in Trinity church bringing him much 
into nr>tice. In 1S80 he accepted a position as 
the piano, voice, organ, and 
nusic, in the College of Music. 
Phis he resigned early in 1S83 to 
f the music of Plymouth Church, 

J professor 

I lecturer 
take char 

I Car;,, Anna Lens 

J most celebrated contralto singers, was born in 

1 1844,* at Wayne, Kennebec Co., Maine, 
where her father was a physician. The family 
consisted of six children, of whom Anna was 
the youngest. She led a life of song almost 
from infancy, and when fifteen years of age- 
was sent to Boston, where her el [er brother 
lived, to study music. Lyman VV. Wheeler 

of A 1 

I he \ o) her birth is variously 
1844, and 1846. 


was her principal teacher, but she also took 
lessons of several other Boston teachers. Dur- 
ing her six years residence in Boston she sang 
in the churches of Dr. Stowe ( Bedford Street)-, 
Dr. Lowell, and Dr. Huntington. At the end 
of this lime she very naturally turned her at- 
tention toward Europe as the only place where 
a singer could gain a finished education. A 
benefit concert furnished her with means, and 
she proceeded to Milan, where she placed 
herself un ler Corsi. In Dec, 1867, having 
made rapid progress, she was induced to go 
with an Italian opera company to Copenhagen, 
where she made her debut on the stage.' The 
trip din not prove very successful, and she re- 
turned to Baden-Baden, Germany, and con- 
tinued her stu lies under Mine. Viardot-Gar- 
cia. From there she went to Hamburg, where 
she met with success. She then accepted an 
engagement with M. Slrakosch to sing in 
Stockholm during the season of 1S68. The 
summer of 1869 was spent at Paris, and a brill- 
rant engagement at Brussels followed. Short- 
ly after she wrs engaged for three years by 
Strakoseh. In the spring of 1870 she sang at 
Dairy Lane, London, and Sept. iooffhesame 
year made her first appearance in New York, 
singing with Nilsson. After this she sang 
throughout the country at the principal cities, 
an I created the greatest enthusiasm. In 1875 
she was in St. Petersburg, where she caused a 
furore by her singing. She returned to the 
United Stales in 1876. In June, 18S0, she 
went to England, where she remained some 
time. She sang at the Cincinnati May Festi- 
val of 18S2, and has appeared at various 
other places since her return. Quite recently 
( 1882) she wrs married to a Mr. Raymond. 
Her voice is riah, deep and sweet, and well 
managed. Mrs. Ada Cary-Sturgis, a sister of 
Anna, who also possesses a fine contralto 
voice, has lately appeared in concerts with 
much success. 

Centennial Cantata. A cantata writ- 
ten to celebrate the 100th anniversary ( 187(1) 
of our existence as a nation. The music is by 
Dudley Buck. It was performed at the open- 
ing of the great Centennial Exhibition, Phila- 
delphia, May 10, 1S76. The autograph is 
preserved in the archives of the Connecticut 
Historical Society. The Centennial March, 
also rendered at the opening of the Exhibition; 

J was composed by Richard Wagner, for which 
he received S5000. 

CliadwK'k, Gkor<:e W., was born Nov. 
13, 1S54, at Lowell, Mass., but in i860 his 
parents removed to Lawrence. His first in- 
struction in music was received from his elder 
brother, whom he succeeded as organist at 
one of the local churches. After leaving 
school he entered the office of his father, who 
was an insurance agent and desired that his 
son should follow the same business, but after 
remaining there three years he gave it up and 
adopted music as a profession. This was in 
1S75. ^ n lne following year he went to 
Olivet, Mich., where he had charge of the 
musical department of the college. Despite 
the remonstrances of his father, in 1877 he 
departed for Europe, going to Germany, 
where he studied for two years under Jadas- 
sohn and Reinecke. The former, according 
to his own expression, was almost a father to 
him, and gave him more than usual encour- 
agement. In July, 1879, he left Leipsic, and 
after traveling some in Germany, settled at 
Munich, where he studied theory and organ 
playing with Rheinberger for nearly a year. 

Previous to going to Germany, Mr. Chad- 
wick had written many songs and piano pieces, 
two trios for strings, and two overtures. 
While at Leipsic he wrote his two quartets 
for stiings and the overture to "Rip Van 
Winkle," all of which were publicly per- 
formed with good success. His greatest work, 
the symphony in C, was projected or begun 
while he was at Munich, and finished after his 
return home, which occurred early in 1880. 
It was first performed from manuscript at the 
Harvard Musical Association symphony con- 
certs this year ( 1NS2). His overture to " Kip 
Van Winkle" was also performed at the Han- 
del and Haydn Festival in May, 1880. Some 
of his other works have been performed at 
various times. 

Mr. Chadwick is at present (June, 1883) a 
resident of Boston, where he is organist of 
Park Street Church. His time is devoted to 
leaching, composing, and conducting, but it is 
to the latter two branches that he gives his 
greatest energies. Having given such early 
and substantial evidences of his talents, his 
future course will be watched with great 


Chautauqua Musical Reading 

Club. An organization having for its object 
the assistance of such persons as desire to per- 
sue a course of reading and study in the science 
and history of music. The plan of operation 
is similar to that of the Chautauqua Literary 
and Scientific Circle. Members are admitted 
upon answering certain questions and paying 
an annual feeof either 75 cents or Si. 50. The 
course of reading, which covers a period of 
four years and may be pursued at home, is 
divided into two portions, scientific and liter- 
ary. Forty minutes each day will suffice to 
complete the course in the required time. 
The affairs of the Club are regulated by a 
board of counsellors consisting of George F. 
Root, H. R. Palmer, E. E. Ayres, W. F. 
Sherwin, and C C. Case. Prof. E. E. Ayres^ 
Richmond, Va., is secretary. Books are fur- 
nished at reduced prices. The course of 
reading for the first year (1883-84 — the year 
commencing with October and ending with 
June) includes the following works : Palm. 
er's Theory of Music, Richter's Fundamen- 
tal Harmonies, The Great German Composers 
(Ferris), Musical Forms (Pauer), Life of Bach 
(Shuttleworth), Life of Handel (Schrelcher), 
Music of the Bible (Hutchinson), Old Hun- 
dredth Psalm Tune, History of Music, vols. 1 
and 2 (Ritter), Readings from Burney and 
Hawkins and in ancient Greek and Roman 
music, The Soprano, Money and Music, and 
Curiosities of Music (Elson). 

Chicago. Chicago can not, strictly 
speaking, at this stage of its history be called 
a musical city. It is great in commercial 
activity and has much wealth, but it is quite 
moderate in its support of the arts. Opera and 
star companies are very well patronized, but 
our home organizations have to struggle for 
life. Music has not become a necessity here, 
as in the older cities of the country. We have 
but three or four important musical societies, 
and they are generally burdened by debt. 

The Apollo Club was founded directly 
after the big fire in October, 1871, by S. G. 
Pratt and George B. Lyon. It first existed as 
a male chorus. Its first conductor was Mr. 
S. ( '». Pratt, followed by Mr. Dohn, who in 
turn gave way to Mr. Tomlins, the present 
director. Under the latter gentleman it 
became a mixed chorus, and numbers some 
150 voices. It lias given three regular con. 

certs each year since its organization, and 
now annually performs at Christmas time 
Handel's oratorio of the " Messiah." 

The Beethoven Society. This Society 
was organized by Carl Wolfsohn some ten 
years ago (1873), and has continued ever 
since under his direction. It is a mixed 
chorus, and brings out the important modern 
works, in three concerts each year. The best 
productions of Max Bruch, Hofmann, Gade, 
Mendelssohn, Beethoven, Verdi, and Wagner, 
have been given. 

The Mozart Society. This Society con- 
sists of a select chorus of about forty male 
voices. It has had two conductors, Mr. Hans 
Balatka, and the present director, Mr. Bartlett. 
Three concerts are given every year, and the 
larger works for male voices brought forward. 
Mr. E. G. Newhall, the secretary, has accom- 
plished much in giving it an important place 
among our home societies. 

The Festival Chorus was organized 
under the direction of Theodore Thomas, 
assisted by Mr. Tomlins. It consists of 600 
voices, and large festivals are to be given by 
it every two years, the first of which was held 
in May, 1882. (See May Festivals). The 
cost of the Festival was very large — over 
#60,000 — and was not fully met by the sale of 
tickets. A fund has to be raised each year of 
the Festival to secure Mr. Thomas and the 
committee against loss. 

The Philharmonic Society, under the 
direction of Mr. Liesegang, gives three con- 
certs each year. It consists of some fifty men, 
and includes all of the best orchestral players 
in the city. The concerts are mostly devoted 
to symphonies, although other works are 

German Societies. There are one or two 
German singing societies in th*city, but at 
present none that give public concerts. 

mer, Theodore Thomas with an orchestra of 
fiftv musicians gives six weeks of nightly con- 
certs in the Exposition building, which are 
well supported. 

The Hekshev School of Musical Art. 

This school was founded some seven years 

since by Mrs. Sara B. Hershey (now Mrs. 

j Eddy), assisted by H. Clarence Eddy. Up to 

I date (April, 1883), there have been some 405 

concerts given, including 125 organ recitals by 


Mr. Eddy, who is an accomplished organist. 
This school, although the result of private 
enterprise, lias its own concert hall, contain- 
ing a ?6ooo pipe organ, and is well arranged 
to hold a first-class position as a musical insti- 
tution. It has a regular four years' course, 
and a "post-graduate" course following. 

Chicago College of Musk . This institu- 
tion is under the direction of Dr. F. Ziegfeld, 
and is a private enterprise. It lias been in 
existence over twelve years, and has a regular 
course of study. 

Private Instruction. There is a large 
number of first-class teachers in the city, and 
the greater percentage of musical instruction 
is given by them. 

Music Houses and Music Halls. Chicago 
enjoys a large music trade, and some £3,500,- 
000 worth of business in that line is done each 
year — mostly with the Western States. There 
are a number of music halls, the most important 
of which is Central Music Hall. This 
beautiful hall will hold 3000 people, and was 
built through the energy of the late George 
15. Carpenter. C. H. BrITTAN. 

Chicago College of Music. This 

institution, one of the leading of its kind in 
Chicago, was founded in 1867, by the present 
president, Dr. F. Ziegfeld. It had scarcely 
earned a permanent position among similar 
institutions and a growing reputation when 
the great fire of October, 1871, occurred, 
which destroyed the College rooms, library 
and other property. In a few weeks, how- 
ever, new rooms were secured and the school 
re-opened. It now (18S6) occupies a mag- 
nificent building on the corner of State and 
Randolph streets. Then' is also a branch of 
the College located on West Adams street for 
the accommodation of patrons residing in 
West Chicago. The College is incorporated 
under the name given above, an I is governed 
by a board of eleven directors. The faculty 
numbers nearly twenty-live, and includes 
some of the most widely-known teachers in 
the West. Dr. Ziegfeld has from the first 
devoted all his energies to the College, and 
its success is hugely due to his superior ability 
as an educator and manager. The course of 
study embraces every department of music and 
the principal modern languages. Students 


?e of Doctor of Music 

after complying with the necessary conditions 

Chickering, Jonas, was bom April 5, 
1797, at New Ipswich, N. II. His education 
was limited to that afforded by the common 
school. At the age of seventeen years he was 
apprenticed to a cabinet maker in his native 
town. Two years after, he volunteered 1" both 
tunc and repair a certain piano (and, by the 
way, the oidy one) in the place. Proving 
successful, he seems to have turned his 
thoughts towards the manufacture of pianos, 
and accordingly in 1S1S, being of age, he went 
to Boston and entered the establishment of a 
Mr. Oshorn to learn the trade. In 1S23 he 
founded the present extensive house of Chick- 
ering & Sons (See CHICKERING & Sons) by 
setting up in business for himself. He then 
gradually introduced the improvements which 
have made his name famous and his pianos 
among the best manufactured. Mr. Checkering 
was a member of many musical societies, 
liberally patronized the arts, and held several 
offices of importance. He died at Boston, 
Dec. 9, 1853. 

Chickering & Sons, Boston and 
New York. This celebrated American piano 
manufacturing firm was established at Boston, 
April 15, 1823, by Jonas Chickering (For 
some particulars of his life, see preceding 
article). At that early time the piano had 
not reached its present high state of develop- 
ment, anil piano making in the United States 
was in its infancy. Considerable impetus was 
given to the business by a Scotchman named 
Stewart, who induced Jonas Chickering to 
enter into partnership with him. Before his 
advent, however, American energy and skill 
had awakened to a partial realization of the 
great future before them in the production of 
pianos. Two years later, Stewart returned to 
Europe, leaving Mr. Chickering alone. This 
was previous to the year 1S23, in which the 
firm of Chickering was established, and its 
success is entirely due to the man whose 
name it bear.-,. 

In 1837, Mr. Chickering produced the first 
square piano with an iron frame complete ex- 
cept the wrest-pin block, and in 1840 the first 
full iron frame for a grand piano ever made. 
Three years later, he invented and patented 
an improvement of great importance at that 
time. On the upper side or top of the plate, 
covering the head-block, he introduced a cast- 
iron flange, which was drilled for each string 


to pass through, thus giving a firm upward 
tendency to the strings and at the same time 
forming a transverse strengthening bar. Grand 
pianos of this construction were sent to the 
first Great International Exhibition held in 
London, in 1S51, where they created a pro- 
found sensation and were awarded a prize 
medal. This method of construction was dis- 
continued in the year 1856, and the present 
method of casting a solid iron flange on the 
under side of the iron frame into which the 
"agraffes" are screwed, was adopted. In 1845 
the circular scale as used in square pianos was 
invented and tested by Mr. Chickering, whose 
ceaseless activity was constantly directed 
toward the improvement of his instruments. 
The number of patents granted the hotfse is 
very large, and its history is inseparably con- 
nected with the history of piano making in 

In 1853, Mr. Chickering died, since when 
the business has been successfully carried on 
by his sons, under the old firm name. Once, 
in December, 1852, the firm suffered a heavy 
loss by fire, but immediately rebuilt on a much 
more extensive scale. Their pianos, of which 
they have manufactured 70,000, are favorably 
known all over the world, and to their excel- 
lence is largely due the fact that American 
pianos lead all other makes. 

China. One of the early American hymn 
tunes, at one time very popular, and still sung. 
It was composed by Timothy Swan, and prob- 
ably first published in his collection of church 
music, Federal Harmony, which appeared 
in 1785, he being at that time twenty-eight 
years of age. It was originally set to the 
words, "Why do we mourn for dying friends," 
by Dr. Watts, and is rarely ever employed but 
with them. 

Chorister's Companion. A collec- 
tion of sacred music edited and published by 
Simeon Jocelyn, of New Haven, Conn., in 
1788. His name is not attached to any of the 
pieces which it contains, but it is supposed 
that some of them were of his composition. 
A supplement to the work was published in 


Christian Harmony. 1.— A collec- 
tion of sacred music published at Exeter, 
N. H., in 1805, by Jeremiah Ingalls. It con- 
tained 200 pages and a good amount of music, 
but seems not to have been a financial success. 

2. A work issued in 1794 (according to 
John W. Moore) by Andrew Law, a native of 
Cheshire, Conn. It numbered 64 pages, and 
was engraved in a kind of patent notes of 
which Mr. Law was the inventor. 

Church Co., The John, Cincinnati, 
Ohio. This music-publishing firm, one of the 
most prominent in the United States, was estab- 
lished in 1854, by John Church. At that time 
the West, musically speaking, was just begin- 
ning to show signs of growth. To this fact and 
to excellent management the remarkable suc- 
cess of the firm is no doubt due. Along with the 
publication of music, an extensive business is 
carried on in the line of general musical mer- 
chandise. The firm publishes many popular 
and standard works. Among these are " The 
New Musical Curriculum," by Dr. George F. 
Root, a piano instructor of more than ordinary 
merit; "The School of Singing," by F. W. 
Root, an excellent work; "Palmer's Theory 
of Music," by Dr. II. R. Palmer, a very con- 
cise and handy little volume ; and the "Graded 
Singer" series for day schools. With the 
above must also be included the " Gospel 
Hymns" series, of which the firm is part 
publisher. The latter work has sold to the 
extent of millions of copies, and is known in 
every civilized land. Wise and judicious 
management during the past quarter of a cen- 
tury or more has been conducive to the rapid 
growth and solid financial reputation of the 
firm, which, while achieving its own deserved 
success, has done much by its broad and lib- 
eral policy toward elevating and extending the 
musical taste of Cincinnati and the section of 
country tributary to it. 

Church's Musical Visitor. A 

32-page monthly magazine, published by 
the foregoing firm. It is devoted to the in- 
terests of music in general. Dr. Root is one of 
its chief contributors. Since the organization 
of the Chautauqua Musical Reading Club it has 
been designated as the official organ of that 

Cincinnati. The prominence this city 
has been honored with as an art center is 
founded on the realities of a magnificent music 
hall, one of the largest and most complete or- 
gans in the world, an unsurpassed chorus of six 
hundred and fifty members, and the homes of 
nearly three hundred thousand music-loving 
people. This perfected state of art elements 



was not an instantaneous transition from an en- 
tirely absent condition, but represents the out- 
growth of a gradual development since 1797, 
when the first musical organ was the formation 
of a band, under the leadership of Gen. Wil- 
kinson, at Fort Washington. This was soon 
succeeded by another in the management of lo- 
cal influences, and was directed by Mr. Albert 
Ratel. His achievements were of a sufficient 
incentive momentum that in 1820 a musical 
academy was founded and placed under the 
superintendence of Prof. J. W. Hoffman. 
Principally in the course of instruction was 
attention devoted to band music and band 
instruments, such as clarinet, oboe, horns, etc. 
During this period the first singing society was 
organized and called the Haydn Society of 
Cincinnati. The production of Haydn's 
oratorio, " Creation," marked the greatest ar- 
tistic accomplishment. The concert was given 
May 25, 1823. Mr. Charles Fox continued 
its leader until their forces were usurped by the 
first German Gesang-Verein, in 1830. The 
following year a band of about thirty Saxons 
was brought to this country, and, finding in 
Cincinnati the most liberal appreciation, they 
determined to reside here. Now, with the for- 
eign artists and local musicians, a force requi- 
site to render symphonies was organized, and 
a series of concerts planned. For a space cov- 
ering six years these entertainments were suc- 
cessfully conducted, under the leadership of 
Mr. Michael Brand. The generous donations 
of several wealthy citizens afforded means for 
securing the Theodore Thomas orchestra. 
This undertaking was augmented by the erec- 
tion of the fine Music Hall and great organ, 
and the formation of the grand chorus. 

The Welsh Singing Sociei-y. Since 
its organization in the fall of 1871, this chorus 
has been one of the most active. The object 
of its organization was to promote a more 
friendly intercourse among the Welsh singers 
of the city. The success attending its first 
meetings was so rapidly augmented that the 
works selected for their study were only the 
best which have ever been written, such as 
Mendelssohn's "St. Paul," Handel's " Mes- 
siah," etc. The Society meets every Wednes- 
day evening in the Welsh church, situated be- 
tween Sixth and Seventh streets, on the west 
side of College. It has been among the most 
successful competitors in the great Welsh 

musical festivals held throughout the state. 
Its accurate and animated rendering of Dr. 
Joseph Parry's " Blodwen," at the last Festi- 
val, which was held at Columbus, secured them 
the three prizes offered and contended for by 
about thirty five different societies. Mr. Ebe- 
nezer Bowen, its efficient leader, was its foun- 
der, and has ever since remained its comman- 
der-in-chief, although at different periods it 
has given performances under the direction of 
visiting conductors. The chorus numbers 
about one hundred selected voices, which is 
the main support of their concerts, the accom- 
paniment being the piano and the organ. 

The Orfheus. This society can be called 
the Wagnerian society of Cincinnati, although, 
of Tate, it has drifted far from Wagner's compo- 
sitions as the principal selections for its study. 
Its organization occurred on the 4th of April, 
1868. Prof. Carl Barus was elected conductor 
and remained its leader until 1SS1. Under his 
direction, Wagner's " Flying Dutchman " and 
"Lohengrin" and many selections from his 
other works were rehearsed and produced. It 
has rendered a large number of Bach's works, 
including the Passion Music according to St. 
Matthew, the cantata of" Ein' Feste Burg," 
"Actus Tragicus," and " Tantum Ergo;" 
Beethoven's "Missa Solennis," and "Christus 
am Oelberge" (Mount of Olives); Chcrubini's 
"Medee" and "La Primavera ;" Gluck's 
" Orpheus ;" Handel's "Messiah" and 
" Dettingen Te Deum ; " and Mozart's "Re- 
quiem." It has produced, aside from these, 
many works by other composers. Its first pub- 
lic appearance was made in Harold's 
" Zampa " and Lortzing's "Der Wildschlitz." 
The society supported for four years an ama- 
teur orchestra, which at one time numbered 
forty-five musicians. They gave several very 
successful orchestral concerts, rendering Bee- 
thoven's first and second symphonies, aside 
from many overtures and much dance music. 
The society gives four grand concerts every 
season, and forms one of the principal features 
of the May Festival chorus. Its meetings are 
held every Tuesday and Friday evenings and 
Sunday afternoons. Mr. Arthur Mees is the 
present conductor, with Mr. Louis Ergott as 
assistant. The society also forms one 
of the supports of the National Siinger- 
fests, and numbers sixty male and fifty 
female voices upon its active member 



list. On several occasions it has been victori- 
ous in gaining the first prizes for the most ar- 
listic performances at the Sangcrfests. Suffi- 
cient funds have been secured to purchase a 
hall, which is located at Twelfth and Walnut 

Dramatic Festival Association (The) 
assumed the notable characteristics of the May 
Festivals, and under such glowing auspices 
presented six of Shakspeare's greatest plays in 
a manner never excelled in this country be- 
fore, the list consisting of "Julius Caesar," 
"The llaunchback," "Much Ado About 
Nothing," "Othello," "Hamlet," and 
" Romeo and Juliet." The entire work 
throughout proved a most brilliant success, and 
upon such results a second festival is being ar- 
ranged for. The casts will include the most 
prominent actors in Europe or America. The 
casts of the late festival included only such per- 
formers as have for years been playing as indi- 
vidual stars, such as John McCullough, Law- 
rence Barrett, Miss Mary Anderson, Mile. 
Rhea. Clara Morris, James E. Murdock, N. C. 
Goodwin, John Ellsler, and others equally 
celebrated. Mr. R. E. J. Miles was appointed 
dramatic director, and Mr. Michael Brand 
musical director. The festival was held in the 
Music Hall, beginning April 30th, and closing 
May 5th, 1883. The tickets were disposed of 
by auction to the highest bidder for the choice 
of seats. The receipts amounted to 394,90s. 40, 
and the expenses to about £50,000. 

Tin: Cincinnati M.t.nnkkchor was made 

a society, May 24, 1S57, by the uniting of 
the Liedertafel, Germania, and Sangerbund. 
The organization elected Mr. A. Paulsen, 
president, and W. Klausmeyer, director. The 
first concert which served to attract public 
attention was given in Wood's Theatre, May 18, 
1S5S, the net proceeds amounting to £166.50. 
Mr. Carl Barus was appointed conductor in 
September of tin- same year, and under bis 

nl efforts "Czar and Zimmermann," 
" Stradella," " Freischtttz," and " Oberon," 

produced. The study of this elevated 
class of compositions necessitated the addition 
of lady members, and the constitution was 
amended to that effect, June 19, 1S60. In 
1864, Mr. A. Nembach became conductor, and 
under Ids direction the operas of " Zampa " 
and " Dei- FreischlUz were given. A discus- 
sion arose between the active and passive 

members, at this time, the question Ik ing as to 
whether or not operas should longer be ren- 
dered, and resulted in the- active members 
withdrawing and forming a new society, 
under the name of " Orpheus." For the old 
society, Mr. H. G. Andres accepted the 
leadership, but resigned in 1069, and Mr. II. 
Gerold was chosen in his stead. The society 
remained under his charge until 1S73, when 
he was in turn succeeded by Mr. ( >tto Singer, 
who has since been conductor. Mr. Henry 
Curth is its president, and it is in a very flour- 
ishing condition. Flans ami specifications for 
a new hall, to be personal property, have 
been prepared, and soon a building costing 
$100,000 will be completed. Meetings are- 
held every Wednesday and Sunday evenings 
in Fureck Hall, where concerts are given 
once in four weeks. The membership is 
divided into one hundred active and two 
hundred passive constituents. The object of the 
society is a more liberal culture in the study of 
classical music. 

May Festivals. These are now a settled 
feature, but one, it must be remembered, 
which is the outgrowth of plans and enter- 
prises of years ago. Many and varied ele- 
ments have combined to bring the festival to 
its j.iesent standing. It may properly be said 
to have had its origin in the German festivals 
held in Cincinnati as early as 1849. While the 
Sangerfest degenerated greatly from its origi- 
nal purpose, it undoubtedly led the way to the 
noble efforts which characterize our May Fes- 
tivals. In 1870, nearly twenty years later, in 
the same city, the second festival was 
held, in which nearly two thousand singers 
participated, and from which went out an 
influence very powerful in establishing the 
May festivals. When, two years later ( [872), 
the project of bidding a national festival of 
singers and instrumentalists of the United 
Slates, at Cincinnati, was suggested to Mr. 
Thomas, a man of marvelous faculty in exe- 
cuting tilings of magnitude, he thought it pos- 
sible, and readily undertook the work of 
carrying out the suggestion. This resulted in 
the first May Festival, held in 1S73. A guar- 
antee fund sufficient to meet all expenditures, 
should it be necessary, having been raised, the 
plans for the first festival were acted upon, 
and resulted in such a grand triumph that they 
have become a world-noted institution. This 



was under the direction of Mr. Thomas, who 
still holds the position of chief director. The 
chorus consisted of several societies, mostly 
from Cincinnati, and numbered 1250. The 
impossibility of securing adequate preparation 
and dicipline in foreign societies and the im- 
practicability of their attendance away from 
home at a festival of a week's duration, was 
seen at once and consequently abandoned at 
subsequent festivals. A single manual organ 
of fourteen stops was used as an accompani- 
ment to the chorus. The orchestra numbered 
108, and included Mr. Thomas' celebrated or- 
chestra, aided by Cincinnati musicians and 
members of the New York Philharmonic So- 
ciety. The festival was well attended and so 
well received that a request, signed by promi- 
nent citizens, for another festival was pre- 
sented at the last concert. It was then deter- 
mined to give the festival of 1875. To better 
conduct the business management, the Cincin- 
nati Biennial Musical Festival Association was 
incorporated in 1874, under whose care the 
succeeding festivals have been given. Imme- 
diately the study of the music began, and in 
the fall of 1874 the chorus proper was organ- 
ized under Mr. Singer, who, fortunately, 
then came to make his home in Cincinnati. 
Weekly part rehearsals and monthly mass 
rehearsals were held, though afterward 
changed to weekly mass rehearsals for men 
and women. The chorus was splendidly pre- 
pared and numbered nearly 600. The or- 
chestra, composed of the same elements as 
that of the first festival, numbered 101. The 
soloists were Mrs. H. H. Smith and Miss 
Whinnery, sopranos ; Miss Annie Louise 
Cary and Miss Emma Cranch, contraltos; 
Messrs. Winch and Alex. Bischoff, tenors ; 
and Messrs. F. Remmertz and M. W. Whit- 
ney, basses. The choral works performed 
were " Elijah," the 9th Symphony, Brahm's 
"Triumphal Hymn" (op. 55), scenes from 
Wagner's " Lohengrin," Bach's " Magnifi- 
cat " in D, and Liszt's cantata of "Prome- 
theus." The great success of this festival led 
to the movement, so generously headed by 
Mr. Springer, which gave to Cincinnati the 
finest music hall and organ in America. A 
space of three years elapsed between the 
second and the third festival, which took 
place in 1S78, this being necessary on ac- 
count of the non-completion of the hall. 

The chorus and orchestra were composed of 
the same elements as the preceding ones, 
and respectively numbered 650 and 101. 
The soloists were Mine. Pappenheim and Mrs. 
Osgood, sopranos ; the contraltos the same as 
in 1875, with the addition of Miss Roll- 
wagen ; Messrs. Charles Adams and Fritsch, 
tenors ; Messrs. Whitney and Remmertz, bas- 
ses; Sig. G. Tagliapietra, baritone; and G. 
E. Whiting, organist. The program in- 
cluded the " Eroica " Symphony, and the 
following choral works: "Messiah," 9th 
Symphony, scenes from Gluck's "Alceste," 
a "Festival Ode" by Otto Singer, Liszt's 
" Missa Solennis," and Berlioz's dramatic 
symphony "Romeo and Juliet." In all 
respects this was a grand success, and from 
the beginning the business management has 
been in keeping with the high artistic direc- 
tion. The first festival came within a trif- 
ling sum of clearing its expenses, the second 
left a surplus, and the third, after contribut- 
ing to the debt which remained upon the 
organ, left the sum of #10,000 as a capital 
for future festivals. The success was partly 
due to the enthusiasm created here by the 
movement to build the Music Hall and the 
curiosity abroad to see the new structure and 
hear the new organ. Starting with a plan 
which looked to the cooperation of all large 
cities of the West, they have gradually with- 
drawn from all resources but their own, and 
the fourth festival was given in 1880, with a 
chorus of Cincinnati singers, as large as that 
of 1878, who displayed their proficiency in the 
mastery of the great Beethoven mass. The 
chorus was superior in quality and tone to 
that of any other. No pains were spared in ■ 
the preparation for this festival. The program 
was undoubtedly in advance of any preceding 
one, the soloists the best the country could 
afford, and the orchestra in numbers the largest 
and in material incomparably the finest ever 
heard in this country, and not to be surpassed 
by any in the world. With all this, the festi- 
val of 1880 could be nothing less than a grand 
success. This brings us down to the fifth and 
last festival, held in 1882. Since the last fes- 
tival, the chorus had been organized into a 
permanent body with Mr. Arthur Mees as 
director. Never before did it receive such 
long or more faithful and competent training. 
During two years, rehearsals, together with 



reviews under Mr. Thomas' personal direction, 
were held without intermission. It numbered 
a little over 600. The orchestra numbered 
165 artists, though essentially the same as that 
for the festival of 18S0. It was at this festival 
that Miss Cary, identified with them from the 
beginning, took leave of the public for private 
life. Taken altogether, it is believed that no 
musical festival was ever held with better equip- 
ment or more artistic excellence and popular 
success than that of 1882. It may truly be said 
that the May Festivals have been the most potent 
medium of art encouragement which this city 
and country have ever known. A high aim 
and a lofty purpose were constantly kept in 
view, and with each recurring event this aim 
and purpose became clearer and the method 
adopted .for their attainment more direct. As 
a rule, the works which require large num- 
bers of performers have been given at night, 
while in the afternoon consideration has been 
had for the natural desire for variety and 
pieces which could not, without discord, be 
consorted with the works performed at night. 
This has always been done, however, without 
lowering the artistic standard fixed as the key- 
note of the festivals. (See also the heading 
May Festivals). * * * 

Cincinnati Conservatory of Music. 
This institution was established in 1867, by 
the present directress, Miss Clara Bauer. 
It is modeled after the famous Conservatorium 
at Stuttgart. There is attached to it a board- 
ing department for the benefit of the young 
ladies attending. All the branches of music 
are taught, and also elocution and modern 
languages. Instruction is imparted by a corps 
of twenty teachers, among whom are Michael 
Brand, E. Eugene Davis, and others well 

Cincinnati Music School. This institu- 
tion was inaugurated in September, 1880, by 
George Schneider, B. W. Foley and Arthur 
Mees, who were connected with the College 
of Music previous to that time. It has re- 
mained under the management of those gen- 
tlemen, all eminent musicians and teach- 
ers. Miss Emma Cranch, well known as 
a vocalist, has had charge of the vocal depart- 
ment from the first. The usual branches of 
music are taught. A special feature of the 
School is that every pupil receives private 
instruction. Particular opportunities are of- 

fered those wishing to become teachers or 
pursuing select studies. 

Clarke, Hugh A., was born in Canada, 
in the year 1839. His knowledge of music, 
aside from that gained by his own un- 
aided study, was imparted by his father, J. P. 
Clarke, Mus. Doc, Oxon. Col., and professor 
of music in Upper Canada University. In 
1859 he went to Philadelphia, where he 
gradually acquired a reputation both as 
teacher and composer. In 1875 he was 
elected professor of music in the University of 
Pennsylvania, located at Philadelphia, a 
position which he still (March, 1884) holds. 
He has taught a number of eminent pupils, 
among whom is Wm. W. Gilchrist. His 
works consist of some songs and piano 
pieces, a method for the piano and one for 
the organ, and " Harmony on the Inductive 
Method," published by Lee & Walker. 

Clarke,. William Horatio, organist, 
was born at Newton, Mass., a suburb of 
Boston, in 1840, and came of a musical family. 
At the age of seven years he began to play 
upon different musical instruments, but the 
organ was his favorite, which he assiduously 
studied under competent teachers. In 1856 he 
was elected organist of the Congregational 
Church of South Dedham (now Norwood), in 
1857 of Rev. Dr. Alvin Lamson's Church in 
Dedham, and in 1859 of the Berkely Street 
Church in Boston. This latter position he 
resigned in 1866 to accept a similar one in 
Woburn, Mass. (where he had previously mar- 
ried). In 1872, after returning from Europe, 
he was engaged as superintendent of musical 
instruction in the public schools of Dayton, 
Ohio. From there he removed in 1S74 to In- 
dianapolis, Ind., and in 1878 to Boston. In 
June, 1880, he accepted the position of organ- 
ist of the Jarvis Street Baptist Church, To- 
ronto, Canada. Four years later he accepted 
a call from the Plymouth Church of Indianapo- 
lis, Ind., and he is still (January, 1886) located 
in that city. His first instruction book for the 
organ was issued in 1865. It was followed by 
" Clarke's New Method for Reed Organs," of 
which nearly 100,000 copies have been sold. 
He has put forth other works, chief among 
which is the " Harmonic School for the 
Organ." He has also composed much 
church and organ music. As an organist he 
ranks among the foremost in this country. 



Cleveland Conservatory of Mu- 
sic, Cleveland, Ohio. This institution was 
established in the summer of 1871, by J. 
Underner, Wm. Heydler and John Hart, who 
constituted the board of directors. These 
gentlemen having had several years' experi- 
ence in Europe, the Conservatory was largely 
modeled on the European conservatory plan, 
the class system being the same as that used in 
the conservatories of Leipsic, Paris, etc. It 
has been successful in elevating the standard 
of musical taste, especially in the city of 
Cleveland, where it has accomplished and is 
still accomplishing an excellent work. Its 
pupils are drawn not only from towns near by, 
but from all parts of the country. The Con- 
servatory remained under the management of 
the original board of directors until the death 
in August, 18S1, of Mr. Heydler, after which it 
was for some time conducted by the remaining 
directors. The present (January, 18S6) di- 
rectors are F. Bassett and Chas. Heydler. 

Cleveland Vocal Society, The, 

Cleveland, Ohio, was organized in 1873, 
with a chorus of 40 voices, which has gradu- 
ally been enlarged to 90 voices. The orches- 
tra consists of about 40 pieces. The Society 
was not incorporated until Sep. 11, 1882. Its 
object, as avowed in the articles of incorpora- 
tion, is the "study, cultivation, and rendition 
of music, and to receive, hold, and apply for 
such uses and purposes any funds or property 
lawfully acquired by the corporation." The 
Cleveland May Festivals of 1880 and 1882 
were held under the auspices of the Society, 
and with the net proceeds ($4000) a perma- 
nent fund was created. It is intended to hold 
another May Festival in 1884, and the forces 
are already at work rehearsing. The chorus 
will be about 300 strong. Three concerts are 
annually given by the Society to its honorary 
members, the first one of which occurred Dec. 
14, 18S2. The number of members is about 
1 15. Alfred Arthur, who was also one of the 
founders, has been the conductor from the first, 
and to his energy and ability much of the suc- 
cess of the Society is due. The officers are as 
follows : T. P. Handy, president ; Oscar J. 
Campbell, vice-president ; Charles A. Cook, 
secretary ; and L. P. Hulburd, librarian ; 
with a boai'd of 17 trustees and various com- 
mittees. Miss M. S. Wright acts as 

dough & Warren, Detroit, Michi. 
GAN. One of the leading American reed-organ 
manufacturing firms. It was founded in 1850 
by Simmons & Clough, who for twenty years 
conducted the business in a quiet way. In 
1870 the present firm was organized, Jesse H. 
Farwell being admitted as special partner. 
Mr. Clough brought with him the experience 
of more than a score of years, while Mr. War- 
ren's executive ability well qualified him for 
the position of general manager of the works. 
Since 1S70, the firm has rapidly come to the 
front and taken its present high position, 
which has been well earned by years of 
patient labor and inventive genius. The repu- 
tation of Clough & Warren is not only national 
but almost world-wide, their instruments being 
known and appreciated in every civilized 
country. The leading quality of their organs 
is the pure, full and correct intonation. An 
ingenious invention used in the larger makes 
is the "patent qualifying tubes," which con- 
sist of tubes of wood of certain fixed propor- 
tions, placed so as to operate in connection with 
the diapason and melodia reeds, each tube hav- 
ing an opening on the upper side at the lower 
end, through which the air (subsequently pass- 
ing through the reeds) enters, and through 
which the sound escapes. The effect is to give 
a fulness and volume to the tone almost 
equal to that produced by pipe organs. 

The firm has large and extensive buildings 
with expensive machinery and everything con- 
veniently arranged. Employment is given to 
150 men, whose monthly wages in the aggre- 
gate amount to about $6000. 

Coleman, Obed M., was born Jan. 23, 
1817, at Barnstable, Mass. It was not until 
he was sixteen years old, after a severe 
illness, that his inventive talents showed 
themselves. While living at New Bedford, 
Mass., he invented an automaton consisting 
of a lady minstrel playing on an accordeon and 
a singing bird. This he disposed of for £800 
and then removed to Saratoga, N. Y. After 
this he made several improvements of the 
accordeon and invented his reolian attachment 
for the piano, which sold in this country for 
#110,000, it is said. He died April 5, 1845, ln 
the prime of life. 

Collection of the Best Psalm 

Tillies. A book of church music compiled 
and published by Josiah Flagg of Boston in 



1764. It was of small, oblong form, containing 
about eighty pages, and engraved in round 
notes, and was the first book printed on paper 
manufactured in the Colonies. The title 
page ran as follows : "A collection of the best 
Psalm Tunes, in two, three and four parts ; 
from the most approved authors, fitted to all 
measures, and approved by the best masters in 
Boston, New England; the greater part of 
them never before printed in America. En- 
graved by Paul Revere ; printed and sold by 
him and Jos. Flagg." In the preface, the 
author says: "The Editor has endeavored, 
according to the best of his judgment, to extract 
the sweets out of a variety of fragrant flowers, 
has taken from every author he has seen, a few 
Tunes," etc. The work contains one 
hundred and sixteen tunes and two anthems. 
Hood, in his " History of Music in New 
England," supposes that some of them were 
by American composers, which may quite 
possibly have been the case. 

College of Music, New York, was 
incorporated under the laws of the State of 
New York, in 187S, and is mainly due to the 
energy and devotion of its present director, 
Mr. Louis Alexander. The building is spe- 
cially adapted for the purposes of the College, 
and there are conveniences for instructing 700 
pupils. Four terms often weeks each (or 30 
lessons) constitute the school year. Beginners 
are admitted upon the same terms as those 
more advanced. Instruction is imparted by a 
corps of about twenty professors, among 
whom are Theodore Thomas (vocal sight- 
reading), Rafael Joseffy (piano), Edward 
Mollenhauer and George Matzka (violin), 
Carl C. Miiller (theory and harmony), and 
George F. Biistow (organ). A series of 
concerts, in which the more advanced pupils 
take part, are given each season, the object 
being the endowment of a Scholai-ship Fund 
for the support of promising but indigent 
students. A "bureau of artists' engagements" 
has also been established, of which profes- 
sional students have the benefit without 
extra charge. Musical degrees are con- 
ferred at the discretion of the director and 
faculty. The officers are at present (May, 
1883) as follows: President, Hon. A. S. 
Sullivan; director, Louis Alexander; sec- 
retary, George W. Clark; treasurer, Otto 

College of Music, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
This College, which was incorporated under 
the laws of the State of Ohio, in 187S, was 
organized, as stated in the act of incorporation, 
"To cultivate a taste for music, and for that 
purpose, to organize a school of instruction 
and practice in all branches of musical educa- 
tion ; the establishment of an orchestra ; the 
giving of concerts ; the production and publi- 
cation of musical works, and such other 
musical enterprises as shall be conducive to 
the ends above mentioned." 

The College is the outgrowth of the May 
Festivals held in Cincinnati, in 1S73 an d l &75> 
and was suggested by Reuben R. Springer, a 
wealthy and influential citizen of that city. 
In 1875, Mr. Springer generously offered to 
give $125,000 toward the erection of a suit- 
able building for a college of music, if the 
people would contribute another #125,000. 
After many difficulties and delays the needed 
amount was raised, and the erection of the 
building commenced. Meanwhile, the musi- 
cal festival association decided to hold their 
third May Festival in 1877, and Mr. Springer, 
in his anxiety to see the building completed in 
time for that event, offered to give an additional 
$20,000, provided the citizens would raise 
$15,000 within 30 days, which was done. The 
building, however, could not be completed, and 
the festival association wisely decided to post- 
pone the festival until the following year 
(1S7S), when it was held in the music hall of 
the building, and was in many respects the 
grandest one that has taken place. 

The main hall of the building is 1 12 feet 
wide by I92 feet long, and will accommodate 
several thousand persons. The stage is 56 by 
112 feet, and furnishes room for a chorus of 
nearly 600 voices. In front of the hall is a 
vestibule 46 by 112 feet, while on each side is 
a corridor, so that ingress or egress can 
easily be effected. Over the vestibule is a 
small hall 46 by 112 feet and 30 feet high. 
There is on each side of the Music Hall 
building, and forming wings thereto, a smaller 
building. These, also largely erected through 
the aid of Mr. Springer, are used for 
industrial exposition purposes. The whole 
mass of buildings has a frontage of 372 feet on 
Elm street and extends back to Plum street 
293 feet, and is of a modernized gothic style of 


The first session of the College began Oct. 
14, 187S. Besides the usual three terms, there 
is a fourth term, held during the summer 
months, for the especial benefit of teachers and 
others who can not attend the other terms. 
Instruction is given in every branch of music 
and the languages, and upon every musical 
instrument. There is an academic depart- 
ment for advanced pupils. Graduates of this 
department receive diplomas. Certificates are 
conferred on such pupils as are enough 
advanced to become teachers in some branch. 
There is a perpetual fund, donated by Mr. 
Springer, the annual income of which is dis- 
tributed in ten gold medals, among such 
pupils as have been in the College one year 
and have superior musical ability. 

The College is under the control of a board 
of Trustees, consisting, at this date (1S85), of 
P. R. Neff, president; W. McAlpin, vice- 
president; W. J. Mitchell, secretary; A. C. 
Edwards, treasurer; A. T. Goshorn, T. D. 
Lincoln, J. Balke, L. Markbreit, L. Anderson, 
I. B. Resor, R. II. Galbreath, P. II. Hart- 
mann, II. S. Fechheimer, W. Worthington. 
The faculty consists of some thirty professors, 
many of whom are eminent specialists and 
have a national reputation. 

College of Musicians, American. 

The preliminary steps regarding the establish- 
ment of the College of Musicians were taken 
at the meeting of the Music Teachers' 
National Association held at Providence, R. I., 
July 4, 5 and 6, 1883, by the adoption of the 
following resolutions, which succinctly and 
forcibly state the principles on which this 
organization was founded : 

Whereas, On the one hand the pernicious 
and debasing influence of the incompetent, ill- 
prepared teacher of music has become a bur- 
den to the long suffering public, and a stumb- 
ling block to the best efforts of the profession ; 

Whereas, It seems eminently proper and 
equitable that some means should be devised 
of substantiating the prior claims of the com- 
petent, well prepared teacher to public and 
professional recognition, it is hereby 

Resolved, That in order first to protect the pub- 
lic from incompetent teachers, and secondly to 
protect the teachers who have made an ade- 
quate preparation, it is the sense of the Music 
Teachers' National Association in convention 
assembled, that it is desirable to provide a sys- 
tem of examination for those desiring to prac- 
tice the profession of teaching ; an examina- 
tion which shall fairly and impartially draw 

the line between the incompetent and com- 

In accordance with the succeeding and 
final resolution of the above series, a commit- 
tee composed of about one hundred and thirty 
representative musicians was formed to in- 
quire into the feasibility of founding an asso- 
ciation for the purpose above expressed, and, 
at a meeting held at Cleveland, July 1, by vir- 
tue of the power vested in them by the M. T. 
N. A., the members of this committee re- 
solved themselves into the charter members of 
an association to be called " The American 
College of Musicians." 

The officiary is as follows : 

President, E. M. Bowman ; First Vice- 
President, H. Clarence Eddy ; Second Vice- 
President, S. B. Whitney ; Secretary and 
Treasurer, A. A. Stanley. 

Board of Directors : W. W. Gilchrist, 
Dr. Louis Maas, W. H. Sherwood, S. E. 
Jacobsohn, Chas. R. Adams, F. Grant Glea- 
son and J. H. Wheeler. 

Board of Examiners : Pianoforte : — 
Wm. H. Sherwood, Dr. Louis Maas, Dr. Wil- 
liam Mason. Rudimentary, (Music Teachers 
for Public Schools) : — Arthur Mees, Julius 
Eichberg, John W. Tufts. Organ :— H. Clar- 
ence Eddy, S. B. Whitney, S. P. Warren. 
Voice: — Mme. Luisa Cappiani, Chas. R. 
Adams, J. H. Wheeler. Orchestral Stringed 
Instruments: — Henry Schradieck, S. E. Jacob- 
sohn, Dr. L. Damrosch. Musical Theory: — 
E. M. Bowman, W. W. Gilchrist, F. Grant 

It was decided to institute three grades of 
examination, and to confer suitable degrees or 
certificates upon such as pass these examina- 

The first grade of examination will call for 
a comprehensive working knowledge of the 
resources of musical art (choral and orches- 
tral), proficiency in musical history and acous- 
tics, together with special powers as a com- 
poser, artist or teacher. Candidates passing 
this examination will receive a diploma and 
degree, Master of Musical Art. 

The second grade of examination will call 
for special powers in the branch followed and 
a working knowledge of harmony and coun- 
terpoint. Analysis of musical forms, musical 
history, principles of acoustics, and the special 
history of the branch engaged in will also 

4 2 


constitute a part of this examination. Candi- 
dates passing the second grade of examinations 
will be awarded a diploma and the degree, 
Fellow of the College of Musicians. 

The third grade of examination will call for 
the special and general preparation need- 
ful for those conducting the earlier studies of 
the musical student. This will involve cor- 
rect technical knowledge of the branch fol- 
lowed, the principles of teaching, rudiments 
of harmony and musical forms, and the out- 
lines of musical history. Candidates passing 
this examination will be awarded a certificate 
of competency, and membership in the College 
of Musicians. 

At the first annual meeting, held at New 
York, June 30, 1885, it was resolved that the 
College of Musicians should become incor- 
porated. Action has since been taken to that 
effect, and the organization has secured a 
charter under the laws of the State of New 
York. Owing to the death of the lamented 
Dr. Leopold Damrosch, Mr. Joseph Mosenthal 
of New York was elected violin examiner, 
and Mr. W. F. Heath was appointed to fill the 
vacancy caused by the resignation of Mr. 
John W. Tufts. With these two exceptions 
the Board of Examiners remains as given 
above, and the Officiary also remains un- 
changed, with the exception of the sec- 
retary-treasurer. Mr. A. A. Stanley having 
resigned, Mr. Robert Bonner, of Providence, 
was elected to serve his unexpired term of 
office. The application for information 
regarding this society conclusively shows the 
great interest taken in this step by the public, 
and we feel confident that it will become an 
honor to the profession. 

Complete Melody. A collection of 

church tunes compiled by Thomas Bailey of 
Newhuryport, Mass., mainly from William 
Tansur's English collection, and published in 
1755. It was in three parts, and seems to have 
met with a very encouraging sale. 

Conn, C. G., Elkhart, Indiana, is one 
of the most noted inventors and manufacturers 
of band instruments. His establishment is one 
of the very largest and most complete in the 
world, and his business has rapidly developed 
from a small beginning. In 1876, Mr. Conn 
invented the "elastic-face" mouthpiece, which 
met with a great demand. With a sagacity 
characteristic of Americans, he foresaw the 

opportunity which the manufacture of band 
instruments offered, and accordingly began a 
series of experiments in a small shop, employ- 
ing only three men. The remarkable success 
with which he met soon compelled him to 
build a large factory. This was destroyed by 
fire, January 31, 1883, with all its contents. 
The loss of the tools, patterns and machinery, 
which it had taken him years to perfect and 
complete, was a severe blow to Mr. Conn. 
With undaunted energy, however, he imme- 
diately rebuilt and was soon running again as 
before. All parts of the instruments are made 
and finished at the factory. Upwards of 130 
skilled workmen are employed. Mr. Conn's 
instruments are noted for a rich, powerful and 
sympathetic tone, freedom of action, correct 
intonation, both the open and valve tones 
being the same in quality and quantity, and 
ease with which they are blown. An impor- 
tant feature of his system is the tuning of in- 
struments in sets, thus insuring, as far as pos- 
sible, an ensemble which is perfect. In con- 
nection with the band instrument business, he 
publishes and keeps for sale all the latest and 
best band music. His activity and energy are 
ceaseless and constantly directed toward the 
improvement of his instruments. He is also 
manager of the local daily paper, and takes a 
prominent part in the affairs of the town. 

Conventions, Musical. Musical con- 
ventions are purely American in origin. Ac- 
cording to John W. Moore's " Encyclopaxiia 
of Music," in 1829 the idea of a musical con- 
vention was first suggested to the members of 
the New Hampshire Central Musical Society, 
at its session at Goffstown, and one was ap- 
pointed to be held at Concord in the following 
September. It continued for two days. In 
1830, another one was held at Pembroke, and 
in 1831, a third one at Goffstown. They all 
were under the direction of Mr. Henry 
E. Moore. In 1836, a convention was 
held in Boston, under the auspices of 
the Boston Academy of Music, and was 
conducted by Lowell Mason and George 
J. Webb. For nearly fifteen years an annual 
one was held at Boston. In 1842 or 1S43, 
after the Boston session, the teachers went to 
Rochester. This was the first one held out- 
side of Boston, except those already men- 
tioned. Conventions grew in public favor and 
soon began to be held in other places. Those 



who first became popular in the work were Dr. 
George F. Root, Wm. B. Bradbury, Isaac B. 
Woodbury, Thomas Hastings, and Benj. F. 
Baker. Of these, all but the first and last 
named are dead. Among the leading conven- 
tion conductors of the present time are Dr. 
Root, Dr. H. R. Palmer, L. O. Emerson, 
W. O. and H. S. Perkins, and several others. 

The aim of conventions is both social enjoy- 
ment and musical advancement, the latter 
always being paramount. The program 
generally consists of exercises in notation and 
reading at sight, the practice of glees, 
choruses, anthems, etc., interspersed with 
remarks, explanations and short lectures by the 
conductor. Individual performances by the 
members are always in order. A convention 
ordinarily lasts four days, commencing on 
Tuesday and ending on Friday. Three 
sessions are held each day; morning, afternoon 
and evening, making twelve in all, each one 
about two hours in duration. All those attend- 
ing a convention from a distance are either en- 
tertained free at private houses or given the 
benefit of board at greatly reduced rates. The 
remuneration of a first-class conductor is gen- 
erally $125 and expenses. 

Musical conventions are well calculated to 
awaken a love and. enthusiasm for music, and 
undoubtedly have been instrumental in pro- 
moting the progress of the art in this country. 
See Institutes of Music, Normal. 

Converse, Charles Crozat, was born 
Oct. 7, 1834, at Warren, Mass. While he was 
yet young his parents removed to New York 
State, and he received a good education at the 
Elmira Academy. He had a great love for 
music, and desire for a better musical educa- 
tion led him to go to Germany, in 1855, where 
he was a pupil at the Leipsic Conservatorium, 
studying under Hauptmann and Richter, and 
Haupt at Berlin. While in Germany he 
wrote several compositions which were highly 
commended by the best musicians. In 1857 
he returned home and was shortly after mar- 
ried. Notwithstanding his musical talents he 
decided to pursue law as a profession, and with 
that end in view entered the law department 
of the University of Albany, from which he 
graduaded as LL.B., in 1861. For some 
time thereafter he pursued his calling in the 
West, then removed to Brooklyn, and finally 
to Erie, Pa., about 1875, where he is still 

located and where he is a partner in the 
Burdette Organ Co. He has written some 
large orchestral works, but is best known per- 
haps by his hymn tunes, "What a Friend we 
have in Jesus " having been sung all over the 
world. Many of his pieces appear under the 
name of " Karl Redan." 

Coronation. One of the most popular 
church tunes ever composed. It was written 
by Oliver Holden (born 1765; died 1834), a 
resident of Charlestown, and was probably 
first published in his American Harmony, 
which appeared in 1792. It is generally sung 
to the hymn beginning "All hail the power 
of Jesus' name." 

Courtney, William, was bom Dec. 7, 
1844, at Monmouthshire, England. He early 
manifested a great love for music, and pos- 
sessed a high soprano voice of great purity 
and fulness, which made his services often 
called for as a chorister boy. His voice 
changing into a beautiful tenor, he in 1869 
went to London, where he placed himself 
under the care of Mr. Frank, husband of 
Louisa Pyne. He made such rapid progress 
that in the ensuing winter he was engaged by 
Madam Pyne as first tenor during her tour in 
Scotland and the English provinces. Return- 
ing to London, he sang for some time in con- 
certs and oratorios and afterwards in the 
opera, having been engaged for two seasons 
at the English Opera, Crystal Palace. He 
was the original Dcpcndan in Sullivan's 
"Trial by Jury," and created the tenor rSle in 
Cellier's " Nell Gwyne," Gallwick's "Don- 
na Constanza," and several other operas. 

In 1878, Mr. Courtney met and married, in 
London, Madam Louise-Gage, an American 
vocalist, and soon after proceeded with her to 
Italy, where he studied a year under Vannu- 
cini at Florence. He then came to this coun- 
try and soon became well known. He has 
filled various festival engagements in Boston, 
Pittsburg, and NewYork, under Dr. Damrosch, 
and sung in "Messiah," "Judas Maccabreus," 
"Solomon," "Last Judgment," "Mount of 
Olives," and other oratorios, at the Handel 
and Haydn Society's concerts in Boston. 
He has also sang in oratorio and other en- 
gagements in the principal cities of the coun- 
try. His success as a teacher leads him to 
devote much of his time to that branch of the 



CrailCll, Emma. This singer is a native 
of Cincinnati, Ohio, and took her first vocal 
lessons from Mrs. Emma R. Dexter, to whom 
belongs the credit of having laid the founda- 
tion of that finished method which she subse- 
quently acquired. After leaving Mrs. Dexter, 
she studied alone one year, and then went to 
Milan, where, for eight months, she took les- 
sons from San Giovanni. Thence she went to 
Paris, where she studied with Signor Brignoli, 
the tenor; thence to London, where for a 
short time she was a pupil of Mrs. McFarren, 
wife of the English composer, George W. 
McFarren. Returning home, she was engaged 
by Mr. Thomas to travel as soloist with his 
orchestra, and for the purpose of studying her 
concert selections thoroughly, she went to 
New York and placed herself under the tuition 
of Signor Errani. She made the concert tours 
with the orchestra for eight months, part of 
which time she sang seven times a week. In 
May, 1875, she sang at the second of the Cin- 
cinnati May Festivals. She has been since 
that time one of the soloists at all our larger 
concerts and festivals, including the festival of 
1878, and the Sa;ngerfest of the North Ameri- 
can Srcngerbund, in 1879. She went east in 
1876 and for a year was the alto soloist in the 
choir of Plymouth Church, Brooklyn. When 
the College of Music was established, she was 
engaged as one of the teachers of singing, 
her methods of instruction proving very suc- 
cessful. She severed her connection with the 
College about a year ago, and since that time 
has been giving vocal instruction at the Cin- 
cinnati Musical School. She sang at the 
Messiah performance of 1SS0, and at present 
belongs to the quartet of the Unitarian church 
of Cincinnati. * * * 

Crouch, Frederick Nicholls, an Eng- 
lish composer, was born July 31, 1808, at Lon- 
don. When nine years old he was able to 

play the bass in the orchestra of the Royal Co- 
burg Theatre, and finally became attached to 
Her Majesty's Theatre as violoncellist. Un- 
der the patronage of George IV, he entered the 
Royal Academy of Music upon its establish- 
ment in 1822, and after his graduation secured 
the post of principal violoncellist at Drury 
Lane. For many years he was contributor of 
musical articles and reviews to various publi- 
cations, and composed besides songs, among 
which is the celebrated Kathleen Mavour- 
NEEN, two operas, "The Fifth of November" 
and "Sir Roger de Coverly." In 1849 he came 
to the United States with Max Maretzek, and 
after the disbandment of the company went to 
Maine, residing for a number of years at Port- 
land. From there he removed to Philadelphia, 
and thence to Washington, where he was for 
some time organist of St. Matthew's church. 
At the outbreak of the war he was residing at 
Richmond, and was one of the first to enlist, 
serving in the Richmond Grays and the Rich- 
mend Howitzers. Soon after its close he set- 
tled in Baltimore, where he is still (June, 
18S4) residing at an advanced age. He has 
been out of employment for some time, and is 
now in destitute circumstances, greatly need- 
ing help. He has written an autobiography, 
which, could it be published, would undoubted- 
ly be an interesting addition to our musical 

Cutler, Dr. Henry Stephen, was born 
Oct. 7, 1825, at Boston, where he was organ- 
ist for some time. He then became organist 
of Trinity Church, New York, and subse- 
quently of St. Ann's, Brooklyn, a position 
which he still holds. He has written numer- 
ous compositions for the church, among which 
are a number of anthems, issued in book form 
under the title of "Trinity Anthems " (1S66). 
The "Trinity Psalter" (1863) was issued 
under his editorship. 


Damrosch, Dr. Leopold, . well-known 
as one of America's most able conductors, was 
born at Po:»en, Prussia, October 22, 1832, and 
was therefore in his fifty-third year. From his 
father, a merchant and a man of considerable 
culture, he undoubtedly inherited many of his 
line tastes, that for music predominating over 
everything else. The displays of what was 
destined to be the ruling passion of bis life 
began at the earliest age, and were probably 
not displeasing to his parents, but the thought 
of his becoming a professional musician was a 
repugnant one. At the age of nine years he 
regularly commenced the study of the violin 
unknown to them, practicing at the houses of 
friends. In deference to their wishes, after 
completing the usual course at the gymnasium, 
he entered the University at Berlin for the 
study of medicine, graduating with high hon- 
ors as medicina doctor, after three years of close 
application. During all this time every leis- 
ure moment was devoted to music. Concert- 
meister Ries was his instructor in violin play- 
ing, and Dehn and Bohmer taught him theory 
and composition. Under them he acquired 
the foundation of that broad, deep culture 
which has ever characterized him. 

Having complied with the desires of his par- 
ents, he felt at liberty to pursue his own in- 
clinations, and appeared as solo violinist in 
various German cities. Such was his success 
that his reputation soon became a national one. 
Liszt was then in the height of his powers and 
had made Weimar a sort of Mecca to musical 
pilgrims. Thither in 1S55 he directed his 
steps. The master was much pleased with his 
playing, and gave him the position of solo 
violinist in the Grand Duke's orchestra, a post 
which he very acceptably filled for some 
eighteen months. This period brought him 
into contact with many of the first musicians of 
the day, and was fruitful in inspirations and 
lasting impressions. The friendships thus 
formed have only been broken by death. 
That of Liszt was of the warmest character, 
and in token thereof the great pianist dedicated 
to him the second of his symphonic poems, 

"Tasso." A similar compliment is said to 
have been conferred on only two other persons 
— Wagner and Berlioz. Wagner's friendship 
was not less sincere. The last token of 
esteem which he received from that master- 
composer was the famous finale to the first act 
of "Parsifal," in manuscript, which arrived 
only a short time before the latter's death. 
Still dearer memories must have bound him to 
Weimar, for it was there that he met and mar- 
ried his wife, a lady of considerable culture 
and musical attainments. 

After leaving Weimar, Dr. Damrosch went 
to Breslau. It was there that he made his 
dibut as a conductor at the Philharmonic con- 
certs. He continued in that capacity about a 
year, and then resigned it only to make a con- 
cert tour with von Billow and Tausig. In 1861 
he returned and organized a symphony society 
with an orchestra of eighty players. Twelve 
concerts were given each season, and the fame 
of them spread over all Europe. Nearly all 
the celebrated artists of the day appeared at 
them, among whom were RubensFein, von 
Billow, Tausig, Joachim, and Madame Viar- 
dot-Garcia. Both Liszt and Wagner personally 
assumed the baton on various occasions. His 
labors, however, were not confined to the so- 
ciety of which he was conductor, but extended 
into various other fields. 

Actuated in part, perhaps, by a desire to 
visit the United States, Dr. Damrosch in 1871 
accepted a call from the Arion Society (a male 
chorus), of New York, to become its conduc- 
tor. His first public appearance in this coun- 
try was at Steinway Hall, May 6th of that 
year, in the triple character of conductor, com- 
poser, and violinist. He met with an enthu- 
siastic reception, which must have been more 
than ordinarily gratifying to the stranger in a 
strange land. In 1S73 he organized the Orato- 
rio Society of New York with only twelve 
members. It was not until the third concert 
that the Society became anything like an as- 
sured fact, lie organized in 1878 a second 
society, the Symphony Society of New York, 
the orchestra of which has become so noted. 


These societies, with the Philharmonic, are 
the representative ones of the metropolis. 
The success of both, which have from the first 
been under his direction, is due in a large 
measure to his energy, ability, and wisdom. 
It was as their conductor that he was instru- 
mental in first bringing before the public here 
many important works, of which may be men- 
tioned Berlioz's " La Damnation de Faust ' 
(entire) and "Grande Messe des Morts " (re 
quiem) ; Wagner's "Siegfried" and "Gotter 
dammerung;" Rubenstein's "Tower of 
Babel;" Bruch's Symphony, No. 2; and 
Saint-Saen's Symphony, No. 2, in A Minor. 

In 1SS0, Dr. Damrosch was honored with 
the degree of Doctor of Music by Columbia 
College, New York. In 18S2 he had charge 
of the music at the New York May Festival. 
Its successful organization and termination was 
mostly due to his untiring efforts, and displayed 
to an unusual degree his faculty for organizing 
and controling musical forces. In the fall of 
1SS2 he made a tour of the principal West- 
ern cities with his orchestra, consisting of fifty- 
live trained instrumentalists. Mile. Isadora- 
Martinez was vocal soloist. Notwithstanding 
the difficulties which beset such an under- 
taking it was successfully accomplished. The 
program^ were varied, but of high order. 
From this time up to his death he conducted 
various festivals in different parts of the coun- 
try, besides attending to the regular work of his 
two societies. Last August he was tendered, 
and accepted, the position of conductor and 
impresario at the Metropolitan Opera House. 
and the same month he departed for Europe to 
engage a company. His labors were indeed 
multifarious and constantly increasing. His 
one great ambition to see German opera a suc- 
cess in New York was realized. 

( )n Monday evening, February 9th, 1SS5, Dr. 
Damrosch conducted a performance of " Lo- 
hengrin " at the Metropolitan Opera House. 
He then appeared to be in his usual health and 
no one dreamed of the end being so near. The 
next evening he undertook to direct a rehear- 
sal of the Oratorio Society in the Young Men's 
I Ihristian Association building. In the middle 
of tie performance he was taken with a chill, 
and was compelled to lay down the baton. He 
was conveyed to his residence, No. 160 East 
Forty-sixth Street, and medical aid summoned. 
Next morning the physicians decided that it 

was a case of pneumonia, but even then no seri- 
ous alarm was felt. At eight o'clock Sunday 
morning, the 15th, a sudden change for the 
worse occurred, and it soon became evident 
that he was dying. About two o'clock he sank 
into a sleep, and in fifteen minutes passed 
peacefully away without awaking. He leaves 
a family of five children, all of whom, except- 
ing the oldest son, who is organist of Ply- 
mouth Church, Brooklyn, were present at the 
time of his death. The youngest member of 
the family is a daughter of sixteen. The fun- 
eral service was held at the Metropolitan 
Opera House on the Wednesday afternoon fol- 
lowing his death. An immense concourse of 
people made the occasion a very solemn one. 
Friends and strangers alike sadly paid their 
last respects. Siegfried's funeral march from 
" Gotterdammerung " and several selections 
from oratorios were rendered. 

The secret of Dr. Damrosch's success as a 
conductor lay not only in the precision and 
surety with which he wielded the baton, but 
also in the fine artistic conception and feel- 
ing with which he interpreted the work 
under consideration, and the faculty he had 
of imparting this feeling to his forces. Some 
conductors are coldly perfect, but in his con- 
ducting the artist-musician could at once be 
recognized. Though his reputation is mainly 
that of a conductor, he was far from being 
unknown both as a violinist and a composer. 
His attachment for and study of the violin have 
previously been touched upon, and it will suf- 
fice to add here that though hardly to be con- 
sidered a virtuoso in the sense of being a phe- 
nomenal performer, he exquisitely played that 
instrument. So much of his time was taken up 
by other duties that his compositions are nof 
mimerous. They consist of a biblical idyl or 
cantata, "Ruth and Naomi;" a festival over- 
ture and other orchestral pieces ; various 
pieces for the violin, among which is a con- 
certo ; a collection of church music, "St. 
Cecelia;" a number of male choruses, and 
some songs. 

Dr. Damrosch's fine qualities as a musician 
were well supplemented by those of a gentle- 
man. His kindly nature at once put you at 
ease in his society. He was well read in lit- 
erature, art, and science, and an excellent con- 
versationalist. Among America's musicians 
none stood higher and few have done more for 



the advancement of the art. To all human 
knowledge he seemed destined for long years 
of usefulness yet. Death has removed a stai of 
the first magnitude from the musical firmament, 
whose place will not be easily filled. The 
name of Dr. Leopold Damrosch will live long 
in memory and occupy an imperishable place 
in history. 

Daniel, John, one of the oldest music 
teachers in America at the time of his death, 
was born in 1803, at Aberdeen, Scotland. 
His music lessons were commenced in the 
house in which Lord Byron was born, and with 
this poet as well as with Burns he became 
well acquainted. In 1S40 he came to the 
United States and settled at New York, where 
he was highly esteemed as a teacher of vocal 
and instrumental music, numbering among his 
pupils many of the wealthier classes. His 
compositions are numerous and in almost every 
form. He died in New York, June 21, 1S81. 

Daniel. 1. — A sacred cantata written by 
Dr. Geo. F. Root, assisted by C. M. Cady and 
W. B. Bradbury. First produced in New 
York City, in 1853. 

2. An oratorio by George F. Bristow, first 
produced at Steinway Hall, New York, Dec. 
30, 1S67, by the Mendelssohn Union, with 
Mme. Parepa-Rosa as chief vocalist. It is 
one of Mr. Bristow's greatest works. 

DailkS, Hart P. This well-known and 
very successful song composer was born 
April 6, 1834, at New Haven, Conn. When 
he was eight years old his parents removed 
to Saratoga, N. Y. At an early age he showed 
the true bent of his nature, and was placed 
under the care of Dr. L. E. Whiting of Sara- 
toga, who was an excellent amateur musician 
as well as a physician. His progress was so 
rapid that he was soon admitted to the choir of 
the First Presbyterian church over which Dr. 
Whiting presided. Some time after he accept- 
ed a similar position in the choir of the M. E. 
Church, About 1850 his parents removed 
again, this time to Chicago, where he was 
engaged as bass at the Clark street M. E. 
Church, his voice having changed. Soon 
after removing to Chicago he began to try tys 
hand at composing, but his father, who had no 
idea of his following music as a profession, 
looked upon all this as foolishness, and put 
the young man to work at his own trade, that 
of a builder. 

It was about this time that William B. 
Bradbury, then in the hight of his career, held 
a convention in the city, which young Danks 
attended. Plucking up courage he presented 
to that excellent musician a copy of his first 
hymn-tune, with a request that it be exam- 
ined. Mr. Bradbury was so much pleased 
with it that he inserted it in his next book, the 
"Jubilee," under the name of " Lake Street." 
This decided Mr. Dank's future course, and he 
devoted himself to study and composition. 
His first song, "The Old Lane," was pub- 
lished by Higgins Brothers of Chicago, in 
1856. It was followed in the same year by 
his second song, " Anna Lee," published by 
Ditson & Co. of Boston. In 1S5S he married 
Miss Hattie R. Colahan of Cleveland, Ohio, 
making that city his residence until 1861, 
when he returned to Chicago, where, how- 
ever, he remained only three years. At the 
expiration of that time he removed to New 
York City, where he has since resided. 

Mr. Danks does not aspire to be ranked as a 
classical musician, but his music is of fair 
order, flowingly written, and well appreciated 
by the masses. Among his most popular 
songs are "Let the Angels in," "Roses un- 
derneath the Snow," " Nobody's Darling but 
Mine," " You are always young to me," "Lit- 
tle Bright-eyes, will you miss me," "Angel of 
Beauty," "Fly Back, O Years," etc. The 
most popular of all, however, was "Silver 
Threads Among the Gold," published in 1872, 
which sold to the extent of over 300,000 copies 
in this country alone, to say nothing of Eng- 
land. "Don't be angry with me, Darling," 
though published two years earlier, achieved a 
success almost as great. For six or seven 
years Mr. Danks has, under contract, furnished 
an English music publishing firm in London 
with songs. Though so successful as a song 
composer he has composed much church 
music, and edited several collections of an- 
thems, etc. Among his works is also the 
operetta, "Pauline." Mr. Danks is still in 
the prime of life and his pen ever busy. 

Decker Brothers, New York City. 
This firm of American piano manufacturers 
was established in 1862, by two brothers, 
David and John Jacob Decker. Both were 
thoroughly conversant with the business, 
having worked for years in the best manu- 
factories of this country previous to setting up 



on their own hook. Their first attempt at 
piano making was on a small scale, the 
money saved by steady industry and economy 
while working for others being their only 
capital. This was sufficient to manufacture a 
few square pianos, which were made in the 
best manner. The aim of Messrs. Decker 
Brothers at first was the production of a few 
pianos for retail trade in New York and 
vicinity, but these meeting with a very 
favorable reception, the present large 
business of the firm was rapidly developed. 

The youngest of the brothers, John Jacob 
Decker, is an expert in judging of the 
quality of piano materials. Early in life he 
was employed by Messrs. Raven & Bacon as 
superintendent of their manufactory. He 
had held this position scarcely three months 
when he was admitted into the firm as a part- 
ner. Here he continued eight years, when 
he withdrew to establish, in partnership with 
his brother, their present business. 

Messrs. Decker Brothers, constantly aim- 
ing for improvement, have invented and 
patented several improvements, whereby the 
tone and finish of their pianos is materially 
bettered. Probably the most important one 
is the improved construction of the full iron 
plate, whereby the necessity of placing the 
string bearings on the plate is obviated. 
Thus a better and purer tone is secured. 
The strings are also hitched to the pins 
close to the wrest-plank. 

As a proof of the high esteem in which 
the Decker Brothers' pianos are held, it may 
be stated that in the short space of twenty 
years their business has increased from almost 
nothing to the present large proportions, so 
that now they have a manufactory equal in 
point of size and convenience to the manufac- 
tories of many much older firms. To their 
already well-established reputation they are 
constantly adding by their improved methods 
of piano making. 

Decker & Son. A firm of piano 

manufacturers, located in New York City, and 
founded in 1856, by the present senior member 
of the firm, Myron A. Decker. In that year he 
commenced business in Albany, N. Y., and in 
1858 received an award of merit for his pianos 
at the state fair held at Syracuse. Not liking 
Albany, he removed to New York City, in 
1S60. There he continued in business alone 

until the year 1865, his pianos being known as 
the Decker piano. In the last mentioned year, 
he associated himself with a partner. The 
partnership did not last long, however, and in 
186S the business was closed up. Nothing 
daunted by one failure, Mr. Decker started 
anew in the business, and in 1871 associated 
himself in partnership with a gentleman by the 
name of Barnes. Their pianos became known 
as the Decker & Barnes. The partnership 
proved mutually agreeable, and lasted until 
the winter of 1877, when Mr. Barnes lost his 
wife, and his health being poor he withdrew 
fi-om the firm, leaving Mr. Decker alone. 
Mr. Decker continued the business alone until 
July, 1878, when he associated his son with 
himself, and the firm became Decker & Son. 
Their pianos now became known by that name, 
which they still bear. 

D engremont Maurice, born in 1865, 
in Rio Janerio, Brazil, exhibited a wonderful 
precocity for the violin when a mere infant. 
He has already made several concert tours 
both in this country and Europe, astonishing 
everyone by his phenomenal powers of per- 
formance. His gifts and acquirements would 
seem to indicate that he is to be one of the 
most eminent of future violinists. 

Dictionaries ol'Mnsic, American. 

The number of American encyclopaedias or 
dictionaries is very small. The largest and 
most important one is " Complete Encyclopae- 
dia of Music," by John W. Moore, 1 vol. 8 vo. 
of over 1000 pages ; Boston, O. Ditson & Co., 
1854. Much valuable matter is contained in 
the work, but it is somewhat inaccurate as re- 
gards the biographies of foreign musicians. 
The number of topics treated is large. So 
rapid, however, has been the progress of musi- 
cal affairs, especially in this country, since the 
book was first published (some 30 years) that 
it is now considerably out of date. Were it re- 
vised and corrected to the present time, it 
would be a very valuable work indeed, and 
we understand that Mr. Moore has (1884) un- 
dertaken that task. He has in the meantime 
edited a " Dictionary of Musical Information," 
Boston, O. Ditson & Co., 1876, which is a neat 
little work. An exceedingly handy little dic- 
tionary is " Ludden's Pronouncing Dictionary 
of Musical Terms," 12 mo., New York, J. L. 
Peters, 1875, which contains nearly all musi- 
cal terms from the principal languages, with 



their pronunciation and a short definition. A 
still more recent and a commendable little 
book is " Mathews' Dictionary of Music and 
Musicians," by W. S. B. Mathews, published 
by the author at Chicago, 111., in i vol. Svo., 

Ditson, Oliver, well-known as the foun- 
der and senior member of the music-publishing 
firm bearing his name, was born in 1812, and 
when twelve years of age entered the store of 
Samuel II. Parker, bookseller and stationer, 
as clerk. In 1834 he became one of the pro- 
prietors, under the firm name of Parker & 
Ditson, and .in 1844 so ^ e proprietor, Mr. 
Parker withdrawing. The publication of 
sheet music and music books was commenced 
in 1834. From almost nothing, under the 
care of Mr. Ditson, the business has increased 
to its present colossal proportions, always 
keeping abreast of the times. The firm consists 
of Oliver Ditson, John C. Haynes, and Charles 
II. Ditson. The senior member, though well 
advanced in years, is still active and exercises 
a general supervision of affairs. 

Ditson, Oliver & Co., Boston, Mass. 
This, with its branches, is one of the largest 
music-publishing houses in the United States, 
as well as in the world. It is also, with per- 
haps one exception, the oldest American house 
now doing business. Samuel H. Parker, 
bookseller and stationer, who kept a store in 
Boston, commenced selling music about the 
year 1820. In 1824 there entered his store 
as clerk a young man by the name of Oliver 
Ditson. Ten years later, or in 1834, he was 
admitted into partnership with Mr. Parker, 
and the firm became Parker & Ditson. 
The publication of sheet music, music books, 
etc., was now commenced, and from this time 
dates the foundation of the present house of 
Oliver Ditson & Co. 

The firm continued as Parker & Ditson 
until 1844, when Mr. Parker withdrew. It 
now became simply Oliver Ditson, who was 
left alone, and who conducted the growing 
business with marked ability and success. 
He continued alone until 1856, when he ad- 
mitted into partnership John C. Haynes, who 
had been in his employment from boyhood, 
and the firm became Oliver Ditson & Co., 
Ihe present name of the house. 

This is a brief history of the parent house. 
But Messrs. O. Ditson &Co., to accommodate 

their large business in various parts of the 
country, have established several branch 
houses. In 1867, they established C. H. 
Ditson & Co. in business in New York City, 
by the purchase of the catalogue and stock of 
Firth, Son & Co. Mr. Firth was formerly 
the senior partner of the firm of Firth, Hall & 
Pond, and later, Firth, Pond & Co (See POND, 
Wm. A. & Co.) In 1876, they established in 
business J. E. Ditson & Co., in Philadelphia, 
by the purchase of the publications and stock 
of Lee & Walker. Lyon & Healy, Chicago, 
were also established in business by them 
about the year 1865. Some years ago, C. H. 
Ditson & Co., New York, purchased the cata- 
logue and publications of J. L. Peters, of that 
city. Thus it will be seen that Ditson & Co. 
have gradually absorbed several other smaller 
music-publishing firms. 

Messrs. Ditson & Co. largely publish both 
foreign and American music of all kinds. 
Their catalogue embraces a list of over So,ooo 
different pieces of sheet music, and more than 
2000 music books, among which are the lives 
of all the great masters, works on the art and 
science of music, dictionaries, encyclopaedias, 
etc. They deserve credit for rendering avail- 
able to American readers many foreign works 
on music. They are the agents in this coun- 
try for the English publications of Novello, 
Ewer & Co. 

Doctor of Alcantara, The. An 

opera in two acts, by Julius Eichberg. Libretto 
by Benjamin E. Woolf. First produced at the 
Boston Museum, April 7, 1S62. Its success was 
something remarkable. It has been sung in 
every part of the country, but still retains its 

DobSOIl, GEORGE C, was born at Wil- 
liamsburg, N. Y., in April, 1842. From boy- 
hood he evidenced a great liking for the banjo, 
on which he has become an unrivaled per- 
former. He has appeared at concerts in the 
principal cities of the country and has done 
much to popularize an instrument which had 
not been looked upon with much favor. He 
resides at Boston, where he owns and person- 
ally conducts a banjo manufactory. His num- 
erous instruction books for the banjo are the 
best of their kind and the result of many years' 
experience as a teacher. 

Dressel, Otto, was born in 1826, at An- 
dernach-on-the-Rhine, and after acquiring a 



good fundamental knowledge of music placed 
himself under Hiller at Cologne and then un- 
der Mendelssohn at Leipzig. In the autumn 
of 1S52 he came to Boston, where he has ever 
since resided. His life has been an unevent- 
ful one, and perhaps his name is not so well 
known outside of Boston as that of many other 
musicians, but he has exercised a powerful in- 
fluence for good on the musical tastes of that 
city, and to him is largely due the leading 
place which it now occupies. He is a highly 
refined and cultivated musician, and fully ac- 
quainted with the works of Mendelssohn, 
Schumann, Bach, Chopin, Beethoven, and 
other masters. He was the intimate friend of 
Robert Franz, and introduced the songs of that 
composer in this country. His own composi- 
tions consist of songs, piano pieces, quartets, 
etc., all of which bear the impress of a finished 

Dwight, ' John Sullivan, one of the 
most widely known and oldest musical writers 
in America, was born May 13, 1813, at Boston, 
Mass. At an early age his love of music 
manifested itself. Having completed an ele- 
mentary education at the public schools, he 
entered Harvard University, studying dilli- 
gently and graduating therefrom in 1832. 
While at the University he was a member of a 
musical society formed of students and called 
Pierian Sodality, which afterwards developed 
into the Harvard Musical Association. 
•During this time he practiced on the clarinet, 
but finding the exertion too great, relinquished 
it for the flute. He also made the acquaint- 
ance of several of the works of Beethoven and 
Mozart by gradually picking out their beauties 
himself. After having graduated from the 
University he entered the school of divinity 
and studied for the ministry. Upon complet- 
ing the theological course he was ordained as 
pastor of the Unitarian church at Northamp- 
ton, Mass. The ministry, however, did not 
seem to be his sphere, and he left it after a few 
years to devote himself entirely to literary pur- 
suits. It was about this time that he began to 
make himself known as a writer on various 
musical subjects. 

Mr. Dwight was one of the founders of the 
Brook's Farm community, where he remained 
during the six years that the community flour- 
ished, contributing meanwhile to the Dial and 
the Christian Examiner, and striving in various 

ways to advance the cause ot music. In the 
organization of the Harvard Musical Associa- 
tion, which occurred Aug. 30, 1837, he took a 
prominent part, and much is due to his wise 
counsels and suggestions. The Association 
grew rapidly and its headquarters were soon 
removed to Boston. At its annual dinners 
have been originated, discussed, and set on 
loot many important musical schemes, among 
them the building of the Music Hall and the 
series of symphony concerts. The first number 
of Dwight's Journal of Music, which has 
rendered its founder's name so familiar, was 
issued April 10, 1852. Its aim was solely the 
advancement of the art, and it was for a long 
time the only paper of its kind ; in fact, it has 
always occupied a rather unique position. No 
better person than Mr. Dwight could have been 
selected for its editor, the great mass of whose 
valuable musical writings is to be found in it. 
For twelve or fifteen years it was published as 
a weekly and then changed to a bi-weekly. 
In 1S81 it ceased to exist. 

Mr. Dwight was probably the earliest musi- 
cal writer in this country who can really lie 
called such. His articles were always well 
written and to the point, and though on ac- 
count of their high standard they often ran 
counter to the public taste, they carried with 
them a weight whicli compelled attention. 
When he commenced writing the appreciation 
of music was at a very low ebb. How much 
influence his pen has had in bringing about the 
present high state of musical culture in Boston, 
and thus to a greater or lesser extent that of 
the whole country, it would be impossible to 
fully ascertain, though very great. Whatever 
the public standard has been he has never 
lowered his own ideals, and it seems quite 
likely that, contrary to the case of most re- 
formers, he will live to see them fulfilled. 
Besides his musical articles, he has written 
considerable on other subjects, and is the com- 
piler of a collection of excellent translations "t 
select minor poems from Goethe and Schiller, 
which forms one of the series of Ripley's 
" Specimens of Standard Foreign Literature." 

Mr. Dwight is unmarried, having lost his 
wife many years ago. He lives in one of the 
Harvard Musical Association's rooms, and has 
charge of its library. It is plainly but com- 
fortably furnished. Over the lire-place hangs 
an original painting of Gluck, made by Du- 



plessis of Paris, and over a mantel a framed 
autograph letter of Beethoven, while in the 
middle of the room stands a grand piano. 
Here he spends many quiet hours, which he 
has fairly earned. As a token of the esteem in 
which he is held, he was tendered a henefit 
concert, Dec. 9, 18S0, which was the most 
successful affair of the season and realized sev- 
eral thousand dollars. 

Dtv ight's Journal of Music, Bos 
TON, Mass., edited by John S. Dwight, was for 
a long time one of the leading musical journals 
of America. It was established by Mr. 

Dwight in 1852. Although Mr. Dwight is not 
a professional musician, his writings on music 
have exercised a powerful influence, and al- 
ways on the side of truth and nobility. 
Through the columns of his journal he has al- 
ways sought to advance the art. For six year 
he was editor, proprietor and publisher, when 
the publication was assumed by O. Ditson & 
Co. It was changed from a weekly to a fort- 
nightly during the war. After an active and 
useful life of nearly 30 years, it ceased to 
exist in 1S81. 


Eddy, Hiram Clarence, one of Ameri- 
ca's best organists, was born June 23, 1851, at 
Greenfield, Mass., and consequently is still a 
comparatively young man. From his earliest 
youth, however, he has devoted himself as- 
siduously to music. He studied for some time 
with Dudley Buck, and in 1872 or 1S73 went to 
Germany, where he placed himself under the 
direction of Haupt, at Berlin, with whom he 
remained two years. While at Berlin he was 
called upon to play at a court concert, and 
rendered Bach's Fantasia in C and Merkel's 
sonata in G minor in a manner to call forth 
hearty praise from the critics. He also made 
a tour through Germany, Austria, and Switz- 
erland, meeting with great applause every- 
where. On his way home he played with 
equal success in Holland, Belgium, France, 
and England, and made it a point to test all the 
great organs. 

In 1S75 he returned to his native country 
and located at Chicago, where he became di- 
rector of the Hershey Music School, marrying 
its founder, Mrs. Sara B. Hershey, in 1879. 
He has regularly given organ recitals, complet- 
ing in June, 1879, the 100th of the series, 
without repeating a single number. Besides 
these he has given recitals in many of the 
principal cities and towns of the country, 
uniformly with success. In addition to his 
duties as director of the Hershey School, he is 
at present (June, 1883) organist of the First 
Presbyterian Church, Chicago. 

Mr. Eddy has a wonderful command of his 
instrument, and plays with an ease and grace 
that charms the hearer. His programs include 
classical and romantic music cf every kind, 
and he seems equally skilled in rendering 
either. As a key to his wonderful power of 
playing it may be stated that while in Germany 
he for several months made it a point to play 
the six organ sonatas of Bach every day in ad- 
dition to his regular studies. After one 
month's careful study he was enabled to master 
Thiele's " Theme and Variations in C," 
which he played before Haupt. His own 
compositions consist of canons, preludes and 

fugues, and some other organ music, all of high 
order. He translated and produced in this 
country Haupt's "Theory of Counterpoint 
and Fugue." 

Edwin and Angelina. One of the 

early American attempts at operas. * The 
libretto is by Dr. E. H. Smith, of Connecticut, 
and founded on Goldsmith's poem; the music 
by M. Pellesier, a French resident of New 
York. Produced in New York, Dec. 19, 1798. 
Eichberg", Julius, one of America'srepre- 
sentative musicians, was born June 13, 1824, 
at Dusseldorf, Germany. Pie came of a musi- 
cal family, his father being an excellent musi- 
cian, who early taught his son the rudiments 
of music. Young Eichberg was used to the 
violin from his earliest childhood, and at the 
age of seven years was able to play acceptablv. 
It is related that one time being confined to 
his bed by illness his father brought him a 
piece of music paper, on which was written a 
melody, and requested him to sing it at sight, 
which was considered no unusual thing. Upon 
his failing, his father playfully remarked: "You 
will never be a musician ; you are more fit for 
a cobbler," a prediction which has signally 
proved untrue. At the age of eight years he 
was sent to Mayence, where he became a pupil 
on the violin of F. W. Eichler, a noted violin- 
ist, but when this musician departed on a con- 
cert tour, he was placed under another teacher, 
a selfish, unprincipled man, by whom he was 
shamefully treated. From Mayence he re- 
turned to his native place and was once more 
under the care of his father. Pie also studied 
harmony of J. Rietz, afterwards director of the 
Gewandhaus concerts and capellmeister to the 
King of S.ixony at Dresden. He was a mem- 
ber of the orchestra at Dusseldorf as one of the 
second violins. About this time he became 
acquainted with Schumann. Burgmiiller was 
a frequent visitor at the Eichberg home. In 
1S43 or 1844 he entered the Brussels Conser- 
vatoire, under Fetis, studying there two years 
and peifecting himself in the theory of music. 
Upon graduating he took the first prize for 
violin playing and for composition. After a 



short rest he went to Geneva as the director of 
an opera troupe. His abilities were soon rec- 
ognized, and he was appointed a professor 
in the conservatory there and had charge 
of the music in one of the churches. He re- 
mained in Geneva for eleven years. 

In 1S57 Mr. Eichberg came to this country 
with a view of benefiting his health and 
landed in New York City. For some time he 
taught and played there, but gaining no per- 
manent position he in 1859 went to Boston, 
where he was engaged as director of music at 
the Museum. This position he retained seven 
years, and after a year's rest, in 1867 estab- 
lished the Boston Conservatory of Music 
(See Boston), one of the best institutions 
of its kind in this country, of which he is still 
the head, and through which he has exercised 
a powerful influence on the musical tastes of 
the people. The violin school connected with 
the Conservatory is under his immediate care 
and is the best in America. He has done 
much to render the violin a popular instru- 
ment, and especially to remove the prejudice 
which has long existed toward it as being 
unsuited for the use of ladies. 

Mr. Eichberg's works are quite numerous. 
The best known of them all in this country are 
the four operettas, "The Doctor of Alcantara," 
" The Rose of Tyrol," " Two Cadis," and " A 
Night in Rome." The first mentioned of 
these was first produced April 7, 1862, at the 
Museum, Boston, and had an extraordinary 
run. It has been played in all the principal 
towns and cities of the different States, and 
still retains its popularity. The other three 
were also successful, though not to the same 
degree. His other works are several books of 
violin studies, which have been adopted in va- 
rious European conservatories; two volumes 
for use in the Boston public schools, of which 
he for man}' years had the musical charge ; 
a set of piano pieces called "Lebensfruhling" 
and published at Leipsic ; a set of string 
quartets ; and numerous songs, etc. 

Eisfelcl, Theodore, was born at Wol- 

fenbiUtel, Germany, in 1S16. He was taught 
the violin by Karl Muller at Bremen and com- 
position by Reissiger at Dresden. In 1S48 he 
came to the United States, and located at 
New York. He returned to Europe for a 
visit, and on the passage back in 1858 was one 

of the few survivors of the steamer "Austria," 
which burnt in mid-ocean. He was conductor 
of the Philharmonic Society for many years and 
also of the Harmonic Society when first estab- 
lished. He was also leader of the Eisfeld 
quartet soirees, the first concert of which was 
given Feb. 18, 1S51. Eisfeld held a high 
position in New York musical circles, and 
was greatly esteemed both as a man and as 
an artist. He returned to Europe in 1866, 
and died at Wiesbaden, Sep. 16, 1S82. 

Electric Piano. In 185 1, Thomas 

Davenport of Salisbury, Vermont, made an at- 
tempt to prolong the tones of a piano by the 
introduction of electricity, and with partial 
success. It does not appear, however, that 
his experiments resulted in anything practical. 

Some years ago a piano was exhibited in 
Paris which had an ordinary keyboard, but 
the music was produced mechanically from 
perforated paper which passed between two 
cylinders of wood and over a third one of 
metal. Whenever the perforations came in 
the right place a small copper hammer passed 
through and established an electric current 
which operated the hammer that struck the 
strings. The experiment was interesting but 
of no real value. 

ELson, Louis C, was bom April 17, 
1848, at Boston, Mass. He began the study of 
music in childhood, relinquishing it only for 
a short time while he was engaged in mercan- 
tile pursuits. Upon returning to his favorite 
art he studied with renewed dilligence under 
August Kreissmann, Gloggner-Castelli, and 
others. As a singer he was chiefly interested 
in German "lieder" or songs, and introduced 
many of them in this country by faithful trans- 
lations. He has also translated, adapted, or 
arranged a large number of French, Italian, 
and English songs. In 1S77 he began to 
make himself known in the field of musical 
literature by becoming assistant editor of the 
Vox Humana. In 1879 he became sole editor. 
He was prominently identified with the Musi- 
cal 'limes and Trade Review during its brilliant 
career, and is at present connected with the 
leading musical journals of America. His 
criticisms are widely read and appreciated. 
He has written some vocal and instrumental 
music, which is of fair order and shows a de- 
cided leaning toward the German style. His 
book, " Curiosities of Music," a historv of 



music in a popular form, was published in 
1880 by O. Ditson & Co., Boston. Besides 
his musical works and articles he has written 
several poems. 

Emerson, Luther Orlando, was born 
Aug. 3, 1S20, at Parsonsfiekl, Maine. His 
early life seems to have been devoted to other 
pursuits, for it was not until he was twenty- 
four years of age that he seriously set to work 
to study music. His first collection of music, 
the " Romberg Collection," designed for the 
church, was published in 1853. This was fol- 
lowed in 1857 by the Sunday school book, 
"Golden Wreath," of which 300,000 copies 
were sold. The success of this work led Mr. 
Emerson to devote himself largely to book- 
making, ami resulted in "The Golden Harp" 
(i860), "The Sabbath Harmony" (1863), 
"The Harp of Judah " (1865), << Merry 
Chimes" (1S66), followed by the "Jubilate," 
"Chorus Wreath," "Greeting" (glees), 
"Choral Tribute" (church music), "Glad 
Tidings" (Sunday school), " Sabbath Guest " 
(anthems), "Emerson's Singing School," 
"National Chorus Book," "Chants and Re- 
sponses," "Episcopal Chants," "The Song 
Monarch" (singing schools), "The Stand- 
ard," and " The Leader," the latter two 
being for the church. " Cheerful Voices," for 
the Sabbath school, was edited in conjunction 
with H. R. Palmer, and " The Hour of 
Singing," "The High School Choir," and 
"The American School Music Readers," in 
three volumes and graded for the use of public 
schools, in conjunction with W. S. Tilden. 
Besides these he has published some other 

Mr. Emerson, it will thus be seen, is a pro- 
lific composer of church and easy vocal music, 
considerable of which has come into general 
use. He is also well known as the conductor 
of musical conventions and institutes in every 
part of the country, in which sphere he is very 
successful, having a rare faculty of imparting 
instruction. He has done much to improve 
the standard of church music, and is a faithful, 
hard worker. Some few of his compositions 
have been published in sheet-music form and 
have become quite popular. 

Emery, Stephen Albert, was born at 
Paris, Oxford Co., Maine, Oct. 4, 1S41. His 
father, Hon. Stephen Emery, was an able 
lawyer and judge, and noted for his legal 

ability and general intelligence. Young 
Emery early exhibited more than ordinary love 
of music, and even composed some little piano 
pieces before he was able to read notes, his 
elder sister showing him how to write them 
down. After a common school education, he 
fitted for college, entering Colby University 
(then known as Waterville College) in the fall 
of 1859, but owing to ill health and a partial 
loss of eyesight, he was compelled to leave 
during the freshman year. He then, as a pas- 
time, took up the study of the piano and har- 
mony under the care of Henry L. Edwards of 
Portland, Me. Upon the advice of his teacher, 
he went, in the summer of 1862, to Leipsic, 
where for two years he continued his studies 
with Papperitz, Plaidy, E. F. Richter, and 
Hauptmann. After a short additional time in 
Dresden, under Spindler, he returned to the 
United States, remaining in Portland until 
after the great fire of 1S66, when he removed 
to Boston. He was engaged as teacher of the 
piano and harmony at the opening of the New 
England Conservatory of Music, in 1867, and 
was afterwards appointed professor of har- 
mony, theory, and composition, in the Boston 
University College of Music. Mr. Emery has 
written many piano pieces and songs. His 
" Foundation Studies in Pianoforte Playing," 
op. 35 (written for his own children), is a re- 
markably simple and easy course for beginners, 
while his "Elements of Harmony" is used 
throughout the country. His lectures and 
editorial contributions to the "Musical Her- 
ald " have exercised a decided influence in 
elevating the standard of musical taste. 

Erraili, ACHILLE, one of the most success- 
ful vocal teachers of this country, was born at 
Faenza, Central Italy, in 1S24. When sixteen 
years of age he entered the Conservatorio of 
Milan, studying singing under Vaccai. He 
afterwards was a private pupil of that master 
for some time, and then came before the pub- 
lic as a leading tenor. For the next fifteen 
years he sang in the principal cities of Europe, 
and at the end of that time came to the United 
States, landing at New York. He made his 
first public appearance there in i860, at the old 
Winter Garden, as Ecigardo in "Lucia," with 
Maretzek as conductor. After visiting the prin- 
cipal cities of this country, Cuba, and Mexico, 
he left the stage and settled (1864) in New 
York as a teacher. Sig. Errani employs only 



the pure Italian method, and has met with 
great and well -deserved success. Among his 
pupils may he mentioned Minnie Hand:, Emma 
Thursby, Louise Durand, and Stella Konheur- 
He is still (May, 18S5) located at New York. 

Estey, Jacob & Co. An American 
reed organ manufacturing firm located in 
BrattJeboro, Vermont. The business was begun 
in 1846, by two gentlemen. Their " factoiy " 
was a room in a building owned by Jacob 
Estey. The instruments were, of course, rude 
and uncouth as compared with those of the 
present day, for the art was then in its infancy. 
After much urging, Mr. Estey reluctantly con- 
sented to take an interest in the business in lieu 
of rent for his room. It appears not to have 
been very profitable, for the originators lost all 
heart in it, and in 1852 the entire concern 
passed into the hands of Mr. Estey. At this 
time six men were employed in the establish- 
ment and its estimated total value was only 

After the business passed into Mr. Estey's 
care, he succeeded in resuscitating and placing 
it upon a substantial basis. He was burned 
out in 1857, but rebuilt, only to be burned out 
again in 1864. During this time he had sever- 
al partners, but the partnership in no case 
seems to have lasted long. In 1S66, however, 
he took into partnership his son, Julius J. 
Estey, and his son-in-law, Levi K. Fuller, by 
which the present firm of J. Estey & Co. was 
formed. They suffered heavy losses by a flood 

in 1869, but nothing daunted they purchased 
sixty acres of land on which to erect new 
buildings. These are eight in number, one 
each for the various branches of the business, 
and are at a sufficient distance from one another 
to insure safety in case of fire. 

The organs of Messrs Estey & Co. are well 
known in this country and also abroad, and 
rank among the leading makes. The firm does 
an immense business, amounting to over one 
million dollars annually, which evidences 
great prosperity and a good demand for their 
organs. The firm has very recently (Decem- 
ber, 1885) begun the manufacture of upright 

Etude, The. A musical periodical ed- 
ited by Theodore Fresser, and published at 
Philadelphia, Pa. It is more especially 
devoted to the wants and needs of teachers and 
students of the piano. From eight to twelve of 
its thirty pages are given to etudes, exercises, 
teaching pieces, etc. It has a list of eminent 
contributors, and its articles are clear, forcible 
and meritorious, making it one of the very 
best journals of its class puhlished. Issued 
monthly at £1.50 per year. Circulation about 
2500. Established in 1S83. 

ElipllOIliad. An instrument combining 
in itself the tones of an organ, clarinet, horn, 
bassoon, and violin, and invented by Peter L. 
and George Grosh, of Petersburg, Pa. It had 
a compass of 36 keys with semitones, and 
could be played with ease. 

Fairlamb, J- Remington, was born Jan. 
23, 1839, at Philadelphia, Pa. His earliesl 
musical instruction was received from his 
mother, hut subsequently he studied with 
Charles Boyer, organist of St. Stephen's church. 
A quantity of Spohr's music happened to fall 
into his hands, including the mass in C minor, 
'« The Last Judgment," and selections from the 
operas of " Faust " and " Jessonda," and in 
this he became greatly interested, studying it 
assiduously. His thirst for musical knowledge 
became so great that he eagerly devoured every 
work on harmony, composition, or theory, 
which he could obtain. When sixteen years 
of age he gave to the public his first composi- 
tion, and about the same time became organist 
of a Methodist Episcopal Church in the city, 
performing the duties solely for practice and 
receiving no remuneration. A year later he 
accepted a similar position at the Tabernacle 
Baptist Church, which he held for three years, 
and then transferred his services to the Clinton 
Street Presbyterian Church. In 1S59, being 
then not quite twenty-one years of age, he de- 
parted for Europe. His first destination was 
Paris, where he studied the piano under Pru- 
dent and Marmontel and the voice under 
M. Masset and Mme. Bockholtz-Falconi. 
From Paris he proceeded to Florence and 
there continued his vocal studies with Mabel- 
lini. Shortly after the beginning of the Civil 
War he returned home, but not finding things 
to his taste he resolved on a second visit to 
Europe. He sought and obtained the post of 
United States consul at Zurich, Switzerland. 
During his residence there he became ac- 
quainted with many prominent German musi- 
cians, among whom were Dr. A. B. Marx, 
Moscheles, Kullak, Dr. Kocher, and J. J. 
Abert. He composed and dedicated to King 
Karl of Wurtenburg a Te Deura for double 
chorus, orchestra, and organ, which was ac- 
cepted, and in consequence he had the gold 
medal of art and science ("Die grosse goldene 
Medaille fur Kunst und Wissenschaft") be- 
stowed upon him. While residing at Zurich 

he also commenced work upon a grand opera, 
the libretto being German. 

In 1865 he returned to the United States 
and temporarily located at Washington, where 
he was director of music at Epiphany Church. 
The following year he married and settled in 
Philadelphia, and resumed work on his opera, 
translating the libretto into English. The 
work was too large to gain a production, and 
in consequence he wrote a smaller work, 
"Treasured Tokens" (2 acts), which was pro- 
duced at the Chestnut Street Theatre. In 
1870 he removed to Washington, where for 
two years he was director of music at St. 
John's Episcopal Church. At the end of that 
time he accepted a call to the Assembly Pres- 
byterian Church, a position which he was 
still holding in 188 1. As a teacher he is 
highly esteemed and is very successful. His 
works consist of several Te Deums, a jubilate 
in C, numerous anthems for various occasions, 
and other church pieces, which are much 
sung throughout the country ; his two operas, 
which have already been mentioned ; and 
about sixty other compositions of various 
kinds, all of which are of high order. 

Federal Harmony. A collection of 

sacred music, edited by Simeon Jocelyn of 
New Haven, Conn., and published at Boston, 
Mass., in 1793. A similar collection was 
made and issued by Timothy Swan in 1788. 

Fillmore, John C, pianist, teacher, and 
critic, was bom Feb. 4, 1S43, m Connecticut. 
He studied at Oberlin, and subsequently at 
Leipsic. For nine years he was professor of 
music at Ripon College, Wis., but now resides 
at Milwaukee in the same state, and is director 
of the Milwaukee School of Music. He is 
highly esteemed as a teacher and critic. 

Fischer, J. & C This well-known 
piano manufacturing firm, located in New York 
City, was established in 1S40, by John W. and 
Charles S. Fischer. They learned the art of 
piano making from their father and their 
grandfather, Sig. Bernardo Fischer, who es- 
tablished himself in business in Naples, about 



the beginning of the present century. Previous 
to coming to America, they traveled all over 
Europe, visiting and working in the principal 
manufactories of that country, thus gaining a 
ripeness of knowledge and experience not 
otherwise attainable. Their wanderings termi- 
nated in New York, where they arrived in 1839* 
John at that time being 23 and Charles 21 years 
of age. Nunses & Clark, piano makers, dissolv- 
ing business relations in that year, they entered 
into partnership with Wm. Nunses under the 
firm name of Nunses & Fischer. After a few 
years Nunses was bought out and retired, the 
two brothers conducting business under the 
present firm name, J. & C. Fischer. In 1873, 
John Fischer withdrew from the firm and re- 
turned to the ancestral estates at Naples, where 
he still lives. Charles S. Fischer, Jr., who is 
well known in New York as organist of some 
of the leading churches and an able musician, 
was until quite recently a member of the firm, 
but withdrew to enter the medical profession. 
The present firm is composed of Charles S. 
Fischer, Sr., Henry B. Fischer, Bernardo F. 
Fischer, Adolfo H. Fischer, and Frederick G. 
Fischer, though the old firm name is retained. 
Each member has a special department which 
he oversees, and hence the work is system- 
atically and thoroughly carried on. 

The Fischer pianos are well known and es- 
teemed, as is evidenced by the annual sale of 
over 5000, and very justly ranks the firm 
among the leading piano manufacturing con- 
cerns of this country. 

Fisk Jubilee Singers. This troupe, 

so well known all over the country, was or- 
ganized in October, 1 871, by George L. White, 
treasurer of Fisk University, Nashville, Tenn., 
from among the students. Seven of the com- 
pany had been in slavery, and all of them 
were colored. The original members were as 
follows: Ella Sheppard, pianist and soprano; 
Jennie Jackson, soprano ; Maggie Porter, 
soprano; Minnie Tate, contralto; Eliza 
Walker, contralto ; -Thomas Rutling, tenor ; 
B. M. Holmes, tenor ; I. P. Dickerson, 
bass ; and Greene Evans, bass. Their 
object was to raise money sufficient to 
meet a financial crisis of the University. 
They had no definite plan of action, and the 
experiment of singing genuine negro songs be- 
fore cultured northern audiences was a new 
one. It proved a great success, however, and 

the songs, which rapidly became very popu- 
lar, were embodied in book form. So suc- 
cessful was the company that they soon raised 
£20,000 for their college home, and then 
3 100,000 for an endowment. Other large 
sums of money have been earned and received 
by them, which ha,ve gone to help the Uni- 
versity. They have twice visited Europe and 
sung before the most cultured audiences with 
great and uniform success. Up to 1881, 
twenty-four different persons had been mem- 
bers of the company, twenty of whom had 
been in slavery. Their aims have always 
been pure and noble, and the good they have 
done for their race can hardly be estimated. 

Flower Queen, The. A secular can- 
tata, produced in New York City, in 1852. 
The words are by Fanny J. Crosby; the mu- 
sic by Dr. George F. Root. It has met with 
considerable success. 

Folio, The. A monthly publication is- 
sued by White, Smith & Co., Boston, and 
devoted to music, drama and art. Each num- 
ber contains 16 pages of vocal and instrumen- 
tal music. Earl Marble is at present ( Janu- 
ary, 1886) editor. Subscription price £1.60 
per annum. Circulation about 15,000. Es- 
tablished in 1869. 

Formes, Karl, bass singer, son of the 
sexton at Miihlheim on the Rhine, born Aug. 
7, 1810. What musical instruction he had he 
seems to have obtained in the church choir; but 
he first attracted attention at the concerts for 
the benefit of the cathedral fund at Cologne in 
1841. So obvious was his talent that he was 
urged to go on the stage and made his dibut at 
Cologne as Sarastro in " Zauberflote," Jan. 
6, 1842, with the most marked success, ending 
in an engagement for three years. His next 
appearance was at Vienna. In 1849 he came 
to London, and sang first at Drury Lane in a 
German company as Sarastro on May 30. He 
made his appearance on the Italian stage at 
Covent Garden, March 16, 1850, as Caspar in 
" II Franco Arciero" (" Der Freischutz "). 
At the Philharmonic he sang first on the fol- 
lowing Monday, March 18. From that time 
for some years he was a regular visitor to 
London, and filled the parts of Bertram, Mar- 
cel, Rocco, Leporello, Beltramo, etc. — Grove. 

In 1857 Formes came to this country, and 
made his first appearance here at the New 
York Academy of Music, Dec. 2d. Since 



that time he has led a rather irregular and 
wandering life, going wherever fancy pro- 
pelled him. His voice is one of the most 
magnificent ones ever possessed by any man, 
excelling in volume, compass, and quality. 
He is fine appearing and has a decided talent 
for the stage. With industry he might have 
attained a position equaled by few. He is 
now (March, t886) located at San Francisco 
as a teacher of singing. 

Forty-sixth Psalm, i.— For solos, 

chorus, and orchestra, by Dudley Buck. 
First performed by the Handel and Haydn 
Society of Boston, May 7, 1874. 

2. — Also for solos, chorus, and orchestra, 
by William W. Gilchrist. The prize composi- 
tion for the Cincinnati May Festival of 1S82, 
where it was first performed. See Gilchrist, 
William W. 

Foster, Stephen Collins, one of Ameri- 
ca's most noted song writers, was born July 4, 
1826, at Lawrenceburg, Pa., now a part of the 
city of Pittsburgh. His father came from Vir- 
ginia, was one of the earliest settlers of Western 
Pennsylvania, a prosperous merchant, and at 
one time mayor of Pittsburgh. Young Foster 
began his studies at an academy in Alleghany, 
Pa., entered a school at Athens in 1839, and 
in 1841 the Jefferson College at Cannonsburgh, 
where he finished his education. After this 
he was for some time book-keeper for his 
brother at Cincinnati, Ohio, spending his leisure 
moments in learning German, French, drawing, 
and painting. 

His musical tastes early made themselves 
known. When seven years old he learned to 
play the flageolet, also the flute and the piano, 
though having no teacher. He had a good 
but rather weak voice, rarely ever using it, 
however. His first composition was a waltz 
arranged for three performers, composed while 
attending school at Athens and performed at 
one of the commencements there, which he 
called " Tioga Waltz." It was well received, 
and served to stimulate the young composer to 
other efforts. He soon began to try his hand 
at song writing, in which he afterwards became 
so proficient. Becoming acquainted with 
Henry Kleber, a musician of his native city, 
he formed an intimate friendship with that 
gentleman and joined his vocal society. 
Many of his compositions were submitted to 
Kleber for criticism, for whose opinions he 

entertained a high regard. Some time after 
this a minstrel troupe visited Pittsburgh, and 
happening to be present at one of their per- 
formances, he sought to have them take and 
introduce one of his songs. "Oh, Susanna" 
was accepted and sung with success. It was 
afterwards published by Peters of Cincinnati, 
the author receiving as his remuneration 
twenty-five copies. 

Seeing his musical talents, he was advised 
by friends to go through a regular course of 
study in music, but he declined on the ground 
that it might injure his own originality and 
freshness, an error which young minds are 
sometimes liable to fall into. Later in life he 
learned to regret this decision, and became 
acquainted with and appreciated to a certain 
extent the works of some of the masters. The 
theme and inspiration of many of his songs 
may be explained by the fact that whenever 
opportunity offered he visited religious camp- 
meetings, especially those held by the negroes, 
listening to the music and ready to grasp any 
stray thought which might come along. 
" Hard times come again no more " was thus 
originated, and became exceedingly popular 
with the slaves. 

In 1854 Foster married Miss Jennie 
McDowell, daughter of Dr. A. N. McDowell, a 
physician of Pittsburgh. To her many of his 
songs were addressed. The marriage promised 
to be a happy one, but all these promises were 
broken by the dissipated habits into which he 
fell. In i860 he left his family and went to 
New York City. For some time he made his 
headquarters at an old grocery on the corner of 
Christie and Hester streets, in the neighbor- 
hood of the Bowery. His personal appear- 
ance and surroundings are thus described by 
a well-known musical writer : 

" A figure slight and a little below medium 
stature, attired in a well-worn suit; his face 
was long and closely shaven ; soft brown eyes 
and somewhat shaded by a lofty forehead, 
which was disfigured by the ]i>eak of a glazed 
cap that hung closely to his head, scarcely 
allowing his short brown hair to be seen. 
His appearance was at once so youthful and so 
aged that it was difficult to tell at a casual 
glance if he were 25 or 50. An anxious 
startled expression hovered over a face that 
was painful to witness. Looking at him thus, 
it was hard for me to believe that standing be-- 



fore me was the then most popular song 
writer in the country; but it was Foster in- 
deed ! He seemed as embarrassed as a girl in 
the presence of a stranger, and this diffidence 
never wore off. Whether it was a natural 
bashfulness or a voluntary reserve I cannot 
say ; but even with those who knew him most 
intimately he was never familiar. His con- 
versation, made up mostly of musical reminis- 
cences, was always interesting. He lodged 
generally at a small hotel in the Bowery, but 
that small grocery he made his usual sitting 
room, and many an exquisite melody had its 
birth in that uncongenial place. A friend of 
mine, who knew Foster, said to me that many 
of the now popular melodies were first written 
upon the common kind of brown paper used to 
wrap up bundles." 

Such a state of existence must have been a 
monotonous one and little fitted for musical 
inspiration. But the end was near. While 
staying at the American Hotel he was attacked 
by the fever and ague, of which, however, 
nothing much was thought. One morning 
while dressing himself he fainted and fell, 
cutting himself severely on a broken piece of 
crockery. After this he conversed but very 
little, though conscious. He was taken to 
Bellevue Hospital, where he remained until 
his death, Jan. 13, 1864. His last words were : 
"Oh, wait till to-morrow," in response to 
some question of an attendant who had come 
to dress his wounds. The remains were con- 
veyed to Pittsburgh and interred there. 

Foster occupies a distinctive place among 
our song writers. His songs are unlike any- 
thing before or since produced, in some 
respects, having a nature of their own ; and 
though not scientifically written, they have a 
peculiar charm and appeal directly to the 
popular heart. To enumerate all of his songs 
would be useless, as they are more or less 
familiar in every musical household. The 
first one which he published was " Open the 
Lattice, Love," issued by Willig of Baltimore, 
in 1842. For some time he wrote gratuitously, 
but latterly he received royalty amounting to 
thousands of dollars. The " Old Folks at 
Home," (See that heading), perhaps his 
most popular production, he hoped would rival 
" Home, Sweet Home." It has sold to the 
extent of 500,000 copies. " My Old Kentucky 
Home" was almost equally successful. It 

was placed in Bryant's "Library of Poetry 
and Song," but no credit given the author. 
Among his other most popular songs are 
" Marsa's in de Cold, Cold, Ground," "Old 
Dog Tray," " Willie, We Have Missed You," 
" Ellen Bayne," and " Come Where My Love 
Lies Dreaming." To the most of his songs he 
wrote the poetry as well as the music. Had 
he improved his talents by study and been free 
from the vice of intemperance, he would un- 
doubtedly have produced songs equal in every 
respect to any in the world. But this was not 
his aim. As far as his aspirations carried him 
he left nothing to be desired. 

Under the heading of Old Folks at 
Home, some idea of how Foster was taken 
advantage of, during his residence in New 
York, is given. It is a fact not very generally 
known that though his songs were extraordi- 
narily popular and brought large profits, he 
was uniformly compelled by the music pub- 
lishers to accept next to nothing for them. 
With a bundle of manuscripts he would go 
from one to another, offering them at $50 each, 
which was indeed a paltry sum, but the crafty 
publishers well knew his destitute condition, 
and would actually starve him into accepting 
their price. To add to his misfortunes there 
were a number of so-called friends who were 
always ready to take advantage of his frank, 
generous nature. When his remains were 
removed from New York to Pittsburgh, they 
were transported free by the Pennsylvania 
Railroad Co. They now repose in the Alle- 
gheny Cemetery, and the place is marked by 
a plain marble slab, bearing this simple 
inscription : 

Stephen C. Foster 

of Pittsburgh, 

Born July 4, 1826 ; 

Died in New York, 

January 13, 1S64. 

The more we study the nature of Foster the 
more we shall be drawn towards him. Few 
musicians have been gifted with so fine and 
sensitive a nature, but the very qualities which 
we most admire in him made him also an 
easy prey to habit and false friends. We have 
evidence that during the terrible struggle his 
soul kept its innate purity. If we will but 
remember our own faults and the weakness of 
human nature, we can easily forgive and 
overlook his one great failing. 



Franklin, Benjamin, the eminent Ameri- 
can philosopher and statesman, was born in 
1706 at Boston. His only claim to notice in a 
work like this is as having been the inventor 
of the harmonica (See Harmonica.) He 
had considerable musical faculty, as is evi- 
denced by his letters on Scotch music and the 
defects of modern music. He died at 
Philadelphia, in 1790. 

Franoscll, Adolph, was born in 1830, at 
Cologne, and after serving in the German 
army was given a position in the custom house 
at his native place. His fine bass voice at- 
tracted attention, and through the assistance of 
an operatic manager he made his appearance 
on the stage. He then sang with success in 
Germany and Russia. In 1870 he came to 
this country with the Lichtmay company, 
and for several seasons thereafter sang at the 
Stadt Theatre in the Bowery, New York. 
For some time he was manager of the Ger- 
man opera troupe, and gave performances in 
St. Louis, Cincinnati, Louisville and other 
places. He was then engaged for the Ger- 
mania Theatre by A. Neuendorff, and was 
the original Gen. Kautschukoff in "Fatinitza." 
He died Aug. 4, 1S80, at New York. 

Fries, Wulf, violoncellist, was born at 
Garbeck, a village of Holstein, Germany, Jan. 
10, 1825. He began playing his favorite 
instrument when only nine years old, and at 
twelve had his first and only lessons from a 
local player. At the age of thirteen he made 
his djb?rt, though compelled to perform his solo 
on a very poor instrument. His father, being 
poor and unable to furnish him means for a 
first-class musical education, sent him to Ploen, 
a small city of Holstein, where he played 
under the direction of the " Staclt Musikus," 
but received no regular instruction. What he 
learned in the art of playing was chiefly 
through hearing the soloists who gave con- 
certs while passing through the city. He re- 
ceived some lessons on the trombone from a 
fine trombonist, and was soon able to play 
solos on that instrument with good effect, but 
he afterwards gave it up and devoted himself 
exclusively to the violoncello. In September, 
1847, he came to America and settled in Bos- 

ton, which has since been and still is (May, 
1885) his home. About 1849 he organized, 
assisted by his brother, August, three years 
his senior, the "Mendelssohn Quintet Club," 
the immediate occasion of which was the 
performance at a private house of Mendels- 
sohn's Quintet in A. The original members 
of the Club, with which he was connected 
for twenty-three years, were August Fries, 
1st violin; Herr Gerloff, 2d violin ; Theodor 
Lehman, 1st viola ; Oscar Greiner, 2d viola ; 
and Wulf Fries, 'cello. August Fries was the 
leader for ten years, when his place was taken 
by William Schultze. Mr. Fries (Wulf) is 
now violoncellist of the " Beethoven Quartet 
Club." He is also professor of the violoncello 
at the Boston and New England conservatories 
of music, and an esteemed musician. 

Fry, William Henry, an American com- 
poser, was born at Philadelphia, Pa., August 
10, 1815 (1813 ? ). In 1849 he went to Paris 
for the purpose of collecting musical speci- 
mens, acting meanwhile as correspondent 
for several papers. He returned in 1854 and 
became musical critic of the New York 
Tribune. In 1S55 he undertook in a series of 
papers to prove that Italian music is superioi 
to any other, but only succeeded in bringing 
abuse upon himself. He also delivered a 
course of lectures upon music, and illustrated 
them by practical performances. The chorus 
consisted of 100 singers, the orchestra of 80 
performers, and the military band of 50 per- 
formers, besides which there were several 
Italian solo vocalists. The venture, however, 
did not pay, and resulted in a loss of several 
thousand dollars. Mr. Fry's principal works 
are a set of symphonies,' performed by Jullien's 
orchestra when in New York; several can- 
tatas, some songs, a Stabat Mater, eleven violin 
quartets, and two operas, " Leonora," first 
performed at the Academy of Music, New 
York, March 29, 1858, and " Notre Dame de 
Paris," first performed at the Academy of 
Music, Philadelphia, in April, 1864, both of 
which were well received. He died at Santa 
Cruz, Dec. 21, 1864. He was one of our most 
talented native-born musicians, and had his 
abilities been rightly directed would have won 
a world-wide reputation. 


Gemuender, George, whose fame as 
a violin maker is world-wide, was born April 
13, 1816, at Ingelfingen, Wurtemburg. He 
learned the principles of his trade from his 
father, who was a manufacturer of bow instru- 
ments. His father thought, however, to make 
a schoolmaster of him, and for that purpose 
sent him to the seminary. He remained there 
only three weeks and was back again to his 
trade, and the business for which nature had 
fitted him. His father dying in 1835, when he 
was in his nineteenth year, he traveled, work- 
ing at Pesth, Presburg, Vienna, Munich, and 
other places, and meeting with success. 
Finding no suitable place to establish himself 
in business, he through the kindness of a friend 
made an engagement with a musical instru- 
ment maker in Strasburg, but on arriving there 
found that the man manufactured only brass in- 
struments. Disappointed, he was invited by the 
manufacturer, whose name was Roth, to make 
his house his hovne until he found em- 
ployment. There he remained several weeks, 
andduringthe time formed the acquaintance of 
a gentleman who wrote for him a letter of in- 
troduction and sent it to Vuillaume, the cel- 
ebrated violin maker of Paris. Receiving an 
invitation from Vuillaume he at once repaired 
to Paris. His wages at first were 30 sous per 
day, but at the end of three months they were 
increased to 40 sous. While at Vuillaume's he 
studied and worked industriously, and became 
acquainted with the peculiarities of the best 
violins. On returning from this country to 
Paris, in 1S45, CH e Bull took his wonderful 
violin, " Caspar da Salo," to Vuillaume for 
repairs. The latter intrusted it to Gemunder, 
who made the repairs in such a satisfactory 
manner that Ole Bull sought an introduction 
to him. 

In 1847, a ft er having been four years at 
Vuillaume's, Gemunder received an invitation 
from his two brothers in this country to join 
them. Accordingly he left Paris and arrived 
at Springfield, Mass., in November of that 
year. In company with his brothers and 
other musicians he gave concerts, but these 

proving unsuccessful he borrowed twenty-five 
dollars from a friend and began to manufacture 
and repair violins at Boston. He determined 
to submit some of his instruments for inspec- 
tion at the London exhibition of 185 1, and 
sent a quartet of bow instruments in imitation 
of Stradivarius, a violin of the Joseph Guar- 
nerius pattern, and one of the Nicolas Amati 
pattern. Not meeting with sufficient encour- 
agement in Boston he removed to New York 
in 1 85 1, and later learned that his instruments 
had received the first prize at the exhibition, 
where they were examined by Spohr, Thal- 
berg, Vieuxtemps, and other eminent author- 
ities. Later, his instruments were similarly 
successful at exhibitions in Paris and Vienna. 
To the Vienna exhibition of 1873 he sent only 
one violin, and that in competition for a prize 
offered- for the best imitation. The violin 
was called "Kaiser" (Emperor), built after 
the pattern of Guarnerius, and so deceived 
the judges as to be declared genuine by them. 
The instrument was a center of attraction to 
all musicians, and received the highest com- 
mendations, but few were willing to admit that 
it was newly made. 

The success of Mr. Gemunder has led many 
persons to claim that the wood of his violins 
is chemically prepared. It is well known 
that the tone of such instruments deteriorates 
after awhile, but this has not been the case 
with those made by him. He has also offered 
to submit any of his instruments to be test- 
ed, provided upon failure to find any chemicals 
the price of the instrument be paid him by the 
parties making the test. Mr. Gemunder cer- 
tainly claims more than any other violin 
maker has yet dared to claim, viz.: To equal, 
and in some respects excel, the instruments 
made by the old Italian masters. He has 
repeatedly deceived the best judges, and the 
tone of his violins has been acknowledged 
equal if not superior to that of the best Italian 
instruments. The prejudice against a new 
instrument and the belief that the work of 
two or three centuries ago can not now be 
equaled are so firmly fixed in the minds of 



most people, that rather than admit Mr. 
Gemunder's claims they accuse him of chemi- 
cally preparing the wood which he uses. 
There is no reason why it should be thought 
impossible to ecmal past achievements, though 
the attempt has often been made and resulted 
in failure. Perhaps a hundred years from now 
Mr. Gemunder's instruments will be considered 
" classical," and accorded their true worth. 
Mr. Gemiinder resides at Astoria, Long 
Island, and though at quite an advanced age 
still continues the manufacture of his instru- 

G-ermania Orchestra. A band of 

twenty-four musicians, which originally came 
from Germany. The unsettled state of affairs 
in Europe in 1847 made the members resolve 
to seek new tields of music. After obtaining 
letters of introduction from the English and 
American embassadors at Berlin, they pro- 
ceeded to England, but met with a poor re- 
ception. Leaving England they sailed for the 
United States, arriving at New York, Sept. 
28, 1848. They gave their first concert at 
the Astor-place opera house, on October 5th. 
At that time the musical tastes and culture of 
the country were of far lower order than now, 
and the concerts which they gave failed to pay 
expenses, though considered from an artistic 
standpoint they were successful. From New 
York the members proceeded to Philadelphia, 
where they gave their first concert Dec. 4, 
but met with no better success. After a des- 
perate struggle they temporarily disbanded. 
Soon after, however, they were again called 
together to play at the presidential inaugura- 
tion ball at Washington. They then went to 
Baltimore, where they first met with the suc- 
cess they deserved, though Gung'l was at that 
time occupying the city. Leaving Baltimore 
they proceeded to Boston, giving concerts at 
New Haven, Worcester, and other large 
towns on the way. At Boston they gave their 
first concert in Melodeon Hall, April 14, 1849, 
but met with little encouragement at first, 
though afterwards well patronized. They 
played at the Castle Garden concerts, New 
York, and in the summer at Newport, then 
beginning to come into prominence as a 
fashionable resort. During the winter of 
1849-50 they were in Baltimore, and the ensu- 
ing summer undertook a tour of the United 
States and Canada, which proved successful. 

The next winter they were again in Baltimore, 
made a Southern trip under the management 
of Strakosch, with Patti as soloist, gave thirty 
concerts with Jenny Lind, and in the summer 
played for the second time at Newport. The 
season of 1851-52 was spent in Boston and in 
making a tour with Ole Bull. During the 
next season they again gave concerts in Bos- 
ton with Jaell, Camilla Urso, and other ar- 
tists, and also in Philadelphia with Mme. 
Sontag. The summer of 1853 was spent in 
traveling throughout the West and other por- 
tions of the country. In 1853 54 they were 
in Boston for the third time, but did not meet 
with their previous success. The orchestra 
had previously been increased to thirty mem- 
bers, but only fourteen of the original ones 
remained. The engagement with P. T. Bar- 
num that followed was a failure, and a grow- 
ing dissatisfaction led to the dissolution of the 
Orchestra, September 13, 1854. Of its mem- 
bers a few have become well known, chief of 
whom is Carl Zerrahn. The leaders were 
Leuschow, Schultze, and Carl Bergmann. 
During its existence the orchestra was prob- 
ably one of the most potent factors in advanc- 
ing the musical tastes of this country. 

There is in Boston an organization called 
"The GermaniaBand," originated about 1S50, 
the original six members of which came from 
Saxony. Among them were Carl Eichler, the 
present leader, and Wulf Fries, the well- 
known violoncellist. It was soon turned into 
a serenade band, and has gradually grown to 
its present dimensions, including some fine 
artists. The "Germania Quartet" consists of 
four brass instruments from the "Band," with 
Rose Stewart as vocalist. 

Grille, William T., was born June 28, 
1848, at Portland, Ind. He is the author of 
several popular collections of music, among 
which are the " Western Anthem Book," 
" Song Clarion," " New Favorite," "Giffe's 
Male Quartet Bock," "Helping Hand," 
"Brilliant," etc. He is also a good chorus 
and convention conductor. At present ( 1884) 
he is teacher and superintendent of music in 
the public schools of Logansport, Ind. 

Gilchrist, William Wallace, who has 
lately become noted as a composer, was born 
in 1846, at Jersey City, N. J. When he was 
nine years of age his parents removed to 
Philadelphia, where he studied for three 



years under H. A. Clarke, professor of music ' 
in the University of Pennsylvania. In 1S72 ; 
he went to Cincinnati, where he became or- j 
ganist at the New Jerusalem Church and I 
teacher in the conservatory of Miss Bauer. 
In 1873, however, he returned to Philadelphia, 
and has since been located there, being at the 
present conductor of four musical societies 
and organist at Christ's Church, Germantown. 
He has gained several prizes from the Abt 
Society of Philadelphia for his compositions, 
and three prizes from the Mendelssohn Club, 
New York. In 1880 he contended for the 
Cincinnati May Festival prize, but was ranked 
as third. This year (1S82) he carried away 
the prize, his composition being a setting of 
the 46th psalm, for solo, chorus, orchestra, 
and organ. The awarding committee con- 
sisted of Reinecke of Leipsic, Saint Saens of 
Paris, and Thomas of New York. The prize 
composition is thus described by the composer 
himself : 

" The composition has four principal 
divisions exclusive of an introduction 
each following the other without pause, 
and connected by a gradual decres- 
cendo in the orchestra. The open- 
ing of the psalm seemed to me to indicate a 
strong outburst of praise or of thanksgiving 
for a deliverance from trials, which the intro- 
duction is intended to convey. But instead 
of commencing with a strong outburst I lead 
up to it from a very subdued beginning, work- 
ing gradually to a climax at the entrance of 
the chorus on the words, ' God is our refuge 
and our strength.' The opening movement of 
the chorus becomes a little subdued very 
shortly as it takes up the words, ' A very pres- 
ent help in trouble,' which is followed again 
by an allegro con fuoco movement on the words, 
' Therefoie we will not fear though the earth 
be removed, though the mountains be carried 
into the midst of the sea." This movement 
leads into still another, a furioso movement on 
the words, ' Though the waters thereof roar, 
though the mountains shake with the swelling 
thereof.' This is followed by an elaborate coda 
in which all the themes of the preceding 
movement are worded together, and which 
brings the chorus to a close. The second di- 
vision, in E major, is marked by an andante 
contemplative on the words, 'There is a river 
the streams whereof shall make glad the city 

of God.' This movement is intended to be 
one of tranquility, varied with occasional pas- 
sionate outbursts on the words, 'God is in the 
midst of her; she shall not be moved.' A 
peculiar rythmical effect is sought by the alter- 
ation of 4-4 and 3-4 time, three bars of the first ' 
being answered by two bars of the second. 
This movement ends very tranquilly on the 
words, 'God shall help her and that right 
early,' and is immediately followed by an alle- 
gro molto, in B minor, on the words, 'The 
heathen raged, the kingdoms were moved ; he 
uttered his voice, the earth melted.' In the 
middle of this chorus the soprano solo enters 
for the first time on the words, 'He that mak- 
eth wars to cease unto the end of the world ; 
He breaketh the bow anil cutteth the spear in 
sunder.' The chorus works up to a strong 
climax on the words, 'He burnetii the chariot 
with fire,' which is suddenly interrupted by a 
decrescendo on the words, 'Be still, and know 
that I am God.' This leads to the third divis- 
ion, which is a return of the second division in 
E major, and which is played through almost 
entirely by the orchestra, the chorus merely 
meditating on the words last quoted. This 
leads to the final chorus, which is a fugue in E 
major, with alia breve time, on the words, 
'And the Lord of Hosts is with us; the God of 
Jacob is our refuge,' towards the close of 
which a gloria patri is introduced, being 
woven in with fragments of the fugue to a 
strong climax. The whole composition finish- 
es with an impetuous accelerando. My cen- 
tral idea was to make a choral and orchestral 
work, the solo, while requiring a good singer, 
being only secondary. The psalm seemed to 
me particularly adapted for musical composi- 
tion, as being capable of a varied, even 
dramatic effect." 

Gilmore, Patrick Sarsfield, well- 
known in this country as a conductor, was 
born Dec. 25, 1829, near Dublin, Ireland. 
Early in life he came to Canada with an Eng- 
lish band, and afterward found his way to 
Salem, Mass., where he became leader of a 
brass band. In 1849 he went to Boston and 
acted as leader of numerous bands there. He 
organized Gilmore's band in 1859, and with it 
traveled all over the country, giving concerts 
in the principal cities. In 1864 he gave a 
grand festival in New Orleans, and was the 
prime mover and conductor of the Peace Jubi- 

6 4 


Ice at Boston, in 1869 and 1872 (See Peace 
Jubilees). Mr. Gilmore has repeatedly 
made tours of this country, employing the best 
vocal and instrumental soloists, and in 1878 
visited the principal countries of Europe. He 
now resides at New York. His compositions 
are few. 

G-leason, Frederic Grant, was born 
Dec. 17, 1848, at Middletown, Conn. His 
love of music was inherited from both his 
father and mother, the former being an ex- 
cellent amateur flutist, and the latter a good 
contralto singer and pianist. The bent of his 
nature was early manifested by his composing 
melodies and singing them to himself. When 
he was six years old his parents removed to 
Hartford, Conn., where he became a member 
of one of the church choirs. His desire to 
study music, however, did not meet with par- 
ental approval, as he had been selected for 
the ministry. At the age of sixteen years he 
assumed the rule of a composer and wrote an 
oratorio, entitled, "The Captivity," the poem 
being by Goldsmith. This he had not fully 
completed before he relinquished it for a 
"Christmas oratorio," the words of which he 
selected from the Bible and from Montgom- 
ery's version of the psalms. Both of these 
works showed more than ordinary talent, but 
were crude, as their author was not acquainted 
with harmony and composition. His father 
could not longer refuse to gratify the son's 
musical tastes, and accordingly decided to edu- 
cate him for a musician. He was placed 
under the care of Dudley Buck, with whom 
he studied piano aud composition for some 
time. After this he was sent to Germany, 
and entered the Conservator] um at Leipsic, 
where he was taught the piano by Moscheles 
and harmony by Richter. At the same time 
he took private lessons from Plaidy and was 
instructed in composition by J. C. Lobe. 
Upon the death of Moscheles, in 1870, he 
went to Berlin, where he continued his piano 
studies under Oscar Raif, a pupil of Tausig, 
and his theoretical studies under Carl Frederic 
Weitzmann, now court musician to the Em- 
peror of Russia and a pupil of Spohr and 
Hauptman. After staying for some time in Ber- 

lin, Mr. Gleason returned home and visited his 
parents. Shortly after, however, he went 
to London, where he studied English music, 
and the piano under Oscar Berringer, also a 
pupil of Tausig. He then went again to Ber- 
lin and there for the second time took lessons 
in theory from Weitzman, studying the piano 
under Loeschorn and the organ under Haupt. 
It was during his second stay in Berlin that 
he prepared his work, "Gleason's Motet Col- 
lection," published by W. A. Pond & Co. of 
New York. 

After remaining for some time in Germany, 
Mr. Gleason again returned home, and settled 
in Hartford, where his parents resided. He 
became organist of one of the churches in 
Hartford and also of the South Church in New 
Britain, Conn. Besides his teaching duties, 
he was busily engaged upon his opera, "Otho 
Visconti." The work has not yet been per- 
formed entire, but selections from it have fre- 
quently been given, the vorspiel and trios being 
especially liked. In 1876 he removed to 
Chicago, and became teacher of piano, organ, 
composition and instrumentation, in the Her- 
shey Music School, a position which he still 
( 1884) holds. In 1878 he was married to Miss 
Grace A. Hiltz, a Western lady who is well- 
known as a vocalist (See Hiltz-Gleason). 
Gleason's principal works are as follows : 

Op. 1. Songs for the soprano voice. 

" 2. Organ sonata (C sharp minor). 

" 3. Barcarola. Piano. 

" 4. Episcopal Church music. 

" 5. Songs for the alto voice. 

" 6. Episcopal Church music. 

" 7. " Otho Visconti," a grand romantic 
operainthree acts. Selections pub- 
lished by W. A. Pond &Co., N.Y. 

" 8. Piano pieces. 

" 9. Trio, No. 1 (C minor). Piano, violin 
and violoncello. 

" 10. Quartets for female voices. 

" 11. "Overture Triomphale." Organ. 

" 12. "God Our Deliverer," cantata. So- 
los, chorus, and orchestra. 

" 13. Trio, No. 2 (A major). Piano, vio- 
lin, and violoncello. 

" 14. "Culprit Fay," cantata. Solos, cho- 
rus and orchestra. Words by Jos. 
Rodman Drake. 

" 15. Trio, No. 3 (D minor). Piano, vio- 
lin, and violoncello. 

This list does not include many small pieces, I joint editor with H. C. Eddy of "The Church 
published and unpublished, having no opus and Concert Organist," a work of 127 pages, 
number attached to them. Mr. Gleason is the | containing various compositions for the organ, 



original and selected, with pedalling, finger- 
ing, and registration marked. It was recently 
published by E. Schuberth & Co., New York, 
and has already reached a second edition. He 
has also for several years devoted all his lei- 
sure time to the composition, both words and 
music, of the grand romantic opera, " Monte- 
zuma." The scene is laid in Mexico, and the 
work deals with Mexican religious beliefs and 
customs. About one year yet will be required 
for its completion, but various selections have 
been given, which show that when completed 
it will take its place as the equal of any 
American operatic work ever produced. A 
number of terse, pungent articles which have 
appeared in different musical publications have 
made Mr. Gleason favorably known as a 

Oleilll, Hope, contralto singer, was born 
in the state of Pennsylvania, but the family 
removed to Iowa when she was very young. 
From 1867 to 1871 she studied at the Iowa 
State Normal Academy of Music, Iowa City, 
where she resided. She then studied at Chi- 
cago for two or three years. In 1875 she went 
to Europe and was introduced to Wartel by 
Marie Roze. With him she studied about a 
year, as she also did with Mme.Viardot-Garcia. 
After this she went to Milan and finished with 
Lamperti. Her operatic debut was at Malta 
in 1879, as Pierotto in " Linda." She has 
sung much in England, mainly in concerts 
and oratorio. During the season of 1S82-83 
and that of 18S3-84 she sang in the principal 
cities of this country, and was everywhere 
well received. 

Goldbeck, Robert, pianist, composer, 
and teacher, was born at Potsdam, near Ber- 
lin, Prussia, April 19, 1S39. He evinced 
striking musical talent when a boy, and at- 
tracted the attention of prominent persons in 
his native town, chiefly that of Alexander von 
Humboldt, through whose influence an intro- 
duction to the King of Prussia was managed, 
at a concert expressly arranged for this pur- 
pose. Goldbeck was, in consequence of this, 
sent to the great master of the piano, Henry 
Litolff (Brunswick), under whom he pursued 
the higher branches of piano playing and 
composition. His first teacher in piano and 
harmony was his uncle, the brother of his 
mother, Louis Kohler, the pupil of the 
Knight von Seyfried (in turn pupil and friend 

of Beethoven). Provided with letters from 
Humboldt for members of the highest circles 
of Parisian and London society, notably of 
the latter, the Duke of Devonshire, in 
honor of the rising young artist, threw open 
the famous picture gallery of Devonshire 
House, Piccadilly, there to have him appear in 
a concert. In 1861 Goldbeck came to New 
York, where he wrote the greater number of 
his larger compositions, such as his five sym- 
phonic pieces for piano and orchestra (repeat- 
edly performed by the Philharmonic societies 
of New York and Brooklyn), two piano con- 
certos with orchestra, his "Symphony Vic- 
toria," and a very large number of piano 
pieces and songs. Besides these he has writ- 
ten two trios for piano, violin, anil 'cello; a 
quintet for piano and stringed instruments, 
and a number of quartets for voices, among 
which stands foremost the "Three Fishers," 
for male voices, a composition which has been 
repeatedly given by the most celebrated sing- 
ing societies of New York, Boston, Philadel- 
phia, Chicago, and Milwaukee. At present, 
Gold heck resides in St. Louis, where he is 
the director of a prosperous College of Music, 
and from whence he issues the well-known 
"Musical Instructor" and "Musical Art," 
which have placed him in the front ranks of 
musical writers. He is an indefatigable 
worker in the cause of music, be it as a com- 
poser, teacher, pianist, or literary writer. — 
From Brenner' 's ii Handlexicon of Music.'" 

Mr. Goldbeck's stay in Paris covered a pe- 
riod of three years, during which time he 
made the acquaintance of Alexander Dumas, 
the Dutchess Geaune de Maille, Berlioz, 
Halevy, Pauseron, Henry Herz, and other 
celebrated personages, and became a great 
favorite in the highest circles of society. It 
was upon the advice of Countess Therese de 
Appongi of Hungary that he went to London, 
where he remained about eighteen months. 
After spending some time in New York, Bos- 
ton, and other eastern cities, he proceeded to 
Chicago, where he took charge of the Chicago 
Conservatory of Music, and where he resided 
for seven years. During the great Chicago 
fire of October, 1871, he lost many of his 
manuscripts, and among them that of the 
"Symphony Victoria." Some seven or eight 
years ago he removed to St. Louis, where he 
was for some time one of the directors of the 



Beethoven Conservatory. He also occu- 
pied the post of conductor of the St. Louis 
1 larmonic Society. As a composer, especially 
of vocal music, he shows great ingenuity and 
originality, and is one of the few composers 
who have something like a style of their own. 
As a teacher he is unusually successful and 
his pupils are numbered by the thousands. 
His playing is distinguished for clearness of 
execution, great expression, and high spirit. 
Mr. Goldbeck recently (December, 1S85) re- 
moved to New York City, where he is engaged 
in teaching, giving piano recitals, and con- 

GrOltleil Legend. A cantata composed 
by Dudley Buck. The libretto is formed of 
extracts from Longfellow's celebrated poem, 
"The Golden Legend." There are fourteen 
numbers, three of which are wholly instru- 
mental. In general style the work, which is 
for solos, chorus and full orchestra, somewhat 
resembles those of Berlioz, and is essentially 
modern in every respect. It was written in 
competition for the prize of $1000 offered by 
the Cincinnati May P'estival Association in 
1879 for the best composition by a native born 
American composer, and was awarded the 
prize. Performed at the Festival in May, 

G-ottschalk, Louis Moreau, one of the 
most popular and gifted of American pianists; 
was born May 8, 1829, at New Orleans, La. 
His father, Edward Gottschalk, came to this 
country from England, and his mother's name 
was Aimee Marie de Brasle. At an early age 
his musical talents began to manifest them- 
selves, and when about four years old he was 
placed under the instruction of a Mr. Letel- 
lier, a French musician of New Orleans. 
When six years old he also began to study the 
violin under a Mr. Ely. His progress was 
very rapid, and about this time he was once 
permitted to play the organ in church. At the ' 
age of eight years he appeared in public as a j 
player, and gave a concert for the benefit of a 
Mr. Miolan, a violinist at the French opera. 
In 1842 he was sent to Paris to complete his j 
studies, where for a short time he took lessons ! 
of Charles Halle, but shortly after was placed 
under Camille Stamaty, and at the age of; 
thirteen began to study harmony with M- 1 
Maledan. Shortly after this he assumed the 
rdle of a composer, his first pieces being two 

ballads, called "Ossian," followed by "Danse 
des Ombres." In the summer of 1846 he 
went on a tour through the Vosges. During 
the winter of 1846 and 1847 he gave a series 
of concerts with Berlioz, at the Italian opera, 
which were very successful. In the summer 
of 1847 he made a tour of Switzerland. Re- 
turning to Paris in December, he gave many 
concerts. In 1849 he journeyed through 
France and Spain, everywhere meeting with a 
flattering reception. His stay in Spain was 
lengthened to two years, and it was not until 
the autumn of 1852 that he returned to Paris. 
Early in 1853 he arrived in New York, where 
he gave his first concert Feb. nth, at Niblo's 
Garden, and was well received. His second 
concert occurred Feb. 17th, when he rendered 
many of his own compositions. Oct. 18, 1853, 
he made his first appearance in Boston, at the 
Music Hall, but was rather coldly received. 
At a second concert soon after he fared 
better. During the winter of 1S53 and 1854 he 
gave concerts in the Middle States, and then 
went to New Orleaas. In September he re- 
turned to New York and gave performances 
in Syracuse, Albany, and other cities of 
the State. The following November he 
went to Philadelphia, and shortly after to 
the West Indies, via New Orleans. His 
stay there was protracted to six years, 
during which time he gave concerts and 
conducted musical performances. In Feb- 
ruary, 1S62, he returned to New York, and 
the time of the ensuing summer was spent in 
giving concerts in various parts of the coun- 
try-. His first appearance at Chicago was 
made April 14, 1S62, when he was supported 
by Carlotta Patti, George Simpson, Morine, 
and Carl Bergmann. In 1S64 he made a tour 
of Canada and part of the West, and in June, 
1865, sailed for California. He then went to 
Chili, and gave concerts, etc., there and in 
other South American States. In May, 1869, 
he went to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and there 
prepared for a grand festival, which took 
place Nov. 26th, at the Opera House. The 
following day he was seized with a severe 
illness. On Dec. 8th he was taken to Tijuca, 
a plateau a short distance from the city, in 
hopes that the change would benefit him. 
There he died Dec. 18, 1869. 

As a pianist Gottschalk Mas refined, grace- 
ful, and suave to the hist degree, though not 



incapable of imparting a force and depth of 
feeling to his playing. His compositions are 
full of the same characteristics, but devoid of 
any originality and little calculated to endure. 
Some of his many pieces are "Bannier," 
" Savane," and " Bamboula," 1844; " Man- 
cenillier," " Chasse de jeune Henri," 
" Songe d'une Nuit d'Ete," and " La Mors- 
sonneuse Mazurka," 1847; "Carnival de 
Venise;" "Jerusalem;" "Chant de Soldat," 
" Ricordati," and "Valse Poetique," 1857 ; 
"March Solennelle," "Minuit a Seville," and 
" Reflets du Passe," 1858; three insignificant 
pieces under the name of "Seven Octaves," 
1859; "Mauchega" (ettide), "Souvenir de la 
Havane," " Ardennes," " Jeunesse Ma- 
sourka," "La Chute des Feuilles," and a duo, 
i860; " Polonia," 1861; "O ma Charmante" 
(caprice), " Suis Moi " (caprice), and 
" Berceuse," 1862 ; several songs, 1863 ; 
"La Colombe," "Ojos Criollos^' "Miserere 
du Trovatore," "Reponds" (duo), overture 
to William Tell, and songs, 1864; and a song 
and duo, " La Gallina," 1865. " Life and 
Letters of Gottschalk," by Octavia Hensel 
( Boston, O. Ditson & Co., 1S70), is a romantic 
biography, pleasant to read but of little value 
to the historian. A sketch of his life and 
works has lately been prepared by his sister, 
Clara Gottschalk. 

Goulttj Nathaniel Dater, born at , 

Chlemsford, Mass., in 1789, was one of the ; 
early American composers and teachers, a 
contemporary of Mason and Hastings. He j 
was very successful as a teacher and conduct- j 
ed a. great many singing schools. According 
to his own statement he had no less than fifty j 
thousand pupils in these schools. The fol- i 
lowing are his works, all of which were pub- ! 
lished at Boston: "The Social Harmony" j 
(1823), 152 pages, 4to ; "National Church 
Harmony" (1832); "Sacred Minstrel" (1840); 1 
"Companion for the Psalmist, containing > 
original Music for Hymns of peculiar Char- I 
acter and Meter, and to most of which no 
Tunes are to be found in existing Publica- I 
tions" (1844); and "Church Music in Ameri- 
ca" (1853), 240 pages, 12 mo. The last is \ 
the most important, and while, as might be 
expected, there is considerable ambiguity and 
incorrectness, it is still of value. Gould died , 
in 1864. John W. Moore, in his "Dictionary 
of Musical Information," says that his name 

was originally Duren, but was changed in 
1806 to secure the estate of an uncle. 

Grand Conservatory of Music, 

New York City. The conservatory system 
proper did not take root in this country until 
1859. Singing-schools, conventions, and insti- 
tutes, were held prior to this, but while they 
undoubtedly prepared the way for conserva- 
tories, they were more or less imperfect and 
incomplete. In the year named, the National 
Conservatory of Music was founded by the 
elder of the Mollenhauer brothers and Lejeat. 
Though successful for awhile, a dispute 
arose among the teachers, which finally led 
to the secession of several of them and a large 
number of pupils. The seceding faction was 
taken in charge by Julius Schuberth, and 
gradually developed into what was later 
known as the New York Conservatory of 
Music. This institution prospered as long as 
Mr. Schuberth was connected with it, but upon 
his retiral it passed into the hands of those who 
were not musicians, and after considerable 
wrangling among the management and teach- 
ers, shared a fate similar to that of its parent. 
After this, the conservatory system led a 
rather checkered career in New York. Up to 
the year 1873, the following conservatories 
were inaugurated, flourished and died : The 
American Conservatory, The European Con- 
servatory, The Mason and Thomas Conserva- 
tory, Anschutz's Conservatory, The New York 
Normal Conservatory, and several others of 
less importance. The permanent artistic results 
were very small. In the spring of 1874 the 
present Grand Conservatory of Music was 
founded by Ernst Eberhard, who is an excel- 
lent musician and well qualified to take charge 
of such an institution. The success of the Con- 
servatory, which is conducted on thoroughly 
artistic principles, was not only immediate but 
has been lasting. So rapidly has the number 
oi pupils increased that larger accommodations 
were necessary, and in February of the present 
(1882) year, the Conservatory was removed 
to 46 West 23rd Street. The course of study 
at the Conservatory includes every branch of 
music. A staff of about thirty professors im- 
parts instruction. Among them are Geo. C. 
Mt'tller, G. Operti, P'rancesco Tamburello, 
William II. Walter, George W. Morgan, 
H. Maylath, and others equally well known. 
The institution is incorporated, and has a 



board of nine directors, with the following 
officers: E. Eberhard, president; Alt'. K. 
Kirkus, vice-president; Wm. Dinsmore, sec- 
retary, and E. Cure, treasurer. 

A special feature of the Conservatory is the 
artists' class in virtuoso playing fur advanced 
pianists, which has led to excellent results. 
A good library is connected with the institu- 
tion, free to pupils, which contains many val- 
uable and rare works, among them being sev- 
eral manuscripts of the 13th, 14th and 15th 
centuries. The Grand Conservatory Publish- 
ing Company issues in uniform style for the 
use of the Conservatory the principal studies 
of Bertini, Biilow, Chopin, Clementi, Tansig, 
Thalberg, Cramer, etc., as well as other 

Graupner, Gottlieb, one of the first 

foreign musicians who came to America, was 
probably born about 1740. He was oboist in 
a Hanoverian regiment band, but after obtain- 
ing an honorable discharge (April 8, 1788) 
went to London, where he played in the 
orchestra of Solomon's concerts when Haydn 
brought out his twelve symphonies. " From 
London," in the words of J. S. Dwight, "he 
came to Prince Edward's Island ; then spent 
some time in Charlestown, S. C, where he 
married, and came to Boston in 1798." He 
gathered around him some musical friends, 
and together they formed a " Philharmonic 
Society," which was the precursor of the 
Handel and Haydn Society. He also took an 
active part in the organization of the latter 
society, and was one of the three persons who 
signed the call, dated March 24, 1815. For 
some time he kept a small music store, and 
.veil engraved and published music for his 
pupils. " The Rudiments of the Art of Play- 
ing on the Pianoforte," a work of merit, was 
one which he edited. The date of his death 
we have been unable to ascertain. Mrs. 
Catherine Graupner was a prominent singer 
of her time. She died at Boston about July 
1, 1821. 

Oretltorex, IIknry W., American psal- 
modist, was born in 1816, at Boston. He 
was for some time organist at Hartford, Conn. 
Among his several compilations is the "Grea- 
torex Collection," published in 1851. Some 
of his music has come into general use. He 
died at Charleston, S. C, in 1858. 

CirisWOlil, GERTRUDE, a young but al- 
ready celebrated prima donna, was born in 1S01 
at New York City, where her father was a 
wealthy ship-owner and importer. She was 
brought up with every advantage which 
money could procure, but reverses came, and 
her father, whose health had been destroyed 
by the blow, soon died. It was then that she 
thought of turning her fine voice to some 
practical account, and, accompanied by her 
mother, left New York for Paris. Fortunately 
she was able to obtain admission to the 
Conservatoire, where, under the care of 
Barbot and Obin, she bent all her energies 
toward preparing for the stage. Innumerable 
difficulties and discouragements lay in her 
way, not the least of which was the natural 
envy of the native students, but she bravely 
met them all. At last the time for her debut 
came, which was effected at the Academie, 
Paris, June 6, 18S1, in Ambroise Thomas' 
"Ophelia," which she had studied under the 
direction of the composer himself. Her suc- 
cess was unbounded, and at the close she was 
greeted with prolonged applause. Gounod, 
Thomas, and many others, congratulated her. 
According to the rules of the Conservatoire, 
the government is entitled to her services for 
two years, but at the end of that time she will 
be free to accept such engagements (she has 
already been offered several good ones) as she 
may desire. Gounod wrote the soprano part 
of his "Redemption" with especial reference 
to her voice, which is a pure, clear, sweet 
soprano of extended range. She can take D 
in alt with scarcely an effort, and surmounts 
the hardest technical difficulties with ease. 
Miss Griswold will undoubtedly soon become 
one of the greatest operatic singers of the 
world. Her first appearance in her native 
country will be watched for with unusual 

Grounds and Rules of Music. 

A singing book published by Rev. Thomas 
Walter of Roxbury, Mass., in the year 1721. 
The title page runs thus : "The Grounds and 
Rules of Musick explained. Or an Introduc- 
tion to the Art of singing by Note : Fitted to 
the meanest Capacity. By Thomas Walter, 
A. M. Recommended by several Ministers. 
' Let everything that hath truth praise the 
Lord,' Ps. 150,6. Boston: Printed by Ben- 
jamin Mecon at the new Printing Office near 


6 9 

the Town Hall : for Thomas Johnstone, in 
Brattle Street." The book was a small ob- 
long volume, and the preface, which is dated 
"Boston, April 18, 1721," recommends that 
everyone sing with " Grace in their Hearts" 1 
that "they may make Melody to tin- /a>/</." 
Its tunes are arranged in three parts, and the J 
music is barred. That the little volume met 
with a cordial reception is evidenced by the 
fact that it passed tl rough many editions. 
The names of the "several Ministers" who 
recommended it are as follows : 

Peter Thacher, Joseph Sewell, Thomas 

Prince, John Webb, William Cooper, Thomas 
Foxcroft, Samuel Checkley, Increase Mather, 
Cotton Mather, Nehemiah Walter, Joseph 
Belcher, Benjamin Wadsworth, Benjamin 
Coleman, Nathaniel Williams, Nathaniel 

In 1764, Daniel Bailey of Newburyport, 
Mass., published "A new and complete Intro- 
duction to the Grounds and Rules of Music, 
in two books." The first book is compiled 
from that of Walter, and the second from 
Wm, Tansur's "Royal Melody." The tunes 
are arranged in three parts. 


Ha gen, Theodore, whs born April 15, ' 

1823, at Hamburg, Germany. He studied 
the piano under Jaquez Schmitt, and in 1841 
went to Paris, where he was a pupil in harmo- 
ny for two years of Kastner. Returning to 
Germany he gave concerts, in which he intro- 
duced some of his own compositions. About 
this time he began to be known as a musical 
writer, and contributed articles to many Ger- 
man publications, especially Schumann's 
"Neue Zeitschrift fiir Musik." He was em- 
ployed as musical editor of a Hamburg daily 
paper, and soon after published his book, 
'•Civilization and Music," which was followed 
in 1848 by his "Musical Novels." These | 
were so successful as to be translated into 
French and English. In 1854 he came to 
this country, and having made the acquaint- 
ance of William Mason at Weimar, he was 
offered the editorship of " The Musical Ga- 
zette," a new publication about to be started 
by the Mason brothers. At the end of about 
six months it was consolidated with the " New 
York Musical Review and Gazette," of which 
he also became editor. In 1862 he became 
both editor and proprietor. He was little 
known as a practical musician, but as a writer 
he took a prominent place. He died at New j 
York, Dec. 27, 187 1. 

Hail, Columbia. One of the most 
popular of American national songs. The 
words were written by Judge Joseph Hopkin- 
son in 1798 for a friend of his. This friend 
was a singer at one of the theatres of Phila- 
delphia (then capitol of the United States 
and the piece was first sung at this theatre. 
Its success was instantaneous, and by common 
consent it became a national song. The mel- 
ody is from the " President's March," then a 
very popular piece, but as to whom the com- 
poser was is not known. The melody as 
usually sung is here given with the words : 

— Hail, Columbia, happy land ! 
Hail, ye heroes ! heaven-born band ! 
Who fought and bled in freedom's cause 
And when the storm of war was gone. 
Enjoyed the peace your valor won. 
Let independence be our boast, 
Ever mindful what it cost ; 
Ever grateful for the prize, 
Let its altar reach the skies. 


2. — Immortal patriots ! rise once more, 
Defend your rights, defend your shore ; 

||: Let no rude foe with impious hand :|| 
Invade the shrine where sacred lies, 
Of toil and blood the well-earned prize. 
While ottering peace, sincere and just, 
In heaven we place a manly trust, 
That truth and justice will prevail , 
And every scheme of bondage fail. 

3. — Sound, sound the trump of fame ! 

Let Washington's great name 
||:Ring through the world with great applause :|| 

Let every clime to freedom dear 

Listen with a joyful ear. 

With equal skill, with god-like power, 

He governs in the fearful hour 

Of horrid war, or guides with ease 

The happier times of honest peace. 

4. — Behold the Chief who now commands, 
Once more to serve his country stands. 

||: The rock on which the storm will beat :|| 
But armed in virtue, firm and true, 
His hopes are fixed on heaven and you. 
When gloom obscured Columbia's day, 
When hope was sinking in dismay, 
His steady mind from changes free , 
Resolved on death or Liberty. 

Refrain : — Firm, united, let us be, 
Rallying round our liberty ; 
As a band of brothers joined, 
Peace and safety we shall find. 

Hall, General William, was born May 
13, 1796, atTarrytown (then Sparta), N.Y. He 
was apprenticed to a musical instrument man- 
ufacturer in Albany, and in 181 2 went to New 
York City, where in 1821 he commenced 
business in partnership with John Firth, 
an Englishman, under the firm name of Firth 
.\; Hall. In 1832 the firm became Firth, 
Hall & Bond, but in 1847 Gen. Hall withdrew 
and established a business in conjunction with 
his son, James F., under the name ofWm. 
Hall & Son. Gen. Hall was for some time 
president of the Sacred Music Society. He 
died May 3, 187/). 

Hailierik, ASGER, was born April 8, 
1843, at Copenhagen, Denmark. His father 
was professor in a university, and he, being 
designed for a similar position in life, was 
sent to college. His taste for music, how- 
ever, was very strong, and lie persist- 
ently studied it without the aid of a 
teacher. When fifteen years of age he 
wrote a cantata for solo voices, chorus, 
and orchestra, which was not without merit. 
Meanwhile he continued to attend school, and 
it was not until 1859 that his father consented 

to employ a music teacher for him. From 
this time his progress was very rapid. He 
was successively placed under Gade ami 
Haberbier. In 1861 he went to London, and 
from there to Berlin, where he studied three 
winters under von Btilow. In the spring of 
1S63 he left Berlin for Paris, where he was 
fortunate enough to become the pupil (and 
only one) of Berlioz. After a stay of two 
years in the French capital, he returned to 
Copenhagen, and there brought out his first 
opera, "Tovelille," in five acts. In 1866 he 
again went to Paris, composed his opera of 
" Hjalmar and Ingeborg," and then in com- 
pany with Berlioz spent the ensuing winter 
in Vienna. The following year (1867) he was 
I one of the jury that awarded the musical prizes 
at the exhibition in Paris. He was also dec- 
I orated with a gold medal for his " Hymne 
a la paix," written for solo, chorus, orchestra, 
two organs, thirteen harps, and four church 
[ bells. After this he visited Italy, and while 
! there wrote his opera of "La Vendetta,', 
produced at Milan in 1870. At Vienna he wrote 
the opera of "The Traveler.'' 

In the autumn of 1870 he came to the United 
States, and was engaged as director of the 
conservatory of music connected with the 
Peabody Institute, Baltimore, a position which 
he still (Jan., 1S85) retains. Since coming 
here his principal compositions have been five 
Norse suites for orchestra. A complete list 
of his works is as follows: "Roland," op. 1 ; 
orchestra] fantasia, op. 2 ; symphony in C 
minor, op. 35a set of songs, op. 4* ; cantata, 
op. 5 ; quintet in C minor, for piano, violins, 
viola, and violoncello, op. 6 ; overture in 1 ) 
minor, op. 7 ; fantasia, op. S ; fantasia, op. 
9; " Le voile," op. 10*; Christmas can- 
| tata, op. 11; "Tovelille," an opera in five 
acts, op. 12; set of songs, op. 13*; Ave 
Maria, op. 14*; march, op. 15; " Hymn to 
Liberty," op. 16; "Hymne a la paix," op. 
17*; " Hjalmar and Ingeborg," an opera in 
five acts, op. 18 ; Jewish trilogy in C minor 
for orchestra, op. 19*; " La Vendetta," opera, 
op. 20*, "The Traveler, op. 21*; first Norse 
suite, cp. 22*; second Norse suite, op. 23*; 
i third Norse suite, op. 24*; fourth Norse suite, 
j op. 25*; fifth Norse suite, op. 26*; Romance 
I for violoncello, op. 27*; May-dance, op. 28*; 
Symphonie poetique, No. I, in F major, op. 
29*; Opera without words, op. 30*; Christain 


trilogy, for orchestra, chorus, baritone solo 
and organ, op. 31*; Symphonie tragique, No. 

2, op. 32* ; Symphonie lyrique, No. 3, op. 33* 
The numbers that are marked with an asterisk 
are those that have been published ; the rest 
remain in manuscript. 

Air. Ilamerik is a thorough musician, has a 
rare faculty of conducting, and is a fine com- 
poser. All of his works are pervaded by that 
element which is the characteristic of all 
Norse composers, and in this respect he closely 
resembles Gade. His summers are spent in 
visiting his old home and in traveling in 

Hanchett, HENRY G., pianist, was born 
Aug. 29, 1S53, at Syracuse, N. V. When 
three years old he began to take music lessons 
of Ids parents, and at the age of six Was placed 
under the care of Ernest Held, an excellent 
musician of his native city, with whom he 
studied nine years. Considerable of his time 
was occupied with childish amusements, bu. 
lie became proficient enough to master 
Eiszt's arrangement of Schuberts "Wanderer" 
ai d Beethoven's op. 7. Awaking to the ne- 
cessity of study, he set himself to work with 
renewed dilligence. Upon proposing 1o 
become a professional musician he was 
opposed by his father, and received no more 
lessons for some time, but continued to prac- 
tice. About 1870 he took some lessons in 
theory from A. J. Goodrich, by whom he was 
advised and encouraged. Unremitted appli- 
cation, however, brought its penalty, and in 
1872 he was attacked by congestion of the 
brain, which produced intermittent blindness. 
Four years of absolute rest from study, plenty 
of exercise, and medical treatment cured him, 
but it was not until 1878 that he fully resumed 
study and practice. In 1879 he made his debut 
as a player at Chickering Hall, New York 
City. About this time he received and ac- 
cepted an offer to become a professor in the 
Beethoven Conservatory, St. Eouis, with 
which institution he was connected a year or 
two. He is now (1885) located in New York. 
In 1881 he went to Germany and examined 
the methods of study there. While in Berlin 
he was asked by Dr. Kullak to fill a vacant 
post as professor of the piano at the Conserva- 
torium. Mr. Hanchett is not only a tine 
pianist, but an unusually gifted musical Writer 
and lecturer. 

Harmcmia Americana. A collection 

of church music published at Boston, in 1791, 
by Samuel Holyoke. The title-page reads ; 
•'Harmonia Americana, Containing a concise 
introduction to the grounds of Music, with a 
variety of airs suitable to Divine Worship, 
an 1 the use of Musical Societies, consisting of 
three and four parts. Boston, Jan. 24, 1791." 
In the preface, the author condemns the 
"fuguing" pieces, which were then quite 
popular. At the time the book was published, 
Holyoke was but twenty years of age. 

Harmonica. An instrument invented 
or rather perfected by Benjamin Franklin, 
who called it "Armonica." It consisted of 
a box or trough mounted on legs, through 
which ran a spindle having a wheel affixed at 
one end. On this spindle were arranged in 
regular order, according to their size, glass 
bells or basons. A treadle was connected 
with the wheel on the spindle, by which the 
glasses were made to revolve. The music 
was produced by applying the fingers to the 
edges of the glasses, which were kept damp 
by the water in the trough. The harmonica 
seems to have been quite fashionable during 
the latter part of the last and the early part of 
this century, especially in Europe. The first 
notable performer thereon was Miss Marianne 
Davis, for whom Hasse composed music. 
Another celebrated player, though blind, was 
Marian na Kirchgiissner. So much in favor 
did the harmonica become, that several great 
musicians were induced to compose music for 
it. Mozart wrote an adagio and rondo in C 
for harmonica, flute, oboe, viola and violon- 
cello. Beethoven also wrote a short piece for 
it for his friend Duncker, in 1814 or 1815. 
Attempts at something like the harmonica 
were made some time before Franklin brought 
out his instrument, and the capacity of glasses 
to produce music seems to have been known 
as early as the middle of the 17th century. 
It remained, however, for Franklin's practical 
mind to make a practical musical instrument 
from them. Attempts have been made to 
modify or improve the harmonica, but without 
success thus far. 

Hastings, Dr. Thomas, was born Oct. 
15, 1784, at Washington, Eitchfield Co., 
Conn. In 1796 his parents removed to Oneida 
County, N. Y., and in 1819 he published "Mu- 
sica Sacra; or Springfield and Utica Collections 


United." He was assisted in the labor by 
Solomon Warriner of Utica. His " Disserta- 
tion on Musical Taste," which created a great 
deal of discussion, was published in 1S22. 
In 1S23 he removed from Albany to Utica, 
N. Y., where he became editor of a religious 
publication. He continued to act in this 
capacity nine years, writing many articles on 
sacred music. These gained him numerous 
requests to lecture. In 1S32, upon the invitation 
of twelve New York churches, he removed to 
that city. From that time he devoted himself 
to the interests of church music. His works are 
••Spiritual Songs" (Utica, 1831 );"The Christ- 
ain Psalmodist " (1S36), in the preparation of 
which he was assisted by Dr. William Patton;" 
"Manhattan Collection," 1837; "SacredLyre" 
(1840); a collection of juvenile and nursery 
songs, issued about the same time;"The Psalmo- 
dist" (1844) "The Choralist"( 1 847) "Mendels- 
sohn Collection" (1847); "The Psalmista" 
(1851), these last four being edited in con- 
junction with Wm. B. Bradbury; and "Selah " 
(1S56). Besides these he issued "Devotional 
Hymns and Poems," of his own writing, and 
" The Church Melodies," in which he was 
assisted by his son, Rev. T. S. Hastings, and 
edited two collections of hymns and tunes for 
tbe American Tract Society ar.d the Presby- 
terian Board of Publication. During the latter 
part of life he wrote his " Forty Choirs," 
which had an extensive circulation, and re- 
vised his work on musical taste. His poetical 
abilities were considerable, and he wrote 
nearly six hundred hymns, many of which 
have come to be classed as standards in church 
1 loetry. He was also a fine tenor singer. His 
death occurred May 15, 1872, and was the 
ending of an eminently useful career. 

Haiick, Minnie, was bom Nov. 16, 
1852, at New York. Her father, as the name 
indicates, was a German, but her mother was 
an American lady. Her first public appearance 
was at a benefit concert in New Orleans in 1865. 
She studied with Sig. Errani at New York, 
and in 1S6S made her djlmt on the stage as 
Aminii in "Sonnambula,"under the care of Max 
Maretzek. Aftersinging in the principal cities 
of this country she visited England and appeared 
at Covent Garden, Oct. 26, 186S, in the same 
/,'//. hater, she sang in Paris, at the Grand 
Opera, Vienna, and subsequently at Moscow, 
Berlin and Brussels, everywhere with almost 

phenomenal success. In March, 1S76, she- 
sang at the Hungarian National Theatre, 
Pesth, before Wagner, assuming the rdles of 
Elsa in "Lohengrin" and Senla in "The 
Flying Dutchman" to that composer's sat 
isfaction. Meanwhile she filled an engage- 
ment of several years at the Imperial Opera, 
Vienna. In 1S77 she sang at Berlin with such 
success that the Emperor of Germany con- 
ferred on her the title of "Imperial German 
Chamber Singer," an honor shared only by 
Patti and Lucca. Jan. 2, 187S, at Brussels, 
she created her celebrated rdle of Carmen, in 
which she has never been equaled. She re- 
turned to her native country in the autumn of 
the same year, and achieved great triumphs 
in the leading cities. In 18S0 she sang again 
in London. The following year she was mar- 
ried to Ernst von Hesse- Wartegg, a literary 
gentleman of Vienna, we believe, but still 
retains her own name upon the stage. Her 
voice is a mezzo-soprano of great force and 
richness, and her use of it proclaims her to be 
a true artist. She sings with facility in Ital- 
ian, German, French and Hungarian, and is 
well versed in literature and the fine arts. 

Hays, William Shakspeare, one of 
America's most famous song writers, was born 
July 19, 1837, at Louisville, Ky. He evi- 
denced his love of music when a boy by learn- 
ing to play several musical instruments. In 
1856 he began his career as a song writer. 
His first song of any consequence was " Evan- 
geline," published by Silas Brainard, Cleve- 
land, Ohio, which had a large sale. It was 
followed by others, among which were "Wan- 
dering Refugee," " Lone Grave by the Sea," 
"Drummer Boy of Shiloh," and "My South- 
ern Sunny Home," all of which were more 
or less successful. Thus far Mr. Hays had 
written more for pleasure and amusement than 
anything else, and the publishers pocketed all 
the profits, which was no doubt very agreea- 
ble to them. During the war, however, he 
corresponded with several of the leading music 
publishing firms of the country to ascertain 
what inducement they would offer him. The 
replies were so discouraging that he resolved 
never to let another of his songs appear in 
print. Some time after this he met John L. 
Peters, music-publisher, Cincinnati, Ohio, 
(subsequently of New York), who offered him 
S25 each for one or two of his songs. An 



:ls entered into whore 
L all. of. his songs. H 
Mr. Peters for man 
tempting offers fror 

agreement was afterwai 
l>y Mr. Peters publish© 
continued to write for 
years, though receiving 
other publishers. 

The number of Mr. Hays' songs is some- 
thing like 300. To the most of these he wrote 
the words as well as the music. Some of the 
more popular of his productions of which we 
have the name and number of copies sold are 
as follows : " Write me a Letter from Home " 
(350,000), "We Paited by the River Side" 
(300,000), "Driven from Home" (300,000), 
"Nora O'Neal "(250,000), "Shamus O'Brien" 
(200,000), "Mollie Darling" (150,000), 
"You've Been a Friend to Me" (60,000, 
" The Moon is out Tonight, Love " (60,000), 
" Katy McFerran " (60,000), "I'm Still a 
Friend to You" (50,000), "Mistress Jenks 
of Madison Square " (40,000). As these fig- 
ures were made several years ago they have 
since been considerably increased — for some 
of the songs still have a fair sale. The total 

Heath, W. F., was born at Corinth, Vt, 
June 11, 1S43. Early in life all his spare 
ime was devoted to the study of music. Dur- 
ng the Civil War he was leader of an Illinois 
regimental band, which headed the proces- 
sion at President Lincoln's funeral. He sub- 
sequently studied under the best teachers in 
Boston. After idling the positions of teacher 
of music in the normal school at Iowa City 
and in the public schools of Marengo, Iowa, 
he accepted a similar position at Fort Wayne, 
Ind., which he has tilled for thirteen years. 
He has prepared several works for use in pub- 
lic schools, among which is " Heath's Com- 
mon-School Music Readers.'; He was for 
three years secretary and treasurer of the 
Music Teachers' National Association. 

Heimiiig-es, Dora, was born Aug. 2, 
1S60, at Cleveland, Ohio, where her father is 
a resident physician. She evidenced not only 
a great love of music but more than ordinary 
vocal powers at an early age. After some ob- 
jections on the part of her father, she was 

mber of copies sold of all Mr. Hays' songs P ermitted to commence studying for a singer 

' ' Her first lessons were received 

must be several millions. Their extraordinary 
popularity is due to charming melodies, easy 
and effective accompaniments, and a genuine 
feeling. They were written for the masses 
and by the masses appreciated. Mr. Hays has 
a wife and one child, and resides at Louisville, 
which has always been his home. He has for 
more than twenty-five years been engaged in 
editorial work, and is now connected with the 
Louisville Courier- Journal. 

Hayter, A. U., was born Dec. 16, 170,9, 
at Cillingham, England. He was instructed 
in music by Mr. Corfe, organist of Salisbury 
Cathedra], whom he afterwards succeeded, re- 
taining the post several years, lie then be- 
came organist of Hereford Cathedral. In 
1.S35 he came to this country, and was ap- 
pointed organist of Grace Church, New York. 
Soon after he went to Boston and became 
organist of Trinity Church, which position he 
held for a quarter of a century. From 1838 
to 1S49 he was also organist of the Handel 
and Haydn Society. In 1862 he received 
a stroke of paralysis from which he never 
fully recovered, and died at Boston, July 28, 

1873. His son, George F. Hayter, is an 

able musician, and was for some time organist 
of the Handel and Haydn Society. 


Mees of her native city, 
ively studied under Sig. 
fanoin at Cincinnati, Ms 

of Arthur 
She then success- 
Villa and Sig. Stef- 
^ Maretzek of New 

in singers. 
was born Feb. 18, 
le ai>- 

York, and Mine. La Grange of Paris. During 
much of this time she sang at concerts and 
oratorios. She made her operatic ,.','/'/// as 
Lenom in "Fidelio" at the Cincinnati Opera 
Festival. She has sung much both in the 
East and West and already gained considera- 
ble reputation. If her life is spared she will 
take a front rank among Americ 
Her voice is a fine, cle; 

Hensehel, Geor< 

1850, at Breslau. When twelve years old h 
peared in public as a pianist, and in 1867 en- 
tered the Conservatorium atLeipsic, where lie 
studied under Moscheles, Richter, and Gotze. 
In 1870 he went to Berlin and placed himself 
under the care of Kiel, with whom he studied 
composition, and Schulze, with whom he 
studied the art of singing. His voice developed 
into a baritone of great force and richness. 
He speedily achieved such fame as a singer 
that his services were requested in various 
parts of Europe. In 1877 be went to England, 
where he met with great success and where he 
decided to locate. In 1SS0 he came to this 
country on a visit, and soon after married Miss 


Lillian Bailey. He was offered various engage- 
ments in Boston, where he is still (November, 
1SS2) staying, but whether he will make this 
country his future home or not is unknown. 
His compositions are (juite numerous, and in- 
clude a number of tine songs and orchestral 
pieces. He has also set the 130th psalm for 
solos, chorus, and orchestra (op. 30). 

Mill, Uriah C, was born in Creenwich 
street, New York, about 1802. He learned 
the violin at an early age, and while a young 
man played in different orchestras. In 1S36 
be went to Germany and studied under Spohr 
at Cassel for some time. He was conductor 
of the Sacred-Music Society, New York, for 
some time, and the moving spirit in the forma- 
tion of the Philharmonic Society in 1842. He 
invented a kind of piano (which he claimed 
would never get out of tune) in which small 
bells were substituted for wires. This he ex- 
hibited in New York and then in London. 
Afterwards, he resided in Cincinnati for sev- 
eral years. On his return East he settled at 
Patterson, N. J., and invested in real estate, 
but it proved an unfortunate venture. This 
with numerous other disappointments com- 
pletely crushed him, and he took his own life 
in September, 1875. Hill was not a remark- 
able musician, but his enthusiasm and devotion 
gave him success where others of greater 
ability might have failed, and his sad end is to 
be greatly regretted. 

Hiltz-Grleason, Mrs. Grace, was born 
about 1S54, on the banks of the Kennebec, 
near Portland, Maine, and while still quite 
young was taken by her mother to Providence, 
R. I., to be educated. There she pursued her 
studies for nine years, and in 1S72 went to 
Chicago, accompanied by her mother. For 
the study of singing she placed herself under 
the care of Mrs. Sara Hershey-Eddy, with 
whom she remained four years. She then 
went to Boston and received instruction from 
George L. Osgood, Charles R. Adams, Julius 
Jardan, and Georg Henschel. She continued 
her studies at Boston for nearly two years, and 
during a portion of the time sang in the Union 
( 'ongregationalist Church, Providence, R. I., 
at a salary of $1,000 a year, also filling manv 
concert engagements. In 187S she was mar- 
ried to Frederic Grant Gleason, the well- 
known teacher and composer. After singing 
the soprano solo in Verdi's " Requiem," at 

the Worcester Festival, she went to Paris to 
complete her studies, receiving lessons from 
Mme. Viardot-Garcia, Mine. La Grange, and 
Sig. Sbrilgia. She sang in public several 
times with good success. Proceeding to Lon- 
don she filled several engagements as a con- 
cert singer, ami received a flattering offer to 
make a tour of the English provinces. This 
she was obliged to decline, as she had already 
been secured for the second Heimendahl 
Symphony Concert at Chicago, Dec. 19, 1882, 
where she made her re-appearance and was 
received with the warmest tokens of apprecia- 
tion. Her voice is a pure, rich soprano, of 
great range and flexibility, and her enuncia- 
tion nearly perfect. As an interpreter of 
Franz's, Schumann's, and Schubert's songs 
she has few equals in this country. 

Holimail, Richard H., was born in 
Manchester, England, May 24, 1831, and re- 
ceived his early musical instruction from his 
father, a pupil of Kalkbrenner and Hummel. 
Later, he studied under Pleyel, Moscheles, 
Rubinstein, Dohler, Thalberg, and Liszt. In 
1847 he came to New York, where he made his 
dt'lntl at the " Tabernacle," playing Thalberg's 
"Sonnambula" and De Meyer's "Semiramide" 
in a manner that called forth the praise of 

' every one. Shortly after he pla yed at a concert 
of the Philharmonic Society, and in 1848 un- 

| dertook a concert tour with Burke the violinist, 
traveling all over this country and Canada. 
He was soloist of the first series of the Jenny 
Lind concerts. In 1854 he was elected hon- 
orary member of the Philharmonic Society, 
New York, and has frequently appeared at its 
concerts. After this he settled in New York as 
ateacber and composer and has been very suc- 
cessful. When von Bulow came to the United 
States in 1875 he again appeared in public 
and played several duos with him. In January, 
1879, he performed Brahm's concert (op. 10) 
at Chickering Hall — the first time it was heard 
in this country. He rarely ever appears in 
public except at the Philharmonic concerts. 
Mr. Hoffman's works arc quite numerous, 
and almost exclusively for the piano. Many 
of them are published in Germany and Eng- 
land, and have become very popular. As a 
player he has great command of his instrument, 
a remarkably brilliant but exquisitely clear ex- 
ecution, and a pure style, which charms all 
his bearers. As a teacher he is highly es- 

7 ( < 


teemed, not only for his abilities but also for 
his gentlemanly qualities. He is still (Novem- 
ber, 1885) locatefl in New York. 

Edward, brother of the preceding, is the 
writer of many .popular piano pieces, which 
have hail a wide circulation. 

HollUStOCk, KARL, was born in 182S, I 
in Brunswick, Germany. After giving con- 
certs with goo I success in the principal Euro- 
pean countries, he came to the United States in 
1848, gave concerts in Boston an J other cities, > 
and finally settled in Philadelphia as pianist, 
violinist, and teacher. His sister, ADELAIDE, 
also born at Brunswick, accompanied him on 
his concert tours, and resided with him at 
Philadelphia until her death, which occurred 
in Januaiy, 1856. She was a line pianist. 

Hol<U>u, Oliver, an American psal- 
modist, was born in 1765, probably at Charles- 
town, Mass., where he resided. He was a 
carpenter by trade, but devoted much of his 
time to music, and opened a book and music 
store. In 1793 he published his first collec- 
tion, " The American Harmony," consisting 
of tunes arranged for three and four parts, the 
most of which were original. Soon after he 
published " Union Harmony, or a Universal 
Collection of Sacred Music," and in 1795 
associated himself with Hans Gram and Sam- 
uel Holyoke. Together they produced " The 
Massachusetts Compiler." In 1797 he was 
engaged by Isaiah Thomas of Worcester, 
Mass., to edit the "Worcester Collection of 
Sacred Harmony," of which several editions 
were issued. During the latter part (if his 
life he taught and composed very little, but 
retained his love for music. His tunes were 
very popular in their day, and some of them 
are still so. "Coronation" alone will per- 
petuate his name to the end of time. He 
died, according to "Moore's Encyclopaedia of 
Music,'' at Charlestown in 1S31, though some 
writers give 1834 as the date. 

Hook (E. & G. G.) «fc Hastings.— 

This church (pipe) organ building firm of 
Boston is one of the leading ones in America, 
and ranks among the oldest and best in the 
world. It was founded by the brothers Hook 
in 1827. In 1855 Mr. F. H. Hastings was 
first engaged with them, and now succeeds 
them. Mr. George G. Hook died in 1880, 
aged 73 years, and his brother, Elias, the fol- 
lowing year, aged 76. By exercising dilli- 

gence ami turning out only the best work, they 
built up a large trade, that now requires an 
extensive manufactory, which is fitted with 
every convenience for turning out large or 
small organs. Each department is under the 
supervision of an expert, who employs only 
the most skilled workmen. The firm pos- 
sesses and applies all improvements of worth, 
being in constant communication with emi- 
nent foreign builders, and is an institution of 
which Americans may well be proud. Mr. 
Hastings, who now carries on the business, 
lias been over thirty years an organ builder, 
and to his energy, enterprise and skill the 
establishment owes much of its rapid growth 
and prosperity. He became a partner of the 
Messrs. I look in 1S65, and from that time 
was the active manager. Up to the present 
time the old firm name (Hook <X: Hastings) 
has been retained, which has become so well 
known in this country and Europe. The man- 
ufactory is one of the objective points toward 
which music-loving persons visiting Boston 
gravitate, as visitors are always cordially wel- 

Up to 1S55, the Messrs. Hook had built 170 
organs. Since then (March, 1886) this num- 
ber has been increased to over [,300. During 
the years 1882, 1883 and 18S4, the number of 
instruments turned out was respectively 63, 67 
and 53. Among those more celebrated, and 
which are equal to any in point of excellence 
and finish, are the following ones: 

1. The organ in the Music Hall, Cincinnati, 
built in 187S, which is one of the very Iargesl 
in this country as well as in the world. Its 
dimensions are: Width, 47 feet; depth, 30 
feet ; hight, 70 feet. It has 4 manuals, 96 



t,7< iS 




and 14 mechanical slops. 
re 12 pedal movements, a 
al, by which the performer 
may gradually bring into play the whole power 
of the instrument, and a carillon of 30 bell s . 
Its cost was upwards of $32,000. 

2. The organ in Tremont Temple, Boston > 
erected in 1880. It has 4 manuals, 65 stops, 
and 3,442 pipes, beside 10 pedal movements, 

>ps, and 6,237 p 




Great organ, 


Swell " 


Choir " 


Solo " 

l'edal " 


In addition, there 
grand crescendo p< 



including a grand crescendo, like that in the 
Music Hall organ, Cincinnati. In size it is 
excelled by several in this country, but 
in artistic completeness and perfection it is 
second to none. 

3. The Centennial organ, which was seen 
and admired by many who visited Philadel- 
phia in 1876. Its dimensions are : Width, 
32 feet; depth, 21 feet; bight, 40 feet. It 
has 4 manuals, 59 stops and 2,704 pipes. 

4. The organ in the Cathedral of Holy 
Cross, Boston, which was erected in 1875. 
This is probably one of the largest church or- 
gans in this country. It has 3 manuals, 83 
stops and 5,294 pipes, and is a marvel of work- 

Hopkins, Jerome, born April 4, 1836, 
at Burlington, Vt., early took up the study of 
music, and at the age of twelve years became 
organist. After awhile, he settled in New 
York, as pianist, composer, and teacher. He 
was for some time the editor of the "Philhar- 
monic Journal." His works are numerous 
and comprise church pieces, songs, piano 
pieces, fugues, and orchestral and choral 

Holyoke, Samuel, A. M., was born in 

1771, at Boxford, Mass. His father, Dr. Hol- 
yoke, soon after removed to Salem, in the same 
state. In 1791 his first collection of music 
was issued, under the name of Harmonica 
Americana. It was printed at Boston, 
from type, by Isaiah Thomas and E. T. An- 
drews, and sold by subscription. All "fugue" 
tunes, then very popular, were omitted, as 
being little suited to public worship. In 
1806 he published at Exeter, N. II., the first 
volume of the " Instrumental Assistant," a 
quarto of 80 pages, and in 1807, the second 
volume, 104 pages. The two volumes contain 
about 200 pieces arranged for various instru- 
ments. "The Columbian Repository of Sa- 
cred Harmony" appeared in 1809, a very vo- 
luminous work, containing 472 pages and 750 
pieces of music. It was also published by 
subscription, the price per copy being three 
dollars. He was associated with 0. H olden 
and Hans Gram in editing The Massachu- 
setts Compiler (1795), and at the time of 
his death was preparing a third volume of 
instrumental music. He was extensively 
known as a teacher, and highly esteemed by 
nil who knew him. His death took place at 

Concord, N. H., in the spring of 1816, being 
produced by congestion of the lungs. He 
ranks among the foremost of early American 
composers. His tune "Arnheim" is still 

Howard, Frank, whose real name is 
Delos Gardiner Spalding, was bom in 
1833, at Athens, Pa. He was a self-taught 
performer on several instruments. He led a 
roving and rather irregular life for some time, 
but in 1853 settled in Chicago. His claim to 
mention is as the composer of over 100 songs, 
many of which have become quite popular, 
though not of very high order. 

Hutchinson Family. A family of 

natural musicians, natives of Milford, New 
Hampshire, and well-known both in this 
country and England. Four of the brothers, 
born from 18 18 to 1828, were noted as tem- 
perance and anti-slavery singers, from 1846 
to 1S58. After awhile they became separated, 
and are now represented by John and Asa 
with their families. 

Hutchings, Plaisted & Co., Bos- 
ton. This firm, which has gained considera- 
ble reputation for its church organs, was 
founded in the fall of 1869, by the late Dr. J. 
H. Willcox, George S. Hutchings, Mark H. 
Plaisted, and G. V. Nordstrom. These four 
gentlemen were previously connected with the 
house of Hook & Hastings, Dr. Willcox as 
chief of the musical department, Mr. Hutch- 
ings as superintendent, and the other two as 
heads of different departments. The firm name 
was at first "J. H. Willcox & Co," which, upon 
the retirement of Dr. Willcox, in 1872, was 
changed to Hutchings, Plaisted & Co., the 
present name. In 1873 Mr. Nordstrom re- 
tired from the firm, and his place was filled 
by C. H. Preston. Mr. Preston dying in 1876, 
Mr. Hutchings and Mr. Plaisted are now the 
only members of the house. The firm has 
constructed upwards of 150 organs, mostly for 
use in this country. Instruments of their 
make may be found in the following places : 
Congregational Church, La Crosse, Wis.; 
First Baptist Church, Jackson, Mich.; Me- 
chanic's Hall, Salem, Mass. ; St. Peter's 
Church (Catholic), Philadelphia ; Presbyter- 
ian Church, Wheeling, West Va. ; Christ 
Church, Baltimore, Md.; Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, Maiden, Mass. ; Baptist Church, 
Windsor, N. S. ; Christ Church. Houston, 

7 8 


Texas ; Old South Church, Bostcn (64 regi:.- registers). The business is now (January 
ters) ; Hebrew Chapel, New Orleans; All 1886) carried on by Geo. S. Hutchings, as 
Saints Church, Worcester, Mass.; and Church successor to Hutchings, Plaisted iV Co, 

of Immaculate Conception, Lowell, Mass. (52 1 


IngallS, JEREMIAH, American psalmo- 
dist, was born March 1, 1764, at Andover, 
Mass. He was mainly self-taught in music, 
and became a fair performer on the violon- 
cello. For many years lie taught music in 
Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Vermont. 
In 1S05 he published at Exeter, N. II., "The 
Christian Harmony," a volume of 200 pages. 
He married and settled at Newberry Vt., 
removed to Rochester, in 1S10, and finally to 
Hancock, where he died April 6, 1S28. Some 
of his church tunes are s'ill in general use, 
those of "Kentucky" and "Northlield" being 
familiar to almost every church singer. 

Institute of Music, Normal. An 

institution of purely American origin and 
character. Its aim is, primarily, the prepara- 
tion of persons desiring to teach music for 
that profession and the improvement of teach- 
ers already in the work, and, secondarily, the 
advancement of musical students in general in 
the science of music and the cultivation of 
musical taste and judgment. An Institute 
generally holds four weeks, during the sum- 
mer vacation, lessons in harmony, voice-cul- 
ture, composition, vocal practice, etc., being 
given daily. Instruction is imparted by a 

I corps of from three to live teachers, each 
! specialists in their own departments. A series 
of piano recitals is always given by some 
J eminent pianist, the programs consisting of 
both classical and romantic music. Vocal 
recitals are also sometimes given. The price 
of membership in an Institute, which is gen- 
erally Sio, places it within the reach of every- 
one. This is exclusive of board, which will 
cost from $4 to 36 per week. As it is held 
during the season of the year that teachers 
j and students are most at leisure, it offers them 
a good opportunity for advancement in music. 
! The first normal institute of music was pro- 
i jected by Dr. George F. Root, ami held in 
New York City in 1852. Its faculty 
consisted of Dr. Lowell Mason, Thomas Has- 
tings, Win. B. Bradbury, and Dr. Root. For 
some years Dr. Root's was the only Normal 
Institute held. Other teachers, however, soon 
began to hold Institutes, largely modelled on 
the same plan, and they are now held in 
almost every part of the country. Among the 
best Institutes are those held by Dr. Root, 
Dr. H. R. Palmer, L. 0. Emerson, H. S. and 
W. O. Perkins, etc. The importance of these 
Institutes as a factor in the cultivation and im- 
provement of musical taste is considerable. 


Jackson, SAMUEL, was born in New 
York, Feb. 25, 1818. Mis father, James Jack- 
sou, an Englishman by birth, was an organ 
builder, and at the same trade he worked 
until of age. Meanwhile, he studied music 
with Moran, Thornton and Lozier, well-known 
teachers in their da)', and was considered a 
precocious youth. He was, at different 
periods, organist of St. Bartholomew's, Church 
of the Ascension, and Christ Church. His 
career of forty-five years as organist termin- 
ated at the Anthon Memorial Church in 1875. 
As a teacher he was very successful. Of his 
pupils may be mentioned Wm. K. Bassford, 
the eminent song compose 1- . For twenty-nine 
years he proof-read every piece of music is- 
sued by G. Schirmer, the music -publisher. 
He died at his home in Brooklyn, July 27, 
1885, leaving a family of four children, two 
sons and two daughters. His compositions 
number several hundred (besides many ar- 
rangements from other composers) and main- 
ly consist of church pieces and services and 
organ pieces. He also wrote a dictionary of 
musical terms. He was an organist of sterling 
qualities, a sound and acute theorist, 
and a conscientious and eminently successful 

tTaCObsollll, S. E., violinist, was bom at 
Mitan, Russia, in 1839. His father dying 
■when he was young, he was compelled to aid 
in supporting the family by playing the violin 
and other instruments at balls and parties. 
This state of things continued until he was 
fifteen years old, when, through the efforts of 
some friends, he was enabled to go to Riga, 
where he studied under Weller, making rapid 
progress. Four years later he was similarly 
enabled to go to Leipsic, where he entered the 
Conservatorium and had the benefit of David's 
instruction. He played at the Gewandhaus 
concerts and soon achieved a reputation that 
brought him invitations to play from various 
quarters. At the end of a year, however, he 
returned to Mitan and gave concerts in West- 
ern Russia with great success. About i860 
he accepted the position of concertmeister at 

Bremen, Germany, where he remained twelve 
years, meanwhile playing at the Gewandhaus 
and other concerts. In September, 1872, he 
came to this country and was engaged by 
Theodore Thomas as concertmeister and soloist 
in his orchestra. In this capacity he traveled 
all over the United States and was well re- 
ceived. In 1878 he was engaged as professor 
of the violin at the College of Music, Cincin- 
nati, a position which he held some four 
years. Since leaving the College he has es- 
tablished a violin school of his own. Mr. 
Jacobsohn possesses a great command of his 
instrument, good taste, and an excellent style. 

Jardine, George & Son. George 
Jardine, the head of this firm of church organ 
builders, located in New York City, was born 
at Dartford, England, Nov. 1, 1S01. He 
learned his business with the famous London 
firm of Flight ik. Robson, who were then con- 
sidered the first organ builders in England. 
Young George went to his work in a thorough 
and systematic manner, and having a natural 
taste for drawing, he studied architecture in 
all its various details under competent mas- 
ters. Many of the most beautiful organ cases 
to be found in this country are the emanations 
of his active brain. He came to this country 
in 1837, bringing his wife and five children, 
and also his nephew, F. W. Jardine, now of 
Manchester, England, who, after learning the 
business of manufacturing organs with his 
uncle, returned to England and entered into 
partnership with Mr. Kirtland, in Manchester. 

The year Mr. Jardine landed in New York 
was a time of great financial crisis. Instead 
of finding churches ready and anxious to pur- 
chase organs, he found it rather haul work to 
find bread for his family, and for the first two 
years after his arrival he was obliged to turn 
his hand to various other employments to 
keep the "wolf from the door." The oppor- 
tunity to return to his business came at last. 
lie succeeded in obtaining an order to build 
a small organ for the church of St. James, 
New York, which marked the beginning of 
his prosperous career. His workshop was 



originally i 

he lived, i 
street, with 

i the attic of the house in which 
orner of Broadway and (hand 
one or two workmen at must in 

his employ. Business increasing from year to 
year, his factory became more pretentious, 
until the present large building was erected, 
which furnishes employment for between 50 
and 60 skilled workmen. In the year i860, 
Mr. Jardine took into partnership his eldest 
son, E. G. Jardine, who, like his father, had 
early evinced a desire to become an organ 
builder, and was accordingly instructed in the 
art. Father and son both work at their art, 
and frequently travel to Europe, keeping 
themselves well posted on all the latest im- 
provements made abroad. 

The following is a partial list of the largest 1 
and finest organs built by Messrs. Jardine 
& Son : 

Fifth Avenue Cathedral, New York, - 4 
St. George's Church, " - - 4 

St. Paul's M. E. Church, " - 4 

Holy Innocents " " - - 4 

Brooklyn Tabernacle, - 4 

Pittsburgh Cathedral, - - - - 4 | 

Mobile Cathedral, 3 

First Pres. Church, Philadelphia, - - 3 

St. John's M. E. Church, Brooklyn, - 3 
Trinity Church, San Francisco, - - 3 

Christ Church, New Orleans, - - 3 

»Tarvis, Charles H., pianist, was born 
at Philadelphia, Dec. 20, 1837, and received 
his musical education from his father, an ex- 
cellent musician. He has done much to 
raise the standard of music in his native city, 
and since 1862 has given an annual series of 
classical chamber concerts. He played 
Beethoven's concerto in G at a concert of the 
Philharmonic Society, New York, in 1869, 
and has appeared at various places as soloist. 

»T«'illvS, Stephen, American psalmodist, 

was born in 1772, at New Canaan, Conn. In 
1S05 he published "The Delights of Harmo- 
ny," containing 96 pages of tunes, hymns, 
anthems, and set pieces, twenty-six of which 
were original and the rest selected. He after- 
wards removed to Thompson, Ohio, where he 
died in 1856. Some of his pieces are still in 
general use. 

Johnson, A. N., was born at Middle- 
bury, Vt., about 1825, and early in life wen! 
to Boston, where he became organist when 
eighteen years old. He commenced teaching 
and conducting conventions, in which capacity 
he has traveled all over the country. His 
works are numerous, the most important 
among which are his "methods" of thorough- 
bass and harmony. He is the composer of a 
quantity cf church music, and a frequent con- 
tributor to various musical publications. 

Josefly, Rafael, pianist, was born in 
1852, at Muskolcz, Hungary. He first 
studied under Moscheles at Leipsic and then 
under Thalberg. Dilligent application com- 
bined with a great degree of natural talent en- 
sured him rapid progress, and he soon began 
to astonish the people of Vienna with his won- 
derful playing. After finishing his studies he 
made a concert tour of Holland and Germany, 
and won both fame and applause, being 
everywhere well received. Two or three 
years ago (1879 or 1880) he came to this 
country, and has regularly appeared in the 
principal cities of the Union with great suc- 
cess. As a player he has a marvelous tech- 
nique, noted not only for brilliancy but also 
for softness and elasticity. 

Karl, Thomas, tenor singer, was born in 
Ireland, in January, 1847, and educated in 
England, to which country he was taken at 
an early age. He commenced studying with 
the celebrated English basso, Henry Phillips, 
and by his advice went to Italy to prepare 
himself for a concert singer and teacher. 
He then spent several weeks in Paris, taking 
lessons of Delle Sedie, who urged him to go to 
Milan, which he did and studied for three 
years with San Giovanni. One day he was 
heard by the Italian composer, Enrico Petrel- 
la, who desired him to sing in a new opera, 
"La Contessa d'Amalfi," which he was just 
on the eve of producing. After much persua- 
sion he was induced to do so, and met with a 
flattering reception. He had various offers of 
engagements, and sang in all the important 
theatres of Milan, from La Scala down. He 
came to the United States with the Carl Rosa 
company and appeared in the leading cities. 
Four seasons ago he joined the Boston Ideal 
Opera Company as principal tenor, with 
which organization he has since remained, 
excepting one season spent with the Emma 
Abbott Company. Mr. Karl has sung in Eng- 
land, Spain, Italy, Russia, and other European 
countries, with the most distinguished singers. 
Much of his time is spent in Boston or in trav- 
eling with his company, but he has a summer 
home at Rochester, N. Y., where he resides 
during the heated term. 

Kathleen Mavourneen. One of the 

few songs which have attained a world-wide 
reputation. The words are by Mrs. Crawford, 
a London lady, and the music by F. Nicholls 
Crouch. It was composed not long after an 
unsuccessful and disastrous business venture, 
and during a period of retirement from the 
world. The composer himself thus gives an 
account of its inception : "The words had 
been sent me by Mrs. Crawford from London, 
and as I was riding one day in West England 
on the banks of the Tamar, thinking of the 
poem, the melody suddenly came to me. 
I was so infatuated with it that I sang it to a 
large audience in the assembly rooms at Ply- 

mouth, Devonshire, immediately that I had 
written it down, and within a week its fame 
had spread. Thus was my offspring begotten 
and so became a child of the world." The 
writer of this beautiful song, which has often 
been sung with great applause by noted 
singers, is now residing at Baltimore, Md., 
at a very advanced age and in destitute cir- 

Kellogg 1 , Ci.ara Louise, one of the most 
celebrated American prima donnas, was born 
of northern parents at Sumterville, South 
Carolina, in July, 1842. In 1856 the family 
removed to New York, where Clara received 
her musical education. Her d&ut was made 
in 1861, as Gilda in "Rigoletto," at the New 
York Academy of Music. Nov. 2, 1867, she 
appeared at Her Majesty's Theatre, London, 
as Margherita, with such success as to be re- 
engaged for the next season. She returned 
home in 1868, and from that time until 1872 
sang in the principal cities of the United 
States, being warmly received wherever she 
went. In 1872 (May 11) she again appeared 
in London at Drury Lane, as Linda and also 
as Gilda. In 1874 she organized an opera 
company, assuming general direction of the 
affairs herself, with which she successfully 
traveled throughout the Union. Since that 
time she has repeatedly visited the principal 
cities, always with success. Her voice is a 
high soprano of great clearness and purity, 
which she controls in an excellent manner. 
She is said to be acquainted with thirty-five 
operas, but her best role is that of Margherita 
in "Faust." Many interesting incidents might 
be gleaned from her career. It is related that 
upon one occasion when Miss Kellogg and 
Mine. Pauline Lucca were singing in St. 
Louis as rivals, the Germans espoused the 
cause of Lucca and the Americans that of 
Kellogg. The Germans took up a subscrip- 
tion and on the first night of Lucca's appear- 
ance presented her with a bouquet of flowers 
costing #35. On the following evening the 
friends of Miss Kellogg made her a present of 
a turret of rare roses, nearly eight feet high, 



which was laid at her feet during one of the 
performances and elicited overwhelming ap- 
plause. The cost was $135. This excited the 
friends of Lucca, and they raised over $200, 
which they presented to the celebrated songs- 
tress in the shape of a laurel wreath 
lined with pure gold. But the Americans 
were not to be outdone, and presented their 
favorite with a gold medal and chain costing 
nearly $350. This ended the competition. 

Keller, Maitiiias, born March 20, 1813, 
at (Jim, Wurtemburg, was in early life a band- 
master, and in 1846 came to this country. 
lie located in Philadelphia as a violinist, sub- 
sequently became conductor of the English 
opera in New York, and finally removed to 
Boston. His songs are numerous, but he is 
perhaps best known as the composer of the 
"American Hymn," performed at the Great 
Peace Jubilee i^( 1869 by a chorus of u\er 
io.coo voices and an orchestra of 1 100 per- 

Key, Francis Scott, the author of the 
words to our national song, " The Star 
Span-led Banner," was born in Maryland in 
17S0. He was about thirty-four years of age 
when he wrote the hymn which will carry his 
name down to posterity. A volume of poems | 
from his pen was published in 1S57. He died 
in 1843. The remains repose in a cemetery j 
near Washington, and the grave is marked by 
a plain marble slab bearing this inscription : 
"Francis Scott Key, born Au«. 9, 1780; died 
Jan. 11, 1S43." By the side of this is another i 
slab marked as follows : " Mary Taylor Key, 
born May 26, 1784; died May 18, 1859." 

Keyetl violin. An instrument exhibited 
in New York, in 1S4S, having five octaves of j 
strings, stretched as in a piano. At right 
angles and within a minute distance of each 

string passes a 


These bows 

are kept in motion by machinery worked by a 
pedal. On pressing the keys of the keyboard, 
which is the same as that of a piano or organ, 
bows are brought into contact with the cones- 
ponding strings, and sounds similar to those of 
a violin produced. 

Keynote, The. A weekly publication 
devoted to the interests of music in general. 
Edited by Frederic Archer ; published by 
John J. King. Each number contains 20 
pages. Subscription price #4.00 per annum. 
Established in 1883. 

Kimball, JACOB, one of the early Amer- 
ican psalmodists, was born at Topsfield, Mass., 

in February, 1761. He was a lawyer by pro- 
fession, but music proved the most enticing 
and he left his first love. In 1753 he pub- 
lished " Rural Harmony," the music of which 
was largely original. He taught music ill 
various New England towns for many years, 
and wrote numerous church pieces. That he 
was not very successful in worldly affairs 
would seem from the fact that he became an 
inmate of the poor house at his native place, 
where he died Feb. 20, 1826. 

Kinkel, Charles, the composer of many 
light, pleasing piano pieces, was born in the 
Rheinpfalz, Germany, in 1832. He was not 
specially educated in music, though he always 
evidenced a great love therefor. The Revolu- 
tion of 1S48 produced such an unsettled state 
of things in Germany that he resolved to leave, 
and the following year he arrived in the United 
States. On observing the opportunities for 
success in the musical profession, he entered 
the ranks, and for twenty years was professor 
of music at the Science Hill Female Academy, 
Shelbyville, Ky. His compositions are almost 
exclusively piano pieces, many of which are 
designed for teaching purposes. Among the 
more popular we may mention " Angel's Ser- 
enade," "Pearl and Daisy Polka," "Polymnia 
Polka," " Postillion d' Amour," " Mabel Ma- 
zurka," "Angel of Night," and "Lover's 

Knabe, William <St Co. A firm of 

American piano manufacturers, located at 
Baltimore, Maryland. William Knabe, the 
founder of the house, was bom at Kreutzberg, 
in the Duchy of Saxe Weimer, Germany, in 
1S03. Early in life he was apprenticed to a 
cabinet maker, and, later, to Langehan, a 
piano maker of Gotha, with whom he remained 
three years. After leaving Gotha he traveled 
throughout Germany, and finally came to this 
country and settled in Baltimore. He entered 
the service of Mr. Harlge, a piano manufac- 
turer, with whom he stayed four years. At 
the expiration of that time he went into busi- 
ness for himself, and in 1839 took into part- 
nership H. Gaehle. From this time the busi- 
ness rapidly and steadily increased, both being 
men of energy and skill. In 1S55 the partner- 
ship was dissolved by the death of Mr. Gaehle, 
but tin- business was continued under the linn 



name ofWm. Knabe & Co. by Mr. Knabe. 
Five years later, or in i860, the erection of 
the present large and commodious factory was 
begun, to accommodate the constantly increas- 
ing trade. Mr. Knabe died in 1864, and 
was succeeded by his two sons, William 
and Finest, and his son-in-law, Charles 
Keidel, win) constitute the present firm. The 
War of the Rebellion caused serious interrup- 
tion to the business of the firm, and compelled 
them to seek new channels for their trade, 
which they did in the North and West. This 
eventually proved to be the most beneficial 
thing that could have happened to them, as 
it extended their trade all over the country 
and made their reputation a national one. 

Messrs. Knabe & Co. are one of the leading 
piano manufacturing firms of the country, and 
their factory is one of the chief institutions of 
Baltimore. It is a massive structure five sto- 
ries high, and is fitted with every possible con- 
venience for turning out first-class work. The 
firm has a branch house in New York City 
and active agencies all over the world. There 
is a large demand for their instruments from 
Europe, and even from Japan. The Knabe 
piano possesses in all respects every requisite 
of a first-class instrument, and is used by 
artists and musicians everywhere. 

Kxeissmanh, August, was bom in 1S23, 

at Frankenhausen, Saxony. He studied sing- 
ing at Dresden, Vienna, and Milan, and about 
1849 came to the United States, settling in 
Boston. For many years he was conductor of 
the famous "Orpheus Club," and was very suc- 
cessful as a teacher, numbering among his pu- 
pils some who are now excellent musicians. 
He was the pioneer of and contributed greatly 
to the popularity of German lieder, especially 
those of Fran/!. Hissinging was expressive and 
intelligent, and bis voice, a tenor, full, sweet 
and sympathetic. On account of failing health, 
he returned to Germany in 1876, and died at 
Gera, March 12, 1879. He was of a kindly 
nature, and highly esteemed by all who knew 

Kllllkel Brothers. A music publish- 
ing and dealing firm located at St. Louis, Mo., 
formed about 1868. It is one of the leading 
houses west of the Mississippi river. They 
have an extensive catalogue, mainly comprising 

piano music of the better class. 

JACOB, the younger brother, was born Oct. 22, 
1846, at Kleiniedesheim, Germany. He stud- 
ied with his father and elder brother, Charles, 
and afterwards with Gottschalk. He was also 
a nominal pupil of Tausig. While very young 
he came to this country, and in 1S68 located in 
St. Louis, where in conjunction with his 
brother he entered into the music dealing busi- 
ness and commenced the publication of "Kun- 
kel's Musical Review." He was a pianist of 
extraordinary ability and in the rendering of 
poetical compositions had few equals. Tausig, 
to whom he went for lessons, said to him : "I 
can not take you as a pupil — I have nothing 
to teach you. You are a finished pianist of 
the first rank. You can come to me as a 
friend, and I am willing to make suggestions 
as to the interpretation of the works you may 
choose to play, but that is all." His com- 
positions, mostly piano pieces, are quite numer- 
ous. He did at St. Louis, Oct. 16, 18S2. 

Charles, the elder brother, was born July 
22, 1840, at Sippersfeld, in the Rheinpfalz. 
He came to the United States in 1S49, when 
only nine years of age. His musical studies 
were pursued under the care of his father, a 
good musician, Thalberg and Gottschalk. 
In 1868 he removed with his brother to St. 
Louis, where they engaged in the music busi- 
ness and where he now (March, 1886) resides. 
He has written many piano pieces of more 
than ordinary merit, both under his own 
name and under noms deplume. As a pianist 
he ranked with his brother, with, perhaps, 
greater range of interpretation. His chio 
playing with his brother was unequaled, and 
was warmly commended by Anton Rubin- 
stein when he visited St. Louis, in January, 
1873. As a sight reader he has few equals 
either in this country or Europe. 

Kunkel's Musical Review. A 48 to 

60 page musical publication, full sheet-music 
size, issued by the foregoing firm. From 16 
to 30 pages are devoted to musical articles, 
sketches, reviews, and criticisms, and 24 or 
more pages contain vocal and instrumental 
music. It is edited by I. D. Foulon, A. M., 
LL.B., and is published monthly. Estab- 
lished in 1878. Subscription price, S2.00 per 
annum. Circulation about 2?, 000. 


La fTouilCSSO. The family name of 
Albani. See Ai.bani, Marie Emma. 

Ijiliig", Benjamin Jobason, was born in 
1840, at Salem, Mass., and when only eleven 
years of age became organist of one of the 
churches of his native city. His first musical 
instruction was received from his father; he 
then studied under Alfred Jaell, Gustav Satter, 
and F. Hill, and subsequently went to Europe 
to study with Liszt. Since then he has several 
times been abroad for instruction and to obtain 
a thorough knowledge of foreign musical cul- 
ture. During these trips he has occasionally 
given concerts in Berlin, Dresden, Vienna, 
and other places with good success. Mr. 
Lang has always resided at Boston, where he 
was appointed organist of the Handel and 
Haydn Society in 1859, conductor of the 
Apollo Club upon its organization in 1871, 
and leader of the Cecilia Society upon its 
organization in 1874, all of which posts he has 
ably idled and still retains. This, however, 
does not indicate his activity, for he occupies 
a leading place in Boston's musical affairs. 
His energy, ability and good sense have pro- 
moted and successfully carried through many 
musical undertakings. To him belongs the 
credit of having first produced in Boston many 
notable works, among which are Mendels- 
sohn's " Lobgesang," " Walpurgis Nacht," 
" Athaba," " Loreley," and "Antigone;" 
Haydn's " Seasons ; " Schumann's " Para- 
dise and the Peri ; " Berlioz's " Le Damna- 
tion de Faust;" and Beethoven's "Ruins of 
Athens." lie is highly esteemed as a teach- 
er, and of his many pupils over sixty are con- 
cert soloists. Though not a virtuoso in the 
strictest sense of the word, he is a fine player, 
and above all a thoroughly educated and 
sound musician. His calmness and presence 
of mind under all circumstances and surety of 
score reading has more than once saved a 
careless or nervous performer from disaster. 
These qualities make him one of the best con- 
ductors, and enabled him to successfully act 
in that capacity for the belligerent von Billow 
and the meteoric Joseffy. Mr. Lang has for 

many years faithfully filled the position of 
organist at the leading Unitarian Church, 
Boston. His compositions are numerous and 
have frequently been performed in public, 
but thus far none of them have been published. 

Ijavall^e, Calixa, pianist and composer, 
was born at Vercheres, Dec 28, 1842, and is 
of French extraction. His first lessons were 
received from his father, and such was his 
progress that at the age of ten years he made 
his first public appearance. At the age of 
fifteen, through the financial aid of some of 
his father's friends, he was sent to Paris, where 
he studied under Marmontel, Boieldieu and 
Bazin. While there he wrote a number of 
works, particularly a "Suite d'Orchestre," 
which gained a public performance. For sev- 
eral years he made Paris his home, meanwhile 
traveling all over Europe. He was recalled 
to his native country to found a conservatory 
of music, but the scheme proved a failure. 
While in Quebec, he was requested by the 
Government to write a cantata for the reception 
of the Princess Louise and the Marquis of 
Lome, on their arrival in Canada. The work 
was composed and scored in one month, and 
rendered by a chorus of five hundred voices 
and an orchestra of 80 performers. It was very 
highly complimented, but Mr. Lavallee was 
kindly left to "pay the fiddler" himself. Not 
long after this, he removed to the l T nite<l 
States, and has for some time been a resident 
of Boston. 

Mr. Lavallee is.a warm advocate of Ameri- 
can music and musicians. At the meeting of 
the Music Teachers' National Association 
in Cleveland, in July, 1884, he gave a 
piano recital from American composers 
alone, which was well received. Through 
his efforts, the Association gave two concerts 
of American works, vocal and instrumental, at 
its last meeting (July, 1885) in New York. 
During the winter of 1884-5, he also gave two 
concerts in Boston, the music of which was 
purely American. He has also given a series 
of American concerts during the past winter. 
He is an active member of the M. T. N. A., 



and at present chairman of the program com- 
mittee. As a pianist he ranks among the 
foremost in the country. His execution is 
brilliant, facile, graceful and clear; his tech- 
nique wonderful, and his repertoire extensive. 
Among his works are two operas, one sym- 
phony, a book of piano studies, and many 
piano and vocal pieces. Most of them have 
been published in Europe, though a few have 
appeared in this country. An offertory, "Tu 
es Petrus," and an oratorio are his latest works. 
Mr. Lavallee is at present (January, 1S86) con- 
nected with the Petersilea Academy of Music 
at Boston. 

Law, Andrkw, one of the early American 
church composers, was born in 1748, at 
Cheshire, Conn. From whence his musical 
education was derived is not known, but he 
was probably largely self-taught. For many 
years he was a very successful teacher of music 
in New England and in the South, and seems 
to have been much in demand, having a good 
general education in addition to his knowledge 
of music. In 1782 he published at Cheshirea 
volume entitled "A Collection of the best and 
most appioved Tunes and Anthems known to 
exist.'' A second volume followed, and both 
were subsequently combined under the name 
of "Christian Harmony." His firstwork was 
probably a " Musical Primer," published in 
1780. In 1786 he published an "Original 
Collection of Music," at Baltimore, Md., and 
in 1792 the fourth edition of a work entitled 
"The Rudiments of Music," containing 76 
pages. A copy of this work, formerly owned 
by Timothy Swan, is now in the library of the 
Harvard Musical Association. About the be- 
ginning of the century his " Art of Singing " 
was issued. It consisted of three depart- 
ments, or rather three works combined under 
one head. The first was the " Musical Prim- 
er," the second the "Christian Harmony," 
and the third the "Musical Magazine." This 
was the first musical publication of America. 
Law died at Cheshire, Conn., in July, 1821. 
lie was the composer of many church tunes, 
some of which are still known. Many of his 
works were printed in a notation of his own 
invention, in which the heads of the notes 
were square, diamond, quarter diamond, half 
diamond, etc., according to kind. A similar 
notation is used by some petty publishers at 
the present day. 

Leavitt, W. J. D., was born at Boston, 
June 28, 1841, and commenced the study of 
music at an early age. After having studied 
for some time with such teachers as his native 
city then afforded, he went to Europe and lin- 
lshed his musical education under the best 
instructors there. After returning to this 
country, he was from 1S65 to 1S70 principal of 
the Oneida Conservatory, Oneida, N. V. In 
1870 he returned to Boston, where he is still 
located as an organist and teacher. Since 
1875 he has had charge of the large organ in 
the Music Hall, Boston, and has given several 
hundred recitals upon it of classical and other 
music. Mr. Leavitt's works, which are high- 
ly esteemed, extend to op. 65. Among the 
more important are " The Coronation of 
David," op. 11; Instructions for the Organ, 
op. 29 ; "Mercedes," a grand opera, op. 44; 
Andante and Polonaise for orchestra, op. 46 ; 
"The Lord of the Sea," cantata, op. 48; 
"Camb'yses, or the Pearl of Persia," operatic 
cantata, op. 50; Organ Sonata, op. 51 ; "The 
Adventure Club," comic operetta for male 
voices, op. 55 ; and "Flowers and Lilies," 
comic operetta for male voices, op. 56. The 
balance of the works consist of a Bridal and 
Torchlight March for the organ, organ fan- 
tasies, piano etudes, three sets of quartets for 
male voices, numerous sacred pieces, songs, 
orchestral compositions, etc. 

Lee & Walker. A music publishing 
firm of Philadelphia, Pa., which was founded 
in 1848, by Julius Lee and William Walker. 
The firm was successor to George Willig, who 
established himself in business in that city as 
early as 1794, Lee and Walker having been 
clerks in his store. Mr. Walker died in i857 ) 
and the business was carried on by Mr. Lee 
under the same firm name, which had now 
become well known. Mr. Lee dying in 1875, 
the business was temporarily suspended, and in 
1S76 the stock and publications of the firm 
were bought by Ditson & Co., who established 
J. E. Ditson & Co. in business as successors. 
Meanwhile, Julius Lee Jr. anil J. F. Morrison 
entered into partnership and continued the 
business under the old and well-known firm 
name, Lee & Walker. The firm has pub- 
lished many popular works, especially those 
by Sep. Winner ("Alice Hawthorne"), whose 
first song they issued about 1850. They con- 
fine themselves more to the publication of a 



light, popular class of music, rather than of 
the heavy, classical works; and in this line 
they have been very successful. 

LeilllOIl, J. ii., pianist, organist and 
conductor, was born at Lowell, Mass., about 
1855. While still quite young, he studied 
with various Boston teachers, among whom 
were G. E. Whiting, Carlyle Petersilea and Dr. 
J. H. Willcox. In 1874, having held several 
positions as organist, he went to Europe for 
study, having ilauptand Loeschorn for teach- 
ers while at Berlin. At Paris he was a pupil of 
Edouard lir.tiste. On his return to Boston, 
Mr. Lennon became organist of St. Augustine 
Church. At present (March, 1886) he is 
organist ami director of music at St. Peter's 
Church, which has a very hue organ built 
under his supervision. He is also conductor 
of the Boston Oratorio Society. 

LeilOra. A cantata for four solos, cho- 
rus, and orchestra. The poem is by Burger; 
the music by George E. Whiting. Composed 
since 1878. It still remains in manuscript, and 
has not yet been peformed. 

Leonora. An American opera by W. H. 
Fry. First produced at the Academy of Music, 
New York, March 29, 1858. 

Levy, JULES, one of the most celebrated 
cornet soloists of the present time, was born 
about 1840. When only hve years old he 
began to practice on the cornet ; and is entire- 
ly self-taught, excepting a few lessons received 
to assist him in the proper formation of the 
lip. At the age of seventeen he became a 
member of the Grenadier Guard's Band, then 
under the direction of Godfrey, and in i860 
made his dclnit at Floral Hall, near Covent 
Garden, London. From there he went to 
Crystal Palace, Sydenham, but was soon after 
engaged by Alfred Mellon for his promenade 
concerts at Covent Garden, playing also dur- 
ing the day at Crystal Palace. He remained 
with Mellon until 1864, when he went to Paris 
and was engaged as soloist. In the latter part 
of the year he first came to this country, ac- 
companying Mine. Parepa-Rosa and being 
under the management of Mr. Bateman. On 
returning to Europe he tilled various engage- 
ments in London and Paris, and in 1868 came 
to this country the second time, under the 
management of Parepa-Rosa herself. In 1S70 
he was engaged as solo cornetist in the Ninth 
Regiment Band. Six months after he left 

New York for Russia, accompanying the 
Grand Duke Alexis. He remained in Russia 
until 1873, when he went to England and 
played at Riviere's concerts, Covent Garden. 
In 1875 ne came to the United States for the 
third lime, since when, excepting a portion of 
1S76, 1877, and a portion of 1878, when he 
was in Australia, he has made his home here, 
and has been the most of the time under 
P. S. Gilmore's management. He is univers- 
ally considered to be one of the leading cor- 
net players of the world, having a good style 
and great facility of execution. 

Liberati, Alessandro, one of the most 
celebrated of living cornet virtuosi, was born 
at Frascati, a small town fourteen miles from 
Rome, July 7, 1S47. At the age of twelve 
years he began to study cornet playing under 
the care of Nini. After filling various posi- 
tions as soloist in Euiope, he in 1872 came to 
America, landing in Boston in October of that 
year. Soon after he proceeded to Ottawa, 
Canada, where he became very popular and 
where he remained about three years. He 
accompanied the Detroit National Guard Band 
to the Centennial Exposition as leader. From 
Detroit he went to Boston, playing both there 
and in New York. He played at Chicago in 
1880, at New Orleans in 1883, and at Louis- 
ville, Ky., in the same year. He has repeat- 
edly appeared in the principal cities of the 
country, always with the greatest success. 
As a cornetist he has a wonderful execution, 
playing the most intricate music at sight. He- 
has written numerous compositions for the 

LieblillJ?, Emu., was born April 12, 
185 1, at Pless, near the Austrian frontier. He 
first studied under Adam Kong, a blind pian- 
ist, and then under P^hrlich of Berlin, whither 
his parents had removed. At the age of 
twelve years he appeared in public as a pianist 
at Liebig's Symphony Concerts, and played 
duos with his teacher. In 1867 he came to 
this country, and from that lime until 1871 was 
a teacher of music in a seminary for ladies, in 
Kentucky. In the latter named year he went 
to Europe for study, but returned in 1872 and 
settled in Chicago. He again went abroad 
in 1874, studied with Kullak at Berlin during 
the ensuing winter, next went to Vienna and 
studied with Dachs and Kreun, and after six 
months went back to Berlin and resumed his 



studies under Kullak. In the spring of 1876 
he went to Weimar and stayed with Liszt for 
a short time, after which he returned to his 
home in Chicago. While at Berlin he fre- 
quently appeared in public at concerts, and 
was highly praised by the critics for his finely 
developed technique, excellent touch, and true 
interpretation of works of the masters. In 
1877 he gave concerts in Steinway Hall, New 
York, and in other principal cities of the 
country. He has also played with Thomas' 
orchestra, and taken two trips throughout the 
West with Wilhelmj, the violinist. 

Mr. Liebling is one of the foremost Ameri- 
can pianists. His repertoire contains a large 
number of classical pieces from Beethoven, 
Bach, Mozart, Handel, Haydn, etc. He is 
not only a virtuoso hut a musician as well. 
His compositions include a nocturne ("First 
Meeting"), " Le Meteor," "Galop de Con- 
cert," "Gayott modern," "Valse de Concert," 
and some songs and other pieces, all of merit. 
At present (18S5) he is still located in Chica- 
go, where he is highly esteemed as a teacher 
and player. 

Listeinailll, Bernhard, was born in 
1841, at Schlotheim, Thuringia, and early 
evinced a great love for the violin. So great 
was his progress thereon that when a small 
child he appeared in public at his native place, 
playing the Adagio of Spohr's 9th Concerto 
and David's variations on " The Little Drum- 
mer Boy." He went to Leipsic, where he 
studied under David for some time, and then 
accepted the position of kamrmr-virtiios to the 
reigning prince at Rudolstadt. This post he 
retained nine years, and also continued his 
studies under Joachim and Yieuxtemps at 
Leipsic. In 1S67 he came to the United 
States, speedily took a leading position, and 
in 1 87 1 was engaged by Theodore Thomas as 
a solo violinist. He afterwards held the same 
position in the orchestra of the Harvard Mu- 
sical Association, and organized a conceit 
company and a string quartet. In 1880, upon 
the formation of the Philharmonic Society, 
Boston, he became its first conductor. As a 
violinist he takes high rank, possessing all 
the qualities of a true artist. His works are 
not numerous. Besides a number of minor 
pieces, be has written a symphony in C minor, 
which remains in manuscript, and a school 
for the violin, published in Boston. He is at 

present located in Boston, and iscAefd' attaque 
in the Symphony Orchestra. 

Littil, Marie, whose real name was Marie 
von Elsner, was born June 1, 1856, at 
Bloomington, 111., where her father was a 
musician. She sang in concerts almost from 
infancy, and when thirteen had attracted such 
attention that she was placed under John 
Underner cf Cleveland, Ohio. After study- 
ing for some time under Mr. Underner she 
was enabled, through the liberality of her 
friends, to visit Paris, where she remained a 
year with Mme. Viardot-Garcia. She then 
made her debut as Isabella in " Robert le 
Diable " at Drury Lane, London, May 20, 
1876, under Col. Mapleson's management. 
Returning to Paris she continued her studies 
with Mme. La Grange. At the end of six 
months she made her first appearance in that 
city at the Grand Opera in " Lucia di Lam- 
mermoor " with great success. Her Ameri- 
can cUbut was at McYicker's theatre, Chicago, 
Nov. 16, 1878, as Lucia in " Lammermoor." 
She sang for several years in various parts of 
the country, firmly establishing her reputation. 
But her career was destined to be short, for 
she died at her native place, in July, 1883, 
greatly lamented. With her death a brilliant 
and rising star ceased to shine. 

L-UCas, George W., was born April 12, 
1800, at Glastenbury, Hartford Co., Conn. 
He studied music under Thomas Hastings at 
Albany and New York, and when sixteen 
years old commenced teaching in his native 
state. In 1828 he was elected honorary mem- 
ber of the Handel and Haydn Society at Bos- 
ton, and in 1S.42 of the Sacred-Music Society 
of Montreal. In 1S43 he was president of the 
National Musical Convention, which was 
held at Boston. He has traveled all over the 
United States and Canada as a lecturer and 
teacher of vocal music, numbering his pupils 
by the thousands. From 1820 to 1835 he was 
a resident of Northampton, Mass., from 1835 
to 1837 of Charlestown, and from 1837 to 
1844 of Troy, N. Y. After this he went West 
but returned to Northampton in 1S52 or 1853. 
His subsequent history has not been learned. 

LiUfldeil, William, was born in 1823, at 
Williamsburg, Mass. In 1S40 he commenced 
the study of music with George James Webb 
and Dr. Lowell Mason at Boston. Two years 
later he located in Pittsfield in his native state as 


a teacher of music, and in 1844 became pro- 
fessor of music in Williston Seminary. In 
1846 he entered the freshman class in Yale 
College, at the same time assuming the duties 
of organist and chorister at Trinity Church, 
New Haven, which he discharged for seven 
years. The Beethoven Society, composed of 
college students, chose him as their president 
and conductor in 1847, arR l under his care the 
public performances assumed a high order. 
Among the works given was Felicien David's 
" Le Desert," of which several repetitions 
were demanded. After graduating in 1S50 he 
entered the medical department of the college, 
meanwhile teaching music. In 1S53 he went 
to Paris and studied voice-culture under the 
best masters, also completing his medical 
studies. The following year he returned, 
married Miss M.J. Blatchley, one of his form- 
er pupils, and devoted his time to giving vocal 
lessons, which he made a specialty. After a 
very successful period of teaching, the last 
eight years of which were spent in Chicago, 
he in 1870 removed to Savannah, Ga., and 
with J. A. Bates formed the firm of Ludden & 
Bates, music dealers, of which he is still 
(1884) an active partner. During his 
residence in Savannah he was editor of the 
" Southern Musical Journal." In 18S0 he re- 
moved to New York City, where he is still 
located, devoting his time mainly to the prep- 
aration of musical works. Among those 
already issued are "Thorough-Bass School," 
"Sacred Lyrics," "School for the Voice," 
etc., and more recently, " Ludden's Pro- 

nouncing Dictionary of Musical Terms" (12- 
mo., 1876), a very complete and handy little 
volume, "Standard Organ School," and others. 
LyOH & Hoaly. The name of a musi- 
cal firm located in Chicago, who commenced 
business about the year 1865. They deal very 
largely in band and orchestral instruments and 
supplies, and in this respect they take a lead- 
ing position among the various music houses 
of the West. 

Lyons Musical Academy, Lyons, 

N. Y., is one of the oldest as well as best insti- 
tutions of its kind in the United States. It 
was founded in January, 1854, by L. II. Sher- 
wood, father of the celebrated pianist and 
composer, Wm. II. Sherwood, at the request 
of numerous friends, who had observed his 
special aptitude for teaching. The primary 
object of the school is a thorough instruction 
of its pupils in the different branches of music, 
both theoretical and practical, especially of 
those who desire to become teachers. Some 
idea of the success which has attended it may 
be inferred from the fact that its graduates and 
elves, scattered all over the country, many of 
whom fill positions of honor, are unusually 
successful. A special and very excellent 
feature of the school is the giving of daily 
piano lessons to the students individually. 
More than ordinary attention is also given to 
the classes in theory, including harmony, and 
the art of fingering ; indeed, the Academy is 
everywhere noted for its thorough and logical 
methods. It is still under the excellent care 
of its founder. 


Maas, Dr. Loins, well known both in 
this country and Europe as a pianist and com- 
poser, was born at Wiesbaden, Germany, June 
21, 1852. His father, Theodor Maas, was a 
music teacher, and taught him the rudiments 
of the art. His youth was mostly spent in 
London, where the family resided from 1854, 
excepting a short period. He was placed in 
the King's College, from which he graduated 
when fifteen years of age. His musical tal- 
ents, which were early manifested, now be- 
came so strong and so evident that the same 
year ( 1867) he was sent to the Conservatorium 
at Leipzig, where he had Reinecke and Pap- 
peritz for teachers. He remained there four 
years, making very rapid progress. During 
this time he made hisdel'tit at a concert in the 
Ducal Theatre, Weimar. For three years he 
studied with Liszt during the summer, and 
filled concert engagements during the winter. 
By this time his reputation as a composer was 
becoming extended. A string quartet of his 
was highly praised by Liszt. In 1875 he was 
appointed professor of the piano at the Leip- 
zig Conservatorium. He had over 300 pupils 
there, many of them Americans. 

In November, 1880, he came to the United 
States, landing at New York. He soon went 
to Boston, where he has since resided. Dur- 
ing the season of 1S81-82 he conducted the 
concerts of the Philharmonic Society, Boston, 
in a brilliant and successful manner. He has 
since often appeared in the principal cities of 
this country and always with uniform success. 
Dr. Maas possesses a technique which is as 
nearly as possible perfect. In the most rapid 
passages, even though pianissimo, every note 
may be distinctly heard, and this clearness of 
touch is not lost in the forte passages. His 
playing is refined and delicate, but does not 
lack spirit and fire ; indeed, it is of sufficient 
breadth to include every class of composition, 
and justly ranks him among the foremost pian- 
ists of our times. His compositions are of 
high order, and consist of overtures, sympho- 
nies, string quartets, concertos, characteristic 
pieces, piano pieces, etc. His second (Amer- 

ican) symphony, op. 15, is a work of import- 
ance. It consists of four divisions, 1. "Morn- 
ing on the Prairies," 2. "The Chase" (Scher- 
zo) presto, 3. "An Indian Legend," adagio- 
andante, 4. "Evening, Night, and Sunrise." 
It was suggested to him while crossing the 
great prairies of the West, and is dedicated to 
Ex- President Arthur. Rendered for the first 
time at the Music Hall, Boston, Dec. 14, 
1883, with great success. 

Macy, James C, song writer, was born at 
New York City about 1840 and educated at 
Elmira, N. Y. For many years he has resid- 
ed in the West, and has for a long lime been 
connected with the music publishing house of 
S. Brainard's Sons, Cleveland. Among his 
most popular songs are "Baby Mine," "Don't 
be Crying, Little Girl," "Down by the Gar- 
den Wall," "Echoes," "Little Vacant Chair," 
"Somebody's Coming when the Dewdrops 
Fall," and "When My Rover Comes Again." 
Of his popular piano pieces we may name 
"First of the Season" galop, "Belles of Vir- 
ginia Waltzes," "Beta Theta Pi Waltzes," 
and "Saratoga Life" galop. Mr. Macy has 
written anthems, hymn tunes, etc., and com- 
piled several collections of music. He fre- 
quently writes under the names of "Marion," 
"Collin Coe" and "Rosabel." 

Main, Sylvester, was born April 18, 
1817, at Weston, Conn., and became a teacher 
of music when only fifteen years old. In 1853 
he went to New York, associated himself with 
I. B. Woodbury in editing music books, and 
afterwards with W. B. Bradbury. He was 
teacher, composer and conductor, and for 
some time editor of the "New York Musical 
Review." In conjunction with L. H. Big- 
low he formed the music publishing house of 
Biglow & Main, successors to W. B. Brad- 
bury. He edited or assisted in editing more 
than twenty collections of music, mostly for 
the church. His death took place October 5, 
1873, at Norwalk, Conn. 

Main, Hubert PlatT, was born Aug. 17, 
1839, at Ridgefield, Conn., and when ten 
years old was able to readily read music at 


sight. In 1855 he cnmmenced writing hymn of age. In 1817 he commenced teaching, 

tunes, and afterwards assisted both Bradbury ' and soon after composing. He published at 

and Woodbury in compiling and editing nu- Schenectady, N. V., three juvenile singing 

merous collections <>f music. He became | books. He also wrote two cantatas, "The 

connected with the house of Biglow & - r" and "King of the Forest." One 

in 1S68, since when he hr.s had a general alone of his tunes, "Martyn," will perpetuate 

oversight of the business, but devotes some of his name for many years to come. His death 

his time to composition. He has written con- occurred in 1875 

siderable music for the church, and edited Mason & Hamlin Organ and 
many of the books published by the firm with Piano Company, BOSTON, Mass. This 
which he is connected. firm, though not the oldest, rank-, among the 
3Iann, Ki.ias, American psalmodist, was very foremost of American reed organ man-t- 
horn in 1 750, at Weymouth, Mass. He was facturers, a position which it has long held, 
for many years a teacher of singing at North- The business of the firm was founded April 
ampton, Mass., whei e he published in 1778 10, 1854, by Henry Mason, a son of Dr. Lowell 
"The Northampton Collection." He also Mason, and Emmons Hamlin, who had been 

publ : shed some music books at Dedham, 
Mass., and in 1807 "The Massachusetts Col- 
lection," issued at Boston. His death took 
place at Northampton, May 12, 1825. 

a workman in the establishment of George A. 
Prince & Co , of Buffalo, N. V. These two 
gentlemen possessed all the qualifications, 
both musical and mechanical, necessary for 

31aretzek, Max, well-known in this producing the best instruments. Of course, 

country as an impresa:ic, composer and vocal 
teacher, was born at Brunn, Austria, in June, 
1^22. After attending school in his native 
place, he went to Vienna and graduated from 
the University there. He then took np the 
study of medicine, which he pursued for two 
years, at the same time receiving lessons in 
theory and composition from kapellmeister Rit- 
t -t von Seyfried. Becoming disgusted with 

at first the business of the firm was quite lim- 
ited, and during the first year they turned out 
only 459 melodeons. which, however, was a 
good number for that time. From this begin- 
ning the business rapidly increased. January 
28, 1S68, the name of the firm was changed 
to Mason ii Hamlin Organ Company, Messrs. 
Henry Mason and Emmons Hamlin being 
actively connected with the management of 

medicine, he devoted his whole time to music, the Companv. About this time the firm was 

He commenced writing operas, among which strengthened by the admission of Lowell 

is "Hamlet" (1S43., but finding that it did Mason, also a son of Dr. Lowell Mason, 

not prove remunerative, turned his attention Lowell filled the office of president until his 

to composing dance pieces, which were more death, Oct. ic, 1885. Henry, formerly treas- 

profitable. After this he kcatne conductor urer, is now president. 

of an orchestra, with which he successfully Messrs. Mason Ok Hamlin at first mannfac- 

visited many of the principal cities of Europe, tured only melodeons, the melodeon being at 

.- became to the United States, and that time the chief and best reed instrument, 

engaged in conducting an orchestra. Since It was in 1847 lnat Mr. Hamlin of the firm, 

that time he has been the manager of many then in the employment of Prince Csc Co., 

operatic enterprises, meeting with varying made his great improvement in the voicing of 

success. His schemes, when trying to elevate the reeds. This consisted in slightly bending 

art, have generally exhibited a wrong balance and twisting the tongue cf the reed in a pecul- 

sheet, but when trying to amuse the masses iar manner. The result was that the tone, 
have proved correspondingly remunerative, : which before had been thin and sharp, now 

Mr. Maret^ek, though nearly sixty-four years became more musical. It is no exaggeration to 
old, is, as he humorously puts it, "still _ at this one improvement more than every - 

and kicking,"' being actively engaged in the thing else combined has saved the reed organ 
operatic field. railing into oblivion, and made it worthy 

MiUrsllj S Btlklf.y, was born June to rank among other modern musical instru- 

- , at Sherburne, Chenango Co., N. V., ments. This improvement, when applied to 

and sang in a church choir when eight years melodeons, contributed greatly to the:: 


and was soon adnr rrxaker. 

In 1S61, ihe firm introduced the first cabinet 
or parlor organ in its present f 
street. very materially from the 

melodeon, and had a fuller and more power- 
ful tone. The p- F the melodeon 
soon began to wane before this formidable 
rivaL As a name, organ was very wisely 
chosen, the terms reed, cabinet, or parlor, 
being used to di- from the pipe 
organ. The manufactured 
by the . -ilin Organ and Piano Co. 
are of almc - size, and range 
in price from -_ - me of them 
are fc. . all pipe organs in power 
and resource- The present large factories oi 
the firm are located in Cambridgeport. 
and were erected about : - .-.ardly 
necessary to add that they are built oa the 
most improved plans and with every possible 
conve . -inery of the most perfect 
kind as well as the most skilled workmen are 
employed. The result is that the Mason & 
in organs combine thorough workman- 
ship, so essential to lasting qualities, with an 
. ey are well known in for- 
eign countries, the exports being very large, 
and the name in this country i 

e since the Company began ex- 
in the manufacture of pianos, 
resulting in several practical improvements, 

i- : :~ : s:2 i . ;-_■'. :':.- \ .-..^-. ' ' - ~s.- - 
Z " :* ■_• " -• . ■ .■ A - -- ' ---- r -""-'.■ 

stej , the name «>f the firm was changed to 
Hurmi "g£u »»d Pkjm» Company, 

by an act of the Legisiatttre of Massachusetts. 
.'.::•- ....-_•"-■.-.-:..- ■ .V ■--- ::':.'.--. 

' •::-.: :' "-. . -- "--- i- -::-.-. '.--■. 
only npright pianos have been manufactured, 
but they have been received with remarkable 
favor by musicians and artists through out the 
. r ..--.-'. .y • z.-—:r. ::: - _;- --; .": - :' 

trodBced is a new system of stringing, where - 
by the liability of the "instrument to get oat of 
tone is reduced to a very small minimum. 

T:.; :. ■ - ~ .-. : ■::-. •- -- -..!-.. :- : - - 

the following cities : Xew Vork, 
Chicago, London, Vienna, ai 

-r- -i : -.-.~ .-- '.-. --:- . :: --". 

— ML 

Magm, 1 - i=:c in 

. I , was born J ■ : - : 

Mass. He early manifested the 
bent of his nature for music, in which he in- 
structed himself by patient and persevering 
study. sen years old he took charge 

of the . ilfage church, and about 

the same time began teaching, in which ca- 
pacity he afterwards distinguished fai 
In 1812 he went to Savar.r ;lerk 

in a bank there, meanwhile continuing to 
practice, teach, and conduct. With the aid of 
Abel he edited a collection of church 
tunes, mostly arranged from the works of 
Beethoven, Haydn and Mo,: 

lished by the Handel ai; 

Bostor. I&S2 r/he work was very success- 
ful and greatly aided the society, then in its 
infancy, but Mason's name was almost entirely 
suppressed. This led to his removing from 
Savannah to Boston, in 182- where lie 

in vocal instruction and became prom- 
identified with musical afiairs. The 
same year be became president of the society 
which had published his first work, retaining 
the position for five years. In 1832 he estab- 
lished the Boston Academy of Music, and bad 
a worthy co-laborer in the person of George 
James Webb. About this date he became an 
advocate of the Pestalozrian 
formed classes in it- In 1838 he 
the power of teaching music in all the public 
schools of the city, shortly before which he 
--- •-- :.-.:-. : - . -: r.z -.— '_. 1 ... 
TKWs, -ich are now held in all 

parts of the country. He made his first visit 
to Europe in 1837, with a view of studying 
and becoming acquainted with the methods of 
teaching, particularly in Germany. The im- 
]■---. :...--:-.- - :-.;-.- ..----. . .- . -r 
into a volume and published, under the title 
of " Musical Letters from Abroad," at New 
Vork : - -egree of Doctor of Mu- 

sic, the first one conferred by an American 
institution of learning and very w 
was bestowed by the Xew York University in 
He was for many years prominently 
connected with the Public Board of Education 
of Massachusetts. During the whole of his 
career his pen was never idle, but he was con- 
stantly editing and compiling collections <<f 
: err purpose and to every 
of singers. These works, whk 



numbered by the dozens, had an enormous 
sale and brought their author a fortune. The 
latter part of his life was spent at Orange, 
New Jersey, where his sons resided and where 
he died, greatly esteemed and regretted, Aug. 
II, 1872. 

Dr. Mason ranks foremost among early 
American musicians. He commenced his 
work at a time when music was in its infancy 
here, and soon aroused an interest in it which 
had been little dreamed of before. How great 
his influence was can never be ascertained. 
Suffice it to say that it is still being felt. He 
was preeminently fitted for a teacher, and his 
talent in this direction almost amounted to 
genius. As a composer for the people he was 
not far behind, so that his precepts were 
backed by example, thus giving him a power 
not otherwise obtainable. He was not an 
educated musician in the sense in which the 
term is now used, but well fulfilled his mis- 
sion. His taste for anything concerning mu- 
sic is shown by the care with which he col- 
lected his fine library of musical works, the 
best in the country (See Musical Libraries). 
Of his sons, Lowell and HENRY were re- 
spectively president and treasurer of the Mason 
& Hamlin Organ and Piano Co., while Will- 
iam is a pianist and composer. Lowell 
recently died. See preceding article. 

3Iason, Dr. William, third son of the 
preceding and one of the leading musicians of 
this country, was born at Boston, Mass., Jan. 
24, 1829, not in 1828, as is often stated. His 
musical inclinations were manifested at a very | 
early age, and when scarcely three years old i 
he would go to the instrument and pick out har- j 
monies (in preference to melodies), those in | 
the minor mode pleasing him best. When ] 
seven years old he was allowed, on one occa- | 
sion, to play the organ at Bowdoin Street 
Church, Boston, accompanying the choir j 
while they sang the familiar church tune of I 
" Boylston." His father stood behind him 
and filled in the interludes between the stanzas. 
At this time he would repeat on the piano any 
piece which he might have heard on the street , 
or elsewhere. This was gratifying to his 
father, who, strange as it may seem, took no ', 
pains to cultivate or encourage his son's j 
talent. The young man, however, persevered, j 
and carefully studied all the books which 
came in his way. In 1844 or 1845 ne was 

placed under the care of Rev. Dr. Thayer of 
Newport for intellectual training. On return- 
ing to Boston he became organist of his father's 
choir, and took piano lessons of Henry Schmidt. 
His father's wish was that he might enter the 
ministry, but the parent wisely decided that 
nature's calling was paramount to his own 
desires, and in the spring of 1849 the young 
musician was sent to Germany for a thorough 
musical education. He first went to Leipsic, 
where he studied the piano under Moscheles, 
harmony under Hauptmann, and instrumenta- 
tion under Richter. Subsequently he studied 
the piano under Dreyschock at Prague, and 
finally under Liszt at Weimar. While at 
Liszt's, during a portion of 1853 and 1854 he 
had as fellow pupils von Billow, Pruckner, 
Klindworth, Hartmann, Schreiber, and others 
who have since become famous. During his 
stay abroad he resided for a short period in 
Hamburg, Dresden, and Frankfort, as well as 
visited other important German cities. He 
successfully appeared in public as a player at 
Prague, Frankfort, and Weimar, and in 1S52 
made a short visit to London, where he ap- 
peared at the "London Harmonic Union So- 
ciety's" concert at Exeter Hall and played 
Weber's Concertstiick. In July, 1S54, he re- 
turned home, and shortly after set out on a 
concert tour, first playing in Boston, then in 
New York, and then in the larger cities of 
New England, New York State, Ohio, etc., 
finally arriving in Chicago. On the return 
trip the concerts were repeated, always with 
success. Mr. Mason was entirely unassisted, 
the programs consisting only of piano pieces. 
Concert giving, however, was not at all to his 
taste, and after this tour he settled in New 
York, where he mainly devoted himself to 
teaching. In 1855 he established, in conjunc- 
tion with Carl Bergmann, Theodore Thomas, 
Joseph Mosenthal and G. Matzka, a series of 
classical soirees, at which instrumental works 
by the great masters were performed. Many 
of Robert Schumann's works were thus first 
introduced in this country. At the end of 
about a year Bergmann withdrew and was suc- 
ceeded by F. Bergner. The concerts were 
continued twelve years, and became widely 
known as the " Mason and Thomas Soirees of 
Chamber Music." March 12, 1857, Mr. 
Mason was married, at Boston, to Miss Mary 
Isabella Webb, eldest daughter of George 



James Webb, for many years his father's able 
colleague. For several years he was organist 
of Dr. Alexander's (now Dr. Hall's) church, 
New York, and has acted in that capacity in 
the Orange Valley Congregationalist Church, 
Orange, N. J. He has for about fifteen years 
been a resident of Orange, anil as it is only a 
short distance from New York, he makes 
almost daily trips to the city, where he has 
numerous classes of pupils. His degree of 
Doctor of Music was bestowed by Yale Col- 
lege, in July, 1872. 

Mr. Mason's reputation is not exclusively 
American, for he is well known in Europe 
also. It is as a teacher that he is particularly 
happy, and in which field he is doing a good 
work. As a composer, however, he takes the 
foremost rank. His pieces are all character- 
ized by a clear and perfect form, a high pol- 
ish, and elegance and refinement. They are 
thoroughly classical, and many of them will 
not at all suffer in comparison with any pieces 
of their class ever produced. He has never 
pandered in the least degree to the popular 
taste, and his smaller compositions are finished 
with as much care as his larger ones. To his 
credit it may be stated that he has not written 
a single operatic fantasia or a variation on any 
familiar melody. Though he has composed 
some polkas, rondos, etc., he delights in the 
higher forms of piano pieces, in which he is 
fairly represented by the " Berceuse " and 
" Reverie." The following is a complete list 
oi his works, and if not large, is one in which 
every number is worthy of attention : 

Op. 1. Deux Romances, sans paroles. 

" 2. Les Perlesde Rosee. Melodie variee. 

" 3. Impromptu. 

" 4. Amitie pour Amitie. Morceau de 

Salon (Also for four hands). 

" 5. Yalse de Bravoure. 

" 6. Silver Spring. 

" 7. Trois Valses de Salon. 

" S. Trois Preludes. 

" 9. Etude de Concert. 

" 10. Lullaby. 

" 11. Concert Galop. 

" 12. Ballade, in B major. 

" 13. Monody. Clavierstiick. 

" 14. Polka Gracieuse. 

" 15. Ballade et Barcarole. 

" 16. Danse Rustique. 

" 17. Valse Caprice. 

" 18. "Bittle-it" Polka. 

" 19. Deux Reveries. No. 1. Au Matin; 

No. 2. Au Soir. 

" 20. Spring Dawn. Mazurka Caprice. 

" 21. Spring Flower. Impromptu. 

" 22. Caprice Grotesque. "Ah! vous dir- 
ais-je, Maman." 

" 23. Deux Humoresques de Bal. No. 1. 
Polka Caprice. No. 2. Mazurka 

" 24. Reverie poetitjue. 

" 25. "So-so" Polka. 

" 26. Teacher and Pupil. Eight duos for 
four hands. 

" 27. Badinage. Amusement. Four hands. 

" 2S. Valse Impromptu. 

" 29. "Pell-Mell." Galop fantastique. 

" 30. Prelude in A minor. 

" 31. Scherzo (No. 1), Novelette (No. 2), 
Two Caprices. 

" 32. Romance Etude. 

" ^^. La Sabotiere. Danse aux Sabots. 

" 34. Berceuse. 

" 35. Three Characteristic Sketches. 

" 36. Dance Caprice. 

" 37. Toccata. 

" ^8. Dance Antique. 

" 39. Serenata. Piano and violoncello. Al- 
so as piano solo. 

" 40. Melody. 

" 41. Scherzo. 

" 42. Romance — Idyl. 

" 43. Minuet. 

In addition to the above he has written nu- 
merous instrumental and vocal pieces, four- 
part songs, etc., not included under opus 
number. His theoretical works consist of 
" A Method for the Pianoforte" ( 1867), in the 
preparation of which he was assisted by 
E. S. Hoadly ; " System for Beginners in the 
Art of Playing on the Pianoforte" (1871), in 
the preparation of which he was assisted by 
E. S. Hoadly; and "Mason's Pianoforte Tech- 
nics" (187S), in the preparation of which he 
received assistance from W. S. B. Mathews. 
The latter is his most important work, an orig- 
in;.l and distinguishing feature of which is the 
"Application of Rhythm to Exercises," or the 
accentual treatment of such exercises as scales, 
arpeggios, etc. This feature was embodied 
in the "Method for the Pianoforte " (1867), 
but only fully presented in the later work. 
Liszt expressed himself highly pleased with it 
(Letter of May 26, 1S69). It has since been 
incorporated into many of the later "methods" 
published in Germany, as well as in this 

Massachusetts Compiler. A col- 
lection of church music edited by Oliver Hol- 
den and Hans Gram, and published in 1795. 
It contained a chapter on theory, which, ac- 
cording to the editors, was compiled from 
some of the best foreign works then published, 



and one on singing, which advocates a fixed 
do. In the preface, the authors say : 

"Many American votaries of sacred music 
have long expressed their wishes For a com- 
pendium of the genuine principles of the 
science. At the present period it becomes 
necessary that greater attention be paid to 
every means for improving that important part 
of divine worship, as good musical emigrants 
are daily seeking an asylum in this country." 

The work seems to have been successful. 
Its theoretical and practical parts, together 
with the musical dictionary which it con- 
tained, occupy 36 quarto pages, and the selec- 
tions of music 72 pages. 

Massachusetts Musical Society, 

The, was formed in 1807 at Boston, and was 
in a measure the predecessor of the Handel 
and Haydn Society. In the spring of that 
year fifteen persons met together "for the pur- 
pose of forming themselves into a society for 
improving the mode of performing sacred mu- 
sic." A constitution and by-laws were adopt- 
ed and meetings seem to have been held 
monthly. The formation of a library was also 
commenced and the membership increased to 
about twe.ity. The society continued to hold 
its meetings until March 21, 1810, when it 
was voted to sell the library to liquidate its 
debts, and on July 6th of the same year it 
ceased to exist. 

Mathews, William S. B., well-known 
as a teacher and critic, was bcrn at London, 
N. H., May 8, 1S37. His father was a clergy- 
man but encouraged his son's musical talent, 
which began to be manifest very early. He 
eagerly availed himself of every opportunity 
which came in his way to gain any knowledge 
of music. When about eleven years old he 
was placed under the care of a Mr. Folsom of 
Lowell, with whom he studied some time. He 
then went to Boston and studied under L. H. 
Southard, also receiving some advice and en- 
couragement from Dr. Lowell Mason. He 
commenced his career as a teacher of music 
by accepting a position in Appleton Academy, 
Mount Vernon, N. H., in March, 1852, being 
then not yet fifteen years of age. After this 
he taught at various places in Massachusetts, 
New York and Illinois. All the regular in- 
struction he ever received toward a general 
education was at the district school and a sem- 
inary at Saw bornton Bridge, N. II. Being 

denied the privilege of a college course, he 
dilligently applied himself to study, and ac- 
quired a knowledge of Latin, Greek, French, 
German, etc. He is also well-read in meta- 
physics, belles-lettres and theology. 

In i860 he accepted a call as professor of 
music in a seminary at Macon, Ga., where he 
received some help from Rev. J. U. Bonnell, 
its president. Upon the breaking out of the 
Civil War in 1861, he was forced to resign his 
position at the seminary, but continued to give 
private lessons, teaching successively at 
Macon, Danville, W. Va., and Marion, Ala. 
This was indeed a gloomy period in his career. 
During part of the time he is said to have had 
only two music books, Beethoven's sonatas 
and Bach's "Well-Tempered Clavier,'' having 
been seperated from his library. After the 
close of the "war he returned North, and in 
January, 1867, became organist of the Centen- 
nary M. E. Church, Chicago, a position which 
he still (1S83) holds. In November, 186S, he 
assumed the duties of editor of the " Musical 
Independent," published by Lyon & Healy, 
Chicago, but this paper ceased with the great 
Chicago fire in October, 187 1. He was ap- 
pointed editor of the "Song Messenger" 
(Root & Cady, Chicago) in 1872, but it 
changed hands in 1873, when Mr. Mathews' 
connection with it ceased. He has for several 
years been professor of music at Highland 
Hall, a seminary for young ladies at Evans- 
ton, near Chicago. He has also for some 
time held summer musical institutes. 

Mr. Mathews occupies a place among the 
foremost of piano teachers in this country, 
and makes a specialty of phrasing and inter- 
pretation. He has educated several excellent 
players. As a writer and critic he is hardly 
less prominent. He has contributed many 
articles to the various musical publications of 
this country, and is not unknown by his pen 
outside of the circles of music. His writings 
are all characterized by clearness and force, 
indicative of a thorough mastery of the sub- 
ject as well as a logical mode of thinking. 
At present he is connected with the "Chicago 
.Morning Herald" as musical critic and special 
editorial writer. He has as yet written no 
music, but devotes himself exclusively to 
teaching and writing. The following is a list 
of his works that have appeared in book form : 
"Outline of Musical Form," 12 mo., published 



by Ditson & Co., Boston (1S67); "How to 
Understand Music" (1880), a rather unique 
work of 225 pages, with which is connected 
a "Dictionary of Music and Musicians," very 
handy for reference; "Studies in Phrasing, 
Memorizing, and Interpretation" (1881); and 
" How to Teach the Pianoforte" (now in 
course of preparation). He also assisted in 
preparing "Emerson Organ Method," by 
L. O. Emerson, and wrote the letter- press part 
of " Mason's Pianoforte Technics" (1878). 

Matzka, GEORGE, was born at Coburg, 
Germany, in 1825, and at the age of seventeen 
years became member of the court orchestra 
of his native city, where he received his musi- 
cal education. He came to this country in 
1852, settled in New York, and became a 
member of the Philharmonic Society, of which 
he has been one of the directors for a number 
of years. Among his compositions are several 
overtures (that of "Galileo-Galilei" was given 
by the Philharmonic Society), two string quar- 
tets, a sonata for piano and violin, a number 
of male choruses and songs, etc. 

May Festivals. These festivals, for 
musical importance and far-reaching results, it 
must be admitted by everyone, take the lead 
of all the festivals in this country. Europe, 
with all its culture and centuries of musical 
life, can produce nothing superior if equal to 
them in artistic excellence and freedom from 
everything objectionable. It would be diffi- 
cult to arrange festivals on a plan belter calcu- 
lated to advance the art and elevate the public- 

The first May Festival was held at Cincin- 
nati, in the Exhibition Hall, May 6th, 7th, 8th, 
c,th, and 10th, 1873, the year following the 
last great Peace Jubilee, which probably had 
considerable influence toward its establish- 
ment. (See Peace Jubilee). Theodore 
Thomas was the conductor, assisted by Otto 
Singer. Mr. Thomas has been conductor at 
all of the Festivals since and Mr. Singer his 
assistant until 1882. The chorus numbered 
850 voices and the orchestra 107 performers. 
Among the soloists, some of whom were resi- 
dents of Cincinnati, were Mrs. Smith, Mrs. 
Dexter, Miss Cary, and Messrs. M. W. Whit- 
ney, and J. F. Rodolphson. The principal 
works rendered were 

Dettingen Te Deuni, - Handel, 

Jubilee Overture, - Weber, 



Suite No. 3, 
Symphony No. 2, 
Ninth Symphony, 

with selections from "Tannhauser" ( Wagner), 
•'.Midsummer Night's Dream" (Mendelssohn), 
"Orpheus" (Gluck), "Creation" (Haydn), 
" Magic Flute" (Mozart), and "Die Meister- 
singer von Ntirnberg" (Wagner). The Festi- 
val, despite the high order of the music pre- 
sented, was a decided success, showing that 
Americans then knew how to appreciate the 
best music, and even the "music of the 

The second Festival was held at Cincinnati, 
May nth, 12th, 13th, and 14th, 1875. lne 
general features were the same as those of the 
first Festival, and the program and its rendi- 
tion of fully as high order. The soloists were 
Mrs. Smith, Miss Cary, Miss Whinnery, Miss 
Emma Cranch, and Messrs. Whitney, Bischoff, 
Remmertz, and Winch. Chief among the 
works performed were "Triumphal Hymn " 
(Braham), Seventh Symphony (Beethoven), 
"Elijah" (Mendelssohn), Magnificat ( Bach), 
Ninth Symphony (Beethoven), Symphony in 
C (Schubert), and "Prometheus" (Liszt), 
with selections from other works. The cho- 
rus was 790 strong, and the orchestra of about 
the same strength as in 1873. 

The third Festival, which was held in Cin- 
cinnati, May 14th, 15th, 16th, and 17th, 1878, 
was in many respects more notable than any of 
the rest. During the three years which had 
elapsed between this and the preceding Festi- 
val, the Cincinnati College of Music had sprung 
into existence. A building had been erected 
for its occupation, and it was in the music hall 
of this Uiat the Festival took place. The great 
music hall organ, built by Messrs. Hook & 
Hastings of Boston, one of the very largest and 
best in America, had just been completed. 
Indeed, everything seemed to contribute to the 
success of the Festival, and the enthusiasm of 
the people of the city was unbounded. Musi- 
cally, the Festival was fully up to previous 
standards. The chorus was not quite so large 
as that of 1873 or °* J ^75' numbering about 700, 
but thoroughly drilled. The orchestra was 
Thomas', and composed exclusively of New 
York musicians. It numbered 106 pieces. 
The solo singers were Mrs. Osgood, Mine. 
Pappenheim, Misses Cary, Cranch, and Roll- 
wasren, and Messrs. Adams, Fritsch, Taglia- 

9 6 


pietra, Whitney, and Remmertz. Gluck's 

" Alceste," Beethoven's Eioica Symphony, 
Handel's "Messiah," Beethoven's Symphony 
No. 9, in D minor (op. 125), and Liszt's 
Solennis, were the chief works rendered. 
The net proceeds of the Festival were about 

Commencing with 1878, the Cincinnati Fes- 
tivals have been regularly held every two 
years. The Festival of 1880 was held 
May 18th, 19th, 20th, and 21st. The chorus 
numbered about 600 trained singers, and the 
orchestra about 156 instrumentalists. Misses 
Cary and Cranch, and Campanini, Rodolpson, 
and Whitney, were the principal soloists. 
The most important works given were Bach's 
«'Ein' Feste Burg," Mozart's "Jupiter" Sym- 
phony, Handel's Jubilate, Beethoven's Mass, 
(op. 123), Schumann's Symphony (op. 120), 
Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, and Buck's 
" Golden Legend." 

The Festival of 1882, which was held May 
16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th, was in no way in- 
ferior to any of the previous ones. Mr. 
Thomas was ably assisted by Arthur Mees, 
who had charge of the chorus. Both chorus 
and orchestra were drilled up to a high point 
of perfection. The first numbered 613 voices 
and the latter 165 performers. There was, in 
addition, a boy choir of 100 voices, used in 
Bach's passion music. The principal soloists 
were Mme. Materna, Mrs. Osgood, Misses 
Cary and Cranch, and Messrs. Carididus, 
Henschel, Toedt, Remmertz, Whitney, and 
Sullivan. The program, which was fully up 
to the standard of previous ones, we give in 


Requiem, - Mozart. 

Symphony in F, op. 93, No. 8, Beethoven. 

Rec. and Aria from "Fidelio," Beethoven. 

Dettingen Te Deum, - Handel. 



Le Nozze di Figaro (selections), Mozart. 

Symphony in A, op. 92, No. 7, Beethoven. 

Overture (Genoveva) - Schumann. 

Aria, - - Bruch. 

Am Meer, Schubert. 

Duo, ... Mendelssohn. 

Dramatic Symphony ("Romeo 

and Juliet"), op. 17, - Berlioz. 

Passion Music, 



Huldigungs March, selections 
from "Lohengrin," "Die Meis- 
tersinger von Nurnberg," "Das 
Rheingold," "Die Walkure," 
and "Gotterdammerung," - Wagner. 
Symphony in C, No. 9, - Schubert. 

Scenes from "Faust," - - Schumann. 



Euryanthe (selections) - Weber. 

Concerto in G, ... Bach. 

Aria, ----- Cluck. 

"In Questa Tomba," - Beethoven. 

Duo, .... . Berlioz. 

Symphony to Dante's "Divine 

Comedia," - - Liszt. 


Forty-sixth Psalm (Prize composi- 
tion), - Gilchrist. 

Movement to Orchestral Symph,- Rubinstein. 

Aria from " Oberon," - Weber. 

Fall of Troy (selections) - Berlioz. 

Up to 1880, May Festivals were held only 
in Cincinnati, but in that year Cleveland or- 
ganized one, which was held May 13th and 
14th. New York was next to follow with a 
Festival in 1881, Chicago coming last with her 
first Festival in 1882. These Festivals were 
all modelled after those of Cincinnati in every 
important respect. During the year of 1882 
there were four May Festivals held, all in the 
month of May, viz : Cincinnati, New York, 
Chicago, and Cleveland, all but the last named 
being under the chief direction of Mr. Thomas. 
At the New York Festival the chorus varied con- 
siderably on different occasions, but averaged 
about 1800 voices and the orchestra 300 per- 
formers. Among the principal works produced 
were Mozart's Jupiter Symphony, Handel's 
Utrecht Jubilate, Handel's "Israel in Egypt," 
and Beethoven's Symphony in C, and his 
Missa Solennis. The chorus of the Chicago 
Festival comprised 820 voices, and the orches- 
tra was 172 strong. The program was simi- 
lar to those of the other Festivals, and the solo 
singers were, with one or two exceptions, the 
same as those engaged for the Cincinnati 
Festival, which may also be said of the New 
York and Cleveland Festivals. At the Cleve- 
land Festival the chorus numbered 250 voices, 
and the orchestra 50 performers 

The benefit of these Festivals in the advance • 
ment of the divine art can not now be mens- 



ured and may never be fully known, but they 
are at least worthy of the unreserved support of 
every lover of music. 

Mechanical Orguinette. The name 

of a certain class of mechanical musical instru- 
ments, which have lately sprung into exist- 
ence. They are constructed of every size, 
from that of a small square box up to that of a 
diminutive pipe organ, and of many different 
styles, some resembling reed organs and some 
pianos. The music is produced automatically, 
in the smaller sizes by turning a crank and in 
the larger sizes by pedals, by passing sheets 
of paper perforated in a certain manner 
through the instruments, the mechanism being 
so arranged that whenever a perforation comes 
in the right place a small lever passes through, 
opens a valve, and produces the required note. 
The tone of these instruments, though of 
course not equaling that of the reed organ, 
is not bad. They may be of service in some 
cases where musicians can not be obtained, 
or where persons are too stupid or too lazy to 
learn music, but they have no permanent, 
artistic value. 

Mees, ARTHUR, was born at Columbus, 
Ohio, Feb. 13, 1850. While obtaining a good 
thorough general education, he dilligently 
studied the piano and theory of music. After 
having graduated from college and spent 
some time in teaching, he went to Germany, 
where he studied the piano under Kullak, 
theory and composition under Weitzmann, 
and score-playing and chorus training under 
chapelmaster Dorn. Having remained abroad 
several years, he returned home and was en- 
gaged as one of the teachers in the College of 
Music, Cincinnati. He soon withdrew, and in 
conjunction with Schneider and Foley estab- 
lished the Cincinnati Music School. (See 
article Cincinnati). In 1SS2 he was ap- 
pointed conductor of the Cincinnati May Fes- 
tival chorus, a position which he still holds. 
Under his care the large chorus has reached 
a high degree of excellence, which demon- 
strates his abilities as a conductor and a 

Melodeoil. From the Greek melos, a 
song, and odeion. In this country the melodeon 
was the direct precursor of the reed organ. 
As late as 1S55 or i<S(o, it was very popular 

and almost exclusively manufactured, the reed 
organ being then unknown. The larger sizes 
had a case, keyboard, and pedals, like those of 
the present square piano, and frequently a 
compass of six octaves. The tone of the in- 
strument was rather sweet and melodious, but 
lacking in power, and produced from only 
one set of reeds. When the reed organ was 
introduced (i860), with its more powerful and 
varied resources, the melodeon rapidly dimin- 
ished in favor, and is not now manufactured. 
Good specimens are frequently to be met with 
throughout the country. 

JVlerz, Karl, the well-known composer 
and writer on musical topics, was born Sept. 
10, 1834, at Bensheim, near Frankfort-on-the- 
Main, Germany. His early musical instruc- 
tion was received from his father, who was 
an excellent violinist and organist of the prin- 
cipal church in that town. Some lessons in 
harmony were given him by a friend, but 
these, like the lessons of his father, were 
rather irregular and desultory, and he gained 
more by his own unaided study. When not 
more than eight or nine years old he was 
able to play the violin in a quartet club which 
met at the residence of the Baron of Roden- 
stein, and he frequently played at the musical 
gatherings at the castle of the count of Schoen- 
berg. On arriving at the age of eleven he 
assumed his father's duties as organist, which 
he continued to discharge until leaving home. 
His literary and general education was re- 
ceived at a seminary and afterwards at college, 
from which he graduated in 1853. After this 
he taught school for a year in a small place 
near Bingen on the Rhine. While on a visit 
home he met a gentleman from Philadelphia, 
who invited him to go to the United States. 
The invitation was accepted, and he arrived 
here in the autumn of 1854. A position as a 
clerk in a store in Philadelphia was secured, 
but he was soon discharged, owing to his kick 
of knowledge of the English language. 
While in this strait he met J. H. Bonawitz, who 


a situation in a band of musicians 

which played at various places of amuse- 
ment. He then became organist of the Sixth 
Presbyterian Church in that city, where he 
remained a year. He also was engaged as 
critic on a German musical journal started l>\ 
Mr. Wolsieffer, and during his stay in Phila- 



delphia he made the acquaintance of the most 
prominent musicians there. 

In 1856 he went to Lancaster County, Pa., 
where he taught in a seminary, meanwhile 
studying dilligently. In 1S59 he went South 
and remained there until the breaking out of 
the Civil War, in April, 1861. Returning to 
the North, he in September of the same year 
settled at Oxford, Ohio, and became professor 
of music in the Oxford Female College. In 
March, 1868, he began his career as a musical 
writer by contributing his "musical hints" 
to "Brainard's Musical World." These were 
continued in each number, and soon brought 
their author prominently into notice. He was 
made assistant editor of the "World," and in 
1873 became sole editor, a position which he 
has most ably filled and which he still (July, 
1885) retains. His articles have been widely 
read, and in a considerable measure influential 
in advancing the musical interests of the coun- 
try. They are characterized by an earnest, 
elevated style, and are, in addition, pleasant 
to read and logically written. During his res- 
idence at Oxford he annually gave a series of 
two or three concerts, the programs of which 
were composed of a higher order of pieces 
than is usual in such cases. Though prevent- 
ed by the number of his duties from taking 
the field as a lecturer, he has occasionally ap- 
peared in that role. The lecture on "Genius," 
delivered before the Music Teachers' National 
Association, at Cincinnati, Oxford, and other 
places in the State of Ohio, has been highly 
commended. He is not only esteemed as a 
musician but as a gentleman, and the numer- 
ous concerts which he has given for charitable 
purposes have endeared him to all classes of 
society. After having been a resident of 
Oxford for twenty-one years, he in July, 1882, 
removed to Wooster, Ohio, where he is now 
professor of music in the Wooster University. 

Mr. Merz's works, some of which are very 
popular, consist of operettas, sacred pieces, 
choruses, songs, piano solos, waltzes, dances, 
and pieces in almost every vocal and instru 
mental form. Among the more important are 
Trio, for piano, violin, and violoncello, with 
an arrangement of the andante for the piano ; 
Sonata in C minor, three movements of which 
are published as " L' Inquietude," "Eloge," 
and "La Belle Americaine ;" "La Tranquil- 
ity,' ' andante for piano; Caprice, for two 

violins and piano ; Elegy, for piano and vio- 
lin ; "Bitter Tears," two nocturnes; "Wel- 
come to the Hero," polonaise; " Last Will 
and Testament," an operetta, first produced 
at Oxford, O., in 1S77 ; "Katie Dean," an 
operetta, first produced at Oxford, in 1882 ; 
"The Runaway Flirt," an operetta, published 
in 1868; Gypsey Chorus for Ladies' Voices; 
"Great and Marvelous," chorus for six voices ; 
"Musical Hints for the Million," containing 
434 hints previously published in the "World" 
(16 mo. 216 pp., 1875); "Modern Method for 
the Reed Organ " (187S); "Elements of Har- 
mony and Composition" (1881); "Deserted," 
a song; "The Stranger's Love," a song ; Six 
organ pieces ; "To the Golden Rays of Love," 
quartet ; "O Thou who driest the mourner's 
tears," quartet; "Miriam's Song of Triumph," 

Millard, Harrison, celebrated Ameri- 
can song writer, was born Nov. 27, 1830, at 
Boston. When little more than eight years 
of age he was admitted into one of the city 
choirs, and when ten sang in the chorus of the 
Handel and Hayden Society as alto. His 
voice changed to a tenor, and on one occasion 
during the absence of the principal tenor he 
sang in the oratorio of "Samson." He was 
then about fifteen years old. In 1851 he went 
to Europe, and spent three years in studying 
under the best masters of Italy. After this he 
spent some time in London, appearing at vari- 
ous musical entertainments as a tenor singer, 
and traveled with Catherine Hayes in Ireland 
and Scotland. While abroad he wrote consid- 
erable music, and was a frequent contributor to 
"Dwight's Journal of Music" and other Amer- 
ican musical publications. In 1854 he returned 
to his native country and settled at Boston, 
giving vocal lessons and singing at concerts. 
Two years later he removed to New York. 
In 1859 he produced his first important song, 
"Viva La America," which had a wonderful 
success. Upon the breaking out of the Civil 
War he entered the army and was commis- 
sioned as first lieutenant of the 19th New York 
regiment. After four years of service he was 
severely wounded at the battle of Chicamauga, 
rendered unfit for duty, and sent home. Not 
long after he was offered a position in the cus- 
tom house, which he still (1881) holds. Mr. 
Millard has written many popular pieces 
which have rendered his name familiar all 



over the country, as is attested by the fact that 
various musical societies in different states are 
named after him. His works consist of about 
300 songs (among which is the patriotic song 
of "Flag of the Free") nearly 400 adaptations 
from French, German, and Italian ; many an- 
thems, 4 church services, 4 Te Deums, a 
grand mass, a vesper, and an Italian opera in 
4 acts, entitled "Deborah." 

Miller, Henry F., Sen., piano manufac- 
turer, was born at Providence, R. I., in 1S25, 
and died at his summer residence at Beach 
Bluff, Mass., Aug. 14, 1SS4. He received in 
youth a good education at the public and pri- 
vate schools of his native city, and at an early 
age also commenced the study of music, soon 
attaining proficiency as a pianist and organist. 
In the latter capacity he officiated for some 
time at the church connected with Brown 
University, Providence. He also, in addition 
to his musical talent, possessed a decided 
taste for mechanical studies, and while at 
school planned and built a hydraulic machine 
and an electric machine. In 1863, after he 
had been in the employ of other piano manu- 
facturers for several years, he established in 
business for himself. Being thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the various methods used by 
others, he was enabled to produce first-class 
instruments. At the outset the Henry F. 
Miller pianos were received with favor and 
soon became popular. From small beginnings 
the business steadily increased. He accumu- 
lated considerable capital, which enabled him 
to extend the business to all parts of the United 
States. He manufactured all of the various 
styles of pianos — grand, square and upright — 
and also a patented pedal upright piano for 
the use of organists. 

The elegant and commodious building 
which he occupied at on Washington St., 
Boston, was built for him. He also purchased 
a fine property at Wakefield, Mass., consisting 
of land and buildings (said to have originally 
cost Sico,oco), which offered the very best 
facilities for manufacturing, At the time of 
his death, Mr. Miller's business was in a flour- 
ishing condition. His sales annually amounted 
in value to hundreds of thousands of dollars, 
while his pianos were known and highly es- 
teemed by artists everywhere and the musical 

j world in general. Mr. Miller's family, all of 
j whom survived him, consists of his wife, five 
sons and two daughters. The sons were all 
associated with him in his business. He was 
I a man of the strictest integrity, and in all his 
! business relations commanded the respect and 
I confidence of all who knew him. The resolu- 
| tions passed by the manufacturers and his em- 
ployees at the time of his death were of unusu- 
ally high character. 

Miller, Henry F., & Sons Piano 

Co., Boston, Mass. This Company, which 
was organized in 1884 under the laws of the 
State of Massachusetts with a paid in capital 
of $ 150,000, succeeded Henry F. Miller, Sr., 
at the time of his decease. The officers of the 
Company are his sons, Henry F. Miller, presi- 
dent ; James C. Miller, treasurer; Walter H. 
Miller, manager of warerooms ; Edwin C. 
Miller, assistant superintendent ; William F. 
Miller, clerk, and Joseph H. Gibson, superin- 
tendent. The Company manufactures and 
sells the celebrated Henry F. Miller piano. 
Their offices and warerooms are at 1 56 Tremont 
St., Boston, with a branch wareroom at Phil- 
adelphia. They also have agencies in all 
parts of the United States and Canada. The 
Miller pianos rank among the very best in the 
world for durability, tone and finish. Special 
attention is given by the Company to the man- 
ufacture of grand pianos for the concert use of 

Milwaukee Musikverein (The) 

MILWAUKEE, Wis. This is one of the oldest as 
well as the most important musical societies in 
the West. It was founded in 1849, and is sup- 
ported by the large German population of the 
city. The first concert was given May 28, 
1850. H. Balatka, F. Abel, A. vonSobolewski, 
W. Tenzler, A. von Jungsest, R. Schmelz, 
and A. Mickler, have in turn acted as con- 
ductors. Eugene Luening is the present in- 
cumbent. The society has not been without 
its drawbacks and adversities, but notwith- 
standing these it has exercised a great and 
elevating influence upon the musical life of 
the great West. As an epitome of its labors, 
the following list of works (taken from Dr. 
Ritler's " Music in America ") which it has 
performed, covering almost the whole held of 
music, is a creditable one : 


ist 71 


185 1 

t8 S i 



r8 5 2 







[85 b 


1 861 
1 861 
1 861 
1 868 



Messiah (parts), 


Jesus in Gethsemane (parts), 



Elijah (choruses), 

Czar and Zimmermann, 

Der Wildschutz, 

Der Freyschiilz, 


Symphony No. 1, 

Alessandro Slradella, 

Symphony No. 6, 

Symphony No. 5, 

Forty-second Psalm, 

Die Zauberflote, 

Symphony No. 2, 

Nachtlager von Grenada, 

Stabat Mater, 

Hymn of Praise, 

Mohega (drama), 

Song of the Bell, 


Requiem Mass, 

Symphony (E flat major), 

La Traviata, 

Ninety-fifth Psalm, 

A Night on the Ocean, 

Symphony (G minor) 

Miscellaneous selections. 

St. Paul, - 

Repetition of former works. 


The Power of Song, 

Symphony No. 7, 

Symphony No. I, 

Symphony "Abschied," 

Midsummer Night's Dream (music) 

Fra Diavolo, 

Birken und Erlen, 

Symphony (unfinished), 

Mass (C), 

Symphony No. 4, 

Symphony "Ocean," 


Judas Maccabaeus (part's), 

Symphony No. 3 (E flat), 

Poeme Symphonique, "Tasso,'' 

Symphony No. 4, 

Les Preludes, 

Loreley (finale), 

Fantasie (piano, orchestra, chorus), 

Sakuntala (overture), 

Walpurgis Night, 

Ein Deutsches Requiem, 

Lohengrin (introduction and scenes 


Ball Suite, 

Paradise und die Peri, 


Symphony No. I, - 

« 9 (choral), 
Symphony (C major), 

C omposer. 











I (eethoven. 







































( roldmark. 















ist Ti 



Der Raub dev Sabinerinnen, 
Golden Legend, 
Elijah (in full), 
Symphony "Im Wald," 

c 'omposet . 





Mills, Sebastian Bach, pianist, was 
born March 13, 1838, at Leicester, England, 
where his father was organist, and early 
showed a decided musical talent. When six 
or seven years old he appeared in public and 
was well received. In 1846 he played a 
brilliant rondo by Czerny, at Drury Lane, 
with such success that the Queen sent for him 
to play before her at Buckingham Palace. 
He frequently assisted at concerts and speedi- 
ly became a great favorite. In 1S47 he went 
to Germany and studied under Plaidy, Meyer, 
and Czerny. His progress was rapid, and he 
was invited to play at various concerts, which 
he did with great acceptance. After having 
returned to England he was induced to come 
to this country, and arrived here in 1856. 
Being almost a total stranger, he met with a 
very discouraging reception, and had about 
decided to return again to his native country 
when he met Carl Beigmann, who introduced 
him to musical society. He played Schu- 
mann's concerto at a concert given in the city 
assembly rooms, Broadway, which gained him 
notice and a place among musicians. His 
mind was immediately changed and he settled 
in New York as a teacher of the piano, where 
he is still (18S6) located. He has been very 
successful, ranking as one of the leading 
teachers of the country, and has trained many 
excellent players. From time to time he has 
appeared as a virtuoso at concerts in the prin- 
cipal cities of the United States. His style is 
clear, sharp, crisp, and bold, making him ex- 
cell in bravura passages, but lacking in grace 
and feeling. This defect, however, grows less 
with the advance of age, and some of the 
boldness and power is profitably exchanged 
for the finer qualities. Mr. Mills has com- 
posed numerous and popular piano pieces, 
among the most important of which are "Hail 
Columbia" (concert paraphrase), "Alpine 
Horn" (transcription), "Barcarolle Veneti- 
enne," "Two Tarantellas," "Murmuring 
Fountain" (caprice), "Recollections of 
Home," "Caprice Galop," "Fairy Fingers," 
"Toujours Gai," " Saltarello." "Beautiful 

Blue Danube,'' "Barcarolle," "Waltz," etc. 

Mitchell, NAHUM, was born in 1769, at 
Bridgewater, Mass. He commenced the study 
of music and began composing at an early age, 
but none of his earlier pieces amounted to 
anything. In conjunction with a Rev. Air. 
Buckminster of Boston he compiled a small 
volume of church music, entitled "Brattle 
Street Collection," which was published in 
1810. In 1812 he brought out "Templi Car- 
mina," a similar collection, which was very 
successful and in the preparation of which he 
was assisted by Brown and Holt, two music 
teachers. It passed through several editions. 
His music was popular and of a higher order 
than that produced by a majority of American 
composers of his day. His principal works 
besides those already named are a "Grammar 
of Music" and a series of articles on the "His- 
tory of Music," published in the Boston "Eu- 
terpeiad." Mitchell was at one time member 
of Congress, and for many years chief justice 
of the Massachusetts circuit court. He died 
at Bridgewater, early in September, 1853. 

Mocking' Bird, Listen to the. One 
of Sep. Winner's most beautiful and popular 
ballads. It was composed about 1855, and at 
once became all the rage. Numberless varia- 
tions have been written upon it. It is one of 
the few songs which have gained a national 
reputation, and it even came to be generally 
known in England. 

Mollenlianer. A family of remarkable 
German musicians, consisting of three broth- 

FREDERIC, the eldest, was born in 1818, at 
Erfurt. His musical talents were evident from 
the first, and he formed a strong attachment 
for the violin. As has often been the case, 
the parents were displeased with the idea of 
their son becoming a musician, and he was 
obliged to surreptitiously pursue his musical 
studies. He at first took lessons of an old 
school-teacher, but having soon learned all 
his master could teach him, continued his 
studies under a Herr Braum, a pupil of Spohr, 
making rapid progress. Everything went 


along all right until a bill for services rendered 
was presented him by his teacher, which he 
was totally unable to pay. In this dilemma 
he was obliged to inform his father of what he 
had been doing, who graciously forgave him, 
paid all his debts, and allowed him to contin- 
ue his studies. For two years he remained 
with Braum, meanwhile studying harmony 
and composition" with A. Pabst, and the vio- 
loncello with E. Methfessel. He also in- 
structed his younger brothers, Henry and Ed- 
ward. About 1S35 ne commenced a concert 
tour which ks'.ed three years and embraced 
nearly all of Europe. During this period he 
became acquainted with Spohr (with whom he 
sometimes played dtws), Hummel, Schumann, 
Mendelssohn, and other noted musicians. He 
was afterwards joined by his brother Edward, 
and it was Mendelssohn who highly praised 
the duo playing of the two. In 1852 and 1853, 
during one of their brilliant concert tours, 
they played in London, and were engaged by 
Jullien as soloists in his famous orchestral 
concerts. With him they came to the United | 
States in 1853, and have since resided here, j 
Frederic in 1S65 established a "Studio of! 
Music" in Brooklyn, of which he still had j 
charge in 1882. His playing was character- ' 
ized by boldness, breadth and power. He 
was favorably known as a composer as well as 
a teacher and player. He died at Boston, 
April 14, 1885. 

Heinrich, the second member of the fam- 
ily, was born at Erfurt, Sep. 10, 1825. He 
early learned to play the piano and violin, 
receiving instruction from his elder brother, i 
and when but six years old played before the 
court at Weimar with great success. After 
having studied the piano and violin some 
time, he gave them both up for the violon- 
cello, which he studied under Knoppe and on 
which he soon became proficient. In 1853 he 
went to Stockholm, where he was engaged as 
solo violoncellist to the court. At the end of 
two or three years he resigned this position 
and traveled in Sweden and Denmark. In 
1856 he came to this country, his brothers 
having preceded him, and made his de"but at 
one of the New York Philharmonic Society's- 
concerts. He subsequently traveled with 
Thalberg, Gottschalk and Patti, giving con- 
certs in various parts of the country. Having 
married he settled in New York, and in 1867 

established a conservatory of music in Brook- 
lyn, over which he still (1S85) presides. 
Though busily engaged in teaching, he still 
frequently appears in public as a solo violon- 

Edward, violinist, the youngest member of 
the family, was born at Erfurt in 1827. His 
tirst musical instruction was received from 
his eldest brother, Frederic, under whose 
care he rapidly progressed, and when only 
nine years of age frequently appeared in pub- 
lic at conceits. He then visited Berlin, Vi- 
enna and St. Petersburg, playing with great 
success. After leaving his brother he placed 
himself under the care of Ernst, meanwhile 
studying ha-mony and composition. He sub- 
sequently became conductor of an orchestra at 
Hamburg. In order to escape military service 
he fled to England, where he joined Frederic, 
and after playing some time with Tullien's 
orchestra they in 1853 came to the United 
States. Edward finally settled in New York, 
where he is still located, highly esteemed as a 
soloist, teacher, conductor and composer. 
His opera of "The Corsican Bride" was pro- 
duced at Winter Palace, New York, in 1862, 
but undeservedly met with little success. As 
a composer he is the best known of the three 
brothers. His works consist of three operas, 
violin concertos, quartets for strings, songs, 
duets, etc., many of which remain unpub- 

Moiltejo, ELLA {lire Senate), a dramatic 
soprano, is a native of Philadelphia. She 
studied with Pasquale, Rondinella, Francois 
d'Auria, Barili, and other teachers equally 
well known. In 1S80 she made a successful 
debut on the concert stage. Soon after she 
appeared on the lyric boards in her native 
city in Gilbert and Sullivan's "Pinafore," sus- 
taining the /('</<■ of Josephine for over 100 nights. 
The following year she appeared as Columbia 
in an original opera by Giuseppe Operti. For 
some time thereafter she lived in retirement 
in consequence of the death of four members 
of her family — father, mother and two sisters. 
In 1885 she removed to New York City, and 
hr.s since re-appeared before the public. 

Moore, JOHNW., was born at Andover, 
N. H., April II, 1807, and was the third son 
of Dr. Jacob B. Moore, a descendant of a 
Scotch family and a lair amateur musician. 


Of the other two sons, Jacob B. was a partner 
of Isaac Hill in publishing the "Patriot" and 
the author of several historical and other 
works, and Henry E. Mas a music teacher and 
the composer of numerous vocal and instru- 
mental pieces. The subject of our sketch 
learned the printer's trade in the office of the 
"New Hampshire Patriot." In 1828 he es- 
tablished a weekiy paper at Brunswick, Me., 
called the "Free Press." This he sold in 1831 
and returned to Concord, N. H., where in 
conjunction with his brother Henry he founded 
the "Concord Advertiser." In 1838 he com- 
menced the publication of the "Bellows Falls 
Gazette," at Bellows Falls, Vt., which he con- 
tinued many years. He was also in 1S41 ap- 
pointed postmaster at the place, a position 
which he retained for more than ten years. 
In 1863 he removed to Manchester, N. H., 
where he became editor of the "Daily News" 
and of "Moore's Musical Record," and where 
he is still (1885) located. While residing at 
Bellows Falls, besides many miscellaneous 
articles for various musical publications, he 
wrote or edited the following works : "World 
of Music," "Sacred Minstrel," "Musician's 
Lexicon," "Musical Library," "Comprehen- 
sive Music Teacher," "American Collection 
of Instrumental Music," and " Star Col- 
lection of Instrumental Music." His far most 
important and useful work, however, is 
"Moore's Complete Encyclopaedia of Music, 
Elementary, Technical, Historical, Biograph- 
ical, Vocal and Instrumental" (1 vol. large 
8vo. 1000 pages, published by O. Ditson & 
Co., Boston, 1854), to which he devoted near- 
ly eighteen years' time and labor. The vol- 
ume contains a great mass of information, not 
always well digested, and sometimes marred 
by errors which are the result of the varied 
sources from which it was drawn. So long a 
time has elapsed since it was first published 
that it is now greatly out of date. This defect 
has been in a measure remedied by an ap- 
pendix (1875). Mr. Moore is now at work 
on a second ^volume, which will soon be is- 
sued and will undoubtedly be an improvement 
upon the first. His "Dictionary of Musical 
Information" (Boston, (). Ditson & Co., 1876) 
is a small work, mainly condensed from the 
encyclopaedia, with modifications and correc- 
tions to date, an 1 very handy for casual 

Morgan, George Washbourne, well 

known as an organist, was born at Gloucester, 
England, April 9, 1822. From the age of 
twelve until twenty years he regularly played 
twice every day. After holding several posi- 
tions as organist in his native city, he went to 
London, and was similarly engaged. He 
made his first appearance as solo organist at 
Exeter Hall, and was received with much 
enthusiasm. In 1853 ne came to this country 
and was appointed organist of St. Thomas' 
Episcopal Church, New York, where he re- 
mained only a year. After this he was organ- 
ist of Grace Church for thirteen years, of St. 
Ann's and St. Stephen's Roman Catholic 
churches for a short time, and of the Brooklyn 
Tabernacle (Dr. Talmage) for over twelve 
years. He was the first organist to introduce 
in this country the organ works of Bach, 
Hesse and Mendelssohn. His performances 
at Tremont Temple, Boston, were most highly 
praised by " Dwight's Journal of Music." In 
1876 he repeatedly played at the Centennial 
Exposition at Philadelphia. His organ recitals 
at Chickering Hall, New York, for the past 
six years have steadily increased in favor, 
and have become one of the established musi- 
cal features of the metropolis. As an organist 
Mr. Morgan ranks among the very foremost 
in this country, possessing a wonderful tech- 
nique and a complete control of his instru- 
ment. In the execution of pedal passages he 
has. no superior. He is also a good pianist, 
and is personally highly esteemed. He now 
resides at New York. His daughter, Maud, 
is an accomplished harpist. She made her 
<{( ! hiit in 1876, and has since repeatedly played 
before large and cultured audiences, always 
with the greatest success. 

Morgan, John Paul, was born Feb. 13, 
1S41, at Oberlin, Ohio, and began the study 
of music at an early age. In 1S58 he was 
employed as organist of the Congregational 
Church, Mt. Vernon, ()., but soon after went 
to New York and studied for three years un- 
der J. Huss, meanwhile acting as organist 
and director of music in the South 5th Street 
M. E. Church, East Brooklyn. In 1862 he 
returned to Cleveland, ()., where he was or- 
ganist of the Second Presbyterian Church and 
taught music. In April, 1863, he went to 
Germany, and studied theory and composition 
under Hanptmann, Richter, Reinecke, and 


Papperitz ; the piano under Wenzel, Plaidy, 

and Moscheles, and the organ under Richter. [ 
After having graduated from the Conservato- | 
rium in the spring of 1865, he spent some time j 
with A. G. Ritter at Magdeburg. In August 
of the same year he returned home and con- 
ducted a series of oratorio concerts at Ober- 
iin, (>., and at the same time founded the 
Oberlin Conservatory of Music, which is still 
in a flourishing condition under the director- 
ship of F. B. Rice. Early in i860 he again 
went to New York, and was engaged as organ- 
ist of the Church of the Messiah, Brooklyn. 
On Oct. 18th of the same year he was mar- 
ried to Miss Virginia H. Woods, daughter of 
Rev. W. \V. Woods, of Iowa City, Iowa, and 
in 1867 was appointed organist of Trinity 
Church, New York. He had charge of five 
or six musical societies in and around New 
York ; was professor of the organ and theory 
in the conservatory of William Mason and 
Theodore Thomas, the New YorkjConservatory 
and the conservatory of Carl Anschiitz during 
the brief existence of each, and was active in 
promoting musical interests in the city. An 
alarming affection of the throat caused him, 
in January, 1873, to seek a restoration of health 
in the South. He returned to New York in 
the following June, but little better, and in ac- 
cordance with the advice of physicians almost 
immediately started for Santa Barbara, Cal. 
Health was so far restored to him that he 
became conductor of the Handel and Haydn 
Society, San Francisco, of the Oakland Har- 
monic Society, and organist of the First Pres- 
byterian Church, Oakland. In 1877 he 
founded the "Morgan Conservatory of Music" 
at Oakland, to which he devoted the most of 
his time. Disease had been clinging to him, 
however, and gradually wasted his strength. 
Nature at last succumbed, and his death took 
place at Oakland, early in January, 1879. He 
left a widow and several children. 

Mr. Morgan was not only a tine organist 
but a thorough and conscientious musician. 
He detested everything superficial and at once 
impressed those with whom he came in con- 
tact with his sincerity and integrity. His 
works are numerous, and consist of the 86th 
psalm, a Te Deum, a Benedictus, a Kyrie, a 
funeral service, a Centennial National Song 
(words by Bayard Taylor), anthems, songs, 
and other vocal pieces ; a symphony for organ 

and orchestra; a trio in three movements for 
piano, violin and violoncello ; duets for piano 
and violin ; numerous miscellaneous instru- 
mental compositions, etc. 

Moseiltllill, JOSEPH, was born in Decern 
ber, 1834, at Hesse-Cassel, Germany. He 
was given a thorough musical education by 
Spohr, Bott, Kraushaar, and other ecpially 
emiaent teachers. In 1853 he came to the 
United States and settled at New York, where 
in the following year he was engaged as one 
of the players in Jullien's orchestra, then vis- 
iting this country. He afterwards formed one 
of the string quartet, the others being Bergner, 
Matzka, and Theodore Thomas, which for 
twelve years gave performances of chamber 
music. In 1800 he became organist of Cal- 
vary Church, a position which he was still 
holding in 1S78. His time is largely devoted 
to teaching, and he was for a long time one of 
New York's most prominent musicians. He 
is at present (1882) a resident of that city. 

Murray, James R., was born at Andover, 
Mass., in 1841, and studied music with Dr. 
Root, Lowell Mason, Bradbury, Webb, and 
Eugene Thayer. After serving in the army 
during the Civil War, he went to Chicago and 
was for some time editor of the "Song Mes- 
senger." In 1871 he returned to his native 
place, where he has since resided. He is 
chiefly known as the composer of songs and 
light vocal pieces and the compiler of various 
collections for schools and Sunday-schools. 
"School Chimes" was one of the most popu- 
lar books of its class. "Pure Diamonds," 
"Heavenward" and "Royal Gems," for Sun- 
day-schools, have been very successful. Of 
"Pure Diamonds" alone moie than half a 
million copies were sold. 

Musical Critic and Trade Re- 
view. A semi-monthly publication of 20 
pages devoted to musical criticism, news and 
the music trades. It was established in 1878, 
and at first known as the Musical Critic. 
Charles Avery Welles is the editor and pro- 
prietor. Published at New York. Subscrip- 
tion price, 82 per year. Circulation, about 
to, 000. 

Musical Courier. A weekly publica- 
tion devoted to the interests of music and 
drama. Published at New York by Blumen- 
berg & Ploersheim. Each number contains 
sixteen or more pages. Subscription price, 



$4 per annum. Established in 1S80. Circu- 
lation, upwards of 5,000. 

MUSIC JUKI Drama. A weekly review 
of music in general, formerly issued weekly at 
New York. It had able correspondents in all i 
parts of this country and in foreign countries, 
and contained a large amount of information I 
from the musical world in each number. | 
A daily edition of the paper was commenced 
Nov. 25, 18S2, an I continued a short time. 
This is probably the first instance of a regularly 
established musical daily in the world. It 
ceased to exist in 1883, but has lately been 
revived under a new management, and much 
improved. Amelia Lewis is at present editor. ; 

Musical glasses. Glasses resembling 
the ordinary drinking glasses, from which 
musical but very peculiar sounds may he pro- 
duced by rubbing the moistened finger around 
the rim. They are tuned to the different 
degrees of the diatonic scale by increasing or 
diminishing the quantity of water in them. 
Benjamin Franklin incorporated the glasses 
into a practical musical instrument. See HAR- 

Musical Heraltl. A monthly maga- 
zine of forty pages devoted to the advance- 
ment of music in all its branches, especially 
church music. The first number appeared in 
January, 18S0. It is edited by Dr. E. Tour- 
icc, ass-.sted by Louis C. Elson, Stephen A. 
Emery, W. F. Sherwin and G. E. Whiting. 
Published by the Musical Herald Co., Bos- 
ton. Subscription juice, #1 per year. Cir- 
culation about 10,000. It is one of the most 
ably conducted journals in this country. 

Musical Magazine, The, was not 

strictly a magazine, but a publication consist- 
ing mostly of church music, edited and issued 
by Andrew Law of Newark, N. J. It first 
appeared about the beginning of the present 
century, and was undoubtedly the first Ameri- 
can periodical devoted exclusively to music. 
Several numbers were issued, but it seems 
not to have gained any permanency. It 
formed a part of Mr. Law's "Art of Singing," 
the other two parts being "The Musical 
Primer" and "The Christi; n Harmony." 
Sometimes these three parts were bound into 
one volume. The "Magazine" was printed 
at Boston, Mass., by E. Lincoln. 

Music Teaehers' National Asso- 
ciation. The Music Teachers' National 
Association was founded in 1876, in Dela- 
ware, Ohio, and has for its aim, as specific- 
ally stated in its constitution, "mutual im- 
provement by interchange of ideas, and the 
broadening cf musical culture." From a very 
modest beginning it has passed through many 
seasons of discouragement, and for several 
years it was only kept alive by the self-sacri- 
ficing zeal of a few earnest musicians who had 
faith in its ultimate success. The fact that it 
was not in a position to take a decided stand 
on questions of importance to the best inter- 
ests of musical growth, constituted the chief 
source of its weakness, and its growth within 
the last three years may be directly traced to 
the fact that it has enunciated within that space 
of time a platform which is broad and liberal. 
At its annual meetings essays are presented 
by distinguished musicians, which, with the 
accompanying discussion, are incorporated, 
with the other proceedings, in an official re- 
port, which is distributed gratuitously. At 
the meeting in Providence, in 1S83, action 
was taken which resulted in the formation of 
the American College ok Musicians the 
following year at Cleveland. Action was also 
taken at the Cleveland meeting in the inter- 
ests of American composers, and the produc- 
tion of works by native composers on a 
worthy scale has become a leading feature of 
the annual meetings. At the meeting of 1885 
in the Academy of Music, New York, two 
orchestral concerts were given, at which were 
produced original orchestral works. This 
same year the Association took a stand in 
favor of international copyright, and has con- 
sistently agitated the subject in every legiti- 
mate manner, and stands pledged to do all in 
its power to aid this cause. To sum up the 
work of the Association as briefly as possible, 
it is an attempt, by legitimate methods, to ad- 
vance the standards of professional work; to 
stimulate a thoughtful consideration of all 
subjects relating to the art of music; and by 
united effort to make its influence a beneficial 
one, not only as relating to the profession, 
but also as a factor in the musical growth of 
the nation. It is an encouraging sign to note 
that the recent accessions to the membership 
of the Association are well-nigh exclusively 
from the ranks of the best musicians, thus ren- 



< assured the maintenance of a wort 
standard. It is to be hoped that the work of 
this organization may be wisely considered 
and that it may he an honor to the profession 
and representative of the best thoughts of 
American musicians. The officiary for the 
current year (1885-86) is as follows: 

President, A. A. Stanley, Providence, R. I.; 
Secretary-Treasurer; Theodore Presser, Phila- 
delphia, Pa.; Executive Committee, . S. B. 
Whitney, Boston, Mass., W. F. Heath, Fort 
Wayne, Ind., Max Leckner, Indianapolis, 
Ind.; Program Committee, Calixa Lavallee, 
Boston, Mass., A. R. Parsons, New York, F. 
B. Rice, Oberlin, 0. * * * 

Musical Record, The. A weekly 
paper of sixteen pages devoted to the interests 
of music in general. It is published at Boston 
by ( ). Ditson iv Co., and edited by Dexter 
Smith. It has recently been change! to a 
36-page monthly, under the same manage- 
ment and editorship. Subscription price, 
Si. 00 per annum. Established in 1878. Cir- 
culation, upwards of 5,000. 

Music Journal, American. The 

name of the official paper of the Musical Mu- 
tual Protective Union of New York, the 
largest organized body of professional instru- 
mental musicians in the world. It was estab- 
lished in December, 18S4, and issued semi- 
monthly until Jan. I, 1886, when it was 
changed to a weekly. It is published at the 
office of the Union, No. 64 E. 4th St., New 
York, under the editorial management of 
J. Travis Quigg, a well-known journalist and 
writer on musical affairs. Subscription price, 
S2.00 per annum. 

Musical Libraries. Though the Uni- 
ted States can not boast of so large and com- 
plete musical libraries as Europe, it has sev- 
eral excellent and valuable collections. The 
most important among them are the following 
ones, of which a brief description is given : 

1. — The library of Harvard Musical Associ 
ation, which contains about 2500 volumes, 
selected with care, ami the number rapidly 

2. — The Boston public library includes a 
collection of 2000 volumes on the subject of 

3. — Harvard University has a library con- 
taining about the same number of volumes, 
some of considerable value. Special attention 

is given to increasing the number. 

4- — The library of Congress contains many 
musical works and publications, but they con 
sist almost entirely of such as come to it 
through the copyright law, and consequently 
of little value. This, however, may be a 
source of valuable information to the future 

5. — The largest and most valuable library 
in this country is the one collected by Dr. 
Lowell Mason for his private use, but which 
now belongs to the theological department of College, being a gift thereto by his 
widow. The nucleus was the library of C. H. 
Rinck of Darmstadt, which was purchased by 
Dr. Mason in 1852, while traveling in Europe. 
It now contains more than 8,460 seperate 
publications and 630 manuscripts, and is par- 
ticularly rich in hymnology, there being no 
less than 700 volumes relating to this sub- 
ject alone. There are also some valuable 
theoretical works of the 16th and 17th cen- 
turies. Among the rare works are Riccio's 
Introitus (Venice, 1589J, Andreas Spaeth's 
Paraphrase of the Psalms ( Heidelberg, 151,6), 
de Moncrif's Chansons (Paris, 1755), Kreig- 
er's Musikalische Partien (Nuremberg, 1697), 
and autograph manuscripts by Dr. Mason, 
Rinck, A. Andre, Beczwarzowsky, Fesca, 
Nageli, G. A. Schneider, N. A. Strungk, etc. 

6. — The Yale College library contains a 
small but valuable collection of musical 
works, amounting to about 500 volumes. 

There are but few private libraries in this 
country which amount to much. One of them 
is the library of Karl Merz, Wooster, Ohio, 
and at present (1886) editor of Brainard's 
Musical World, which contains between one 
ail'! two thousand volumes, including some 
valuable works. Dr. Frederic L. Ritter, of 
Poughkeepsie, New York, has a large and 
valuable library. Geo. P. Upton, of Chicago, 
translator of "Nohl's Life of Haydn," has a 
good library, containing nearly a thousand 
volumes. As we have not been able to ex- 
amine any of these libraries, we can not give 
any information regarding their contents in 

Music Publishers' Association. 
An association consisting of the principal pub- 
lishers of music in the United Slates. Its ob- 
ject is the regulation of the music trade by 
fixing and sustaining a uniform and standard 


price for all music published. The Associa- 
tion w;.s once able to regulate the entire trade 
of the country, but there are now several pub- 
lishers who are not its members and who reg- 
ulate their own price for music. Among them 
are two or three who make a business of pub- 
lishing for dealers alone, at one-sixth the | 
retail price, whereas the usual discount to j 
dealers is one-half. The dealer may, by or- ! 
dering a certain amount of music, have his | 
name printed thereon as publisher. But this i 
is usually done only in the case of music not 
protected by copyright laws and thus has, in 
a certain sense, become public property. As, 
however, nearly all foreign music is of this 
class, the field is both large and profitable. 

The Association holds annual meetings, 
the last one of which occurred April 17th of 
the present year (1883) at New York, and 

has the officers usual to such a body. A trade- 
mark for sheet-music has been adopted, con- 
sisting of a star enclosing a figure, which 
indicates the number of dimes at which the 
piece is to be sold. The following firms com- 
prise the Association: Balmer & Weber, St. 
Louis; S. Brainard's Sons, Cleveland, Ohio; 
The John Church Co., Cincinnati; 0. Ditson 
& Co., Boston; D. P. Faulds, Louisville, Ky.; 
F. A. North & Co., Philadelphia; Wm. A. 
Pond & Co., New York; White, Smith & Co., 
My country, 'tis of thee. The first 

line of a very popular American national 
hymn of four stanzas, written by Rev. Samuel 
Francis Smith, D. D., who was born in 1808. 
It is generally sung to the English tune of 
"God Save the King," called "America" in 
this country. 


Nevada, Emma, whose real name is Km- | 
ma WjxoN, was born in Nevada (she took 
her stage name from her native state) about 
i860. Her father is Dr. W. W. Wixon, a 
physician of some reputation. In 1877 she 
went to Europe and studied for some time 
with Mine. Marchesi at Vienna. Her first 
engagement was for Berlin, but sickness com- 
pelled her to relinquish it. Under the man- 
agement of Col. Mapleson, she made her debut 
in " Sonnambula," at London, in May, 1S80. 
In September of the same year she sang at 
Trieste in "Sonnambula" and "Lucia" for 
several nights. She then sang in Florence, 
Leghorn, Naples, Geaoa and Rome. Verdi 
heard her at Genoa and assisted her in securing 
an engagement at La Scala, Milan, where she 
sang foi twenty-one nights. After visiting 
other Italian cities, she appeared at Prague, 
and in 1883 made her Parisian d&ut. She is 
the second American lady to sing at the Opera 
Comique. Her repertoire includes "Sonnam- 
bula," " Lucia," " Puritani," " Mignon," 
"Faust," and other operas. 

New England Psalin Singer, J 

The. One of the earliest collections of mu- I 
sic published in this country. It was edited 
by William Hillings, and issued Oct. 7, 1770. 
There were 108 pages. Most of the music 
was original. The work seems to have met 
with a reception that was very flattering to the 
author. As a matter of curiosity, the title- 
page is here given in full : 

"The New England Psalm Singer; yr 
American Chorister. Containing a number 
of Psalm-tunes, Anthems and Canons. In 
four and five Parts. (Never before published). 
Composed by William Billings, a Native of 
Boston, in New England. Matt. 12.16. 'Out 
of the Mouth of Babes and Sucklings hast 
thou perfected praise.' James 5.I3. 'Is any 
Merry? Let him sing Psalms.' 

(). praise the Lord with one consent, 

And in this grand design 
Let Britain and the Colonies 
Unanimously join (jine) ! ' 
Boston: New-England. Printed by Edes & 
( If course, the music in "The New England 

Psalm Singer" was very crude, and of this 
fact Billings seems to have become aware, for 
in his second book, "The Singing Master's 
Assistant," published in 1778, he says: 

"Kind reader, no doubt you remember that 
about ten years ago I published a book entitled 
'The New-England Psalm Singer; ' and truly 
a most masterly performance I then thought it 
to be. How lavish was I of encomium on this 
my infant production. 'Welcome, thrice Wel- 
come thou legitimate Offspring of my brain, 
go forth my little book, go forth and immor- 
talize the name of your Author; may your sale 
be rapid and may you speedily run through 
ten thousand Editions:' Said I, 'Thou art 
my Reuben, my first born ; the beginning of 
my Strength, the Excellency of my Dignity, 
and the Excellency of my power.' But to my 
great mortification I soon discovered it was 
Reuben in the sequel, and Reuben all over; 
I have discovered that many pieces were nev- 
er worth my printing or your inspection." 

See Billings, William. 

New York and Brooklyn. 


According to Dr. F. L. Ritter's " Music in 
America," musical societies were established 
in New York about the middle of the lastcen- 
turv. None of them seem to have secured 
any permanence, for they appeared and dis- 
appeared in rapid succession. At the begin- 
ning of the third decade of the present cen- 
tury the principal societies were the Client! 
Society, the PMlharmonic Society (old), the 
Euterpean, and a Handel and Haydn Society. 
The latter had a very brief, though brilliant, 
existence. Ten years later they were the 
Musical Fund (old), the Euterpean, and the 
Sacred-Music Society. The Musical Fund 
was the successor of the old Philharmonic 
Society, and was organized about 1828. Its 
membership was composed of professional and 
amateur gentlemen. Monthly rehearsals were 
given but they were private. The Euterpean 
and the Sacred-Music Society are noticed in 
another place. As early as 1845 the German 


population of New York had several socie- 
ties, the principal of which was the Concordia, 
conducted by Daniel Schlesinger. They have 
at present, besides the DEUTSCHE LlEDER- 
KRANZ, several Mannerchore, while the resi- 
lient French have a Cercle d' ' Harmonie in a 
flourishing condition. Prominent among the 
glee clubs is the Mendelssohn Glee Club, of 
which Joseph Mosenthal is conductor. There 
is also the Vpcal Society, S. P. Warren, con- 
ductor, which devotes itself to the lighter 
vocal forms. It has been impossible, in an 
article like this, to give a description of or 
even mention all the societies of the past or 
present, but the following have received more 
or less extended notices : 

Oratorio Society of New York, Symphony 
Society of New York, American Musical 
Fund Society, New York Harmonic Society, 
Sacred-Music Society, Arion, Choral Society, 
Deutsche Liederkranz, Futerpean, Mendels- 
sohn Society, Musical Institute, Mason and 
Thomas Soirees. 

Oratorio Society ok New Yoke (The), 
was organized in 1873 and incorporated in 
June, 1X75. The object of its formation is 
the promotion and cultivation of choral music, 
both sacred and secular, by the study and pub- 
lic performance of works of the highest class. 
The Society is governed by a board of fifteen 
directors, elected annually from the member- 
ship. The fust concert was given at Knabe 
» Hall, Dec. 3, 1883, with a chorus of twenty- 
eight. During the last season, that of 1882- 
83, it became necessary to limit the member- 
ship to five hundred. Qualification for mem- 
bership is based upon proficiency in sight- 
reading, as determined by the conductor by 
personal examination. The Society has, in 
the ten years of its existence, given ninety- 
three public performances and rendered forty- 
four works or parts of works. In the spring 
of 18S1, in connection with the Symphony 
Society, it planned .and carried out the first 
great May Festival held in New York, with 
both artistic and financial success. The festi- 
val chorus numbered 1200, and the orchestra 
-87. The average audience for the seven 
concerts was 9100 persons. The festival pro- 
gram included the following works : Berlioz's 
"Grande Messe des Morts" (Requiem), 
Rubinstein's " Tower of Babel," Handel's 
"Messiah" and " Dettingen Te Deum," 

Beethoven's 9th Symphony, and Wagner's 
" Meistersinger." The first two were new 
in America. Most notable among the works 
produced by the Society at its regular 
concerts are "Requiem," Berlioz; "Pas- 
sion Music" (according to St. Matthew), 
Bach; "Requiem," Brahms; " Sulanuth," 
Damrosch ; "Samson," "Messiah," "Judas 
Maccaba-us," "Israel in Egypt," "Alex- 
ander's Feast," and "L' Allegro," Handel; 
"Creation," "Seasons," and "Tempest," 
Haydn; "Christus," Kiel; "Christus," Liszt ; 
"Elijah," "St. Paul," and " Walpurgis 
Night," Mendelssohn; "Tower of Babel," 
Rubinstein; "Paradise and Peri," Schumann, 
together with a number or lesser works. It 
has also assisted the Symphony Society in the 
production of "La Damnation de Faust" and 
"Romeo and Juliet," Berlioz ; 9th Symphony, 
Beethoven ; and selections from the "Meister- 
singer" and " Parsifal," Wagner. Of these 
works, "Messiah" has been given 18 times, 
"La Damnation de Faust" 7 times, "Creation" 
6 times, "Elijah" 9 times, "Tower of Babel" 
5 times, "Requiem" (Berlioz) and "St. Paul" 
3 times each. The Society is now in excel- 
lent financial condition, is self-sustaining, and 
without debt. It has had but one musical 
conductor, Dr. Leopold Damrosch, to whom 
belongs its inception, and to whose zealous 
and tireless efforts is chiefly due its remarkable 
progress and unqualified success. His unvary- 
ing geniality and courtesy have given him the 
affection, and his musical erudition and power 
the eminent respect of the chorus. 

Symphony Society ov New York (The), 
was organized in 187S, and chartered April 8, 
1879., The object of the Society is the pro- 
motion of orchestral music in New York, by 
the study and public performance of the dif- 
ferent forms of classical music, especially the 
symphony. Among its incorporators and 
directors the first year were Fr. Beringer, 
Wm. H. Draper, August Lewis, Benj. K. 
Phelps, Joseph Wiener, Leopold Damrosch, 
Stephen M. Knevals, Morris Reno, Chas. F. 
Roper, Frederick Zinsser, and Charles ('. 
Dodge. The first series of concerts was given 
during 1878-79. The Society has regularly 
given twelve public performances each sea- 
son, which, together with the special concerts, 
gives a total of sixty-four concerts. Eighty- 
nine works or parts of works have been ren- 


dered, besides those which have been the 
special work of the soloists. This group num- 
bers twrntv ilnei . Fourteen entirely new 
works have been produced. Of the orches- 
tral works, the following are the most impor- 
tant : The 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, Sth j 
and i;th symphonies of Beethoven, together 
with his "Egmont," "Leon ore No. 3," "Cor- 
ilan," and "Consecration of the Home," 
overtures; Symphony No. 3, Max Bruch (first 
time); "La Damnation de Faust," "Romeo, 
and Juliet," and "Symphony Fantastique," 
Berlioz; 1st Symphony (op. 68) and "Acade- 
mic Festival Overture," Brahms; "Spring," 
fantasia, Bronsart ; "Anakreon," overture, \ 
Cheiubini; "Festival Overture," Damrosch ; j 
"Slavonic Rhapsodie," No. 2 (new), Anton 
Dvorak; overtures "Sakuntala" and "Pen-! 
thesilea," Carl Goldmark ; Symphony in G 
I No. S, Peter's edition), Haydn ; Norse Suite, | 
op. 22, A. Hamerik; the symphonic poems, 
•' lasso." " Les Preludes," " Fesfklange," 
"Ma/eppa," and "Die Hunnenschlacht," and 
the "Hungarian Rhapsodie" No. 2, Liszt; 
Symphony in C minor and Symphony in C 
("Jupiter"), Mozart; "Scotch Symphony" 
lop. 56), and overtures "Midsummer Night's 
Dream'" and " Fingal's Cave," Mendelssohn; 
second movement of "Spring Symphony," 
Joachim Raff; "Ocean Symphony" and "La 
Russia" (morceau symphonique), Rubinstein; 
overture, "Olympia," Spontini ; Symphony 
No. 2, A minor (new), Camille Saint-Saens; 1 
Symphony in C and unfinished symphony in B | 
minor, Schubert ; Symphony No. 2, in C, and | 
Symphony No. 4, in D minor, Schumann ; i 
Suite, op. 43 (new), P. Tschaikowsky ; Sere- 
nade No. 3, Robert Volkmann ; selections | 
from "Tristan and Isolde," "Parsifal," "Sieg- 
fried," "Die Walkllre," and "Der Meis'ter- 
siriger von Ni'imburg," and the "Tannhaiiser" j 
and the "Faust" overtures, Wagner; "Eury- 
anthe," overture, Weber. The following list | 
gives the concerts for piano, violin, etc., and ; 
orchestra, together with the soloist for each : 
Bruch concert, for violin, August Wilhelmj. 
Max Pinner. 
August Wilhelmj. 

Madeline Schiller. 
Franz Rummel. 

Mau. I lengremont. 

August Wilhelmj. 
Fran/ Rummel. 

BeethoA en " 

for piano, 

Beethoven " 

for violin, 


for piano, 


for piano, 

Mendls'hn " 

for violin, 


for violin, 

Saint-Saens ' 

for piano, 

Saint-Saens " for violoncello, A. Fischer. 
Saint-Saens " for piano, Madeline Schiller. 
Scharwenka " for piano, Bern. Bokelmann. 
Spohr " for violin, Michael Banner. 

Volkmann " for contralto. Miss Drasdil. 
Wilhelmj •' for violin, August Wilhelmj. 

The most brilliant of the Society's single 
productions was that of "La Damnation de 
Faust," given with the aid of the Oratorio 
Society of New York (q. v.). The success of 
the work was remarkable, so much so that six 
performances were given in four weeks. The 
greatest work of the Society (also in conjunc- 
tion with the Oratorio Society) was in the 
preparation and successful production of the 
tirst May P'estival given in New York, the 
general features of which are to be found in 
the preceding notice (See also the heading, 
May Festivals). Dr. Leopold Damrosch 
has been conductor of the Society from the 
first. W. T. 

American Musical Find Society (The). 
The first movement made in relation to the 
American Musical Fund Society of New York 
was begun by the founder of the "American 
Art Journal," Henry C. Watson, in its pred- 
ecessor, the "American Musical Times," 
June ib, 1S48. In this article, and in several 
succeeding, the reasons why such a society 
should be established were fully developed, 
and the attention and interest of the profession 
fully aroused. The melancholy circumstances 
attending the death of Carl Woehning and of 
T. Y. Chubb accelerated the movement thus 
openly set in motion by Mr. Watson, and 
resulted in a meeting of the German musi- 
cians, called together by Mr. David Schaad, 
for many years secretary of the New York 
Philharmonic Society. Several meetings took 
place at No. 26 Delaney street, at which a 
constitution was formed, Mr. Schneider acting 
as chairman, Mr. Jos. Flick as treasurer, and 
Mr. Schaad as secretary pro tern. Then a pub- 
lic call was made for all resilient musicians to 
meet at the Apollo Soloon, on Dec. 23, [848. 
Although at these preliminary meetings it was 
designed to make the Society exclusively 
German, the public call brought together mu- 
sicians of all countries, English, Americans, 
French, Italians, and Germans. Mr. Anthony 
Reiff was called to the chair, and Mr. Schaad 
acted a secretary. The principal motion, 
which settled for the time the character of 


the Society, was "That the language of the 
organization should he German." This was 
lost by an overwhelming majority, although of 
those present two-thirds were Germans. It 
was, however, determined that the constitution 
which the Society might adopt should he trans- 
lated into the German language. The consti- 
tution formed at the preliminary meetings and 
rendered into English by Mr. John C. Scherpf, 
Watson's associate on the "Musical Times," 
was submitted to the musicians present, and, 
on motion, was referred to a committee for 
alteration, amendment or revision. The com- 
mittee chosen and elected by acclamation were 
Henry C. Watson, Henry C. Simm, D. G. 
Ktienne, M. Rafetti, Thomas Dodworth, and 
Anthony Reiff. The constitution prepared by 
this committee, with a German translation of 
it by Mr. Scherpf, was submitted, and, after 
discussion, was adopted, Feb. 16, 1849. The 
charier was obtained April 12th of the same 
year. * * * 

Philharmonic Sociej y. This Society was 
founded April 5, 1842, for the purpose of 
cultivating instrumental music. The first con- 
cert was given Dec. 7, 1842, at the Apollo 
Rooms, since when concerts have regularlv 
been given, the l.Sist of the series occurring 
April 12, 1879. The Chinese Rooms, Niblo's 
Garden, Irving Hall, and the Academy of Mu- 
sic have successively been used for the pur- 
pose of the Society- The latter was destroyed 
by fire in 1801, and during the interim of re- 
building Irving Hall was again used. Feb. 17, 
1853, the Society was duly incorporated under 
the laws of the State of New York. The con- 
certs are models in their line, and the 
programs cover a wide range of the best 
works, which are instrumental with the 

exception of numerous vocal solos and 
an occasional choral piece. The orches- 
tra consists of about 96 performers, each one 
of whom is an actual member, and among 
whom the profits of the concerts are divided. 
I The Society is managed by the actual mem- 
! bers. Each of these must "be an efficient 
performer on some instrument, and have been 
, a permanent resident of the city or its vicinity 
for one year previous to his nomination." 
An excellent set of rules for admission and 
government are rigidly enforced, to which fact 
I the Society owes its high reputation. There 
! are four grades of membership, besides the 
one already specified, as follows: 1. Asso- 
ciate, those who are admitted to the public 
! rehearsals and concerts on paying a stipulated 
! sum annually; 2. Subscribers, those who art- 
entitled to two tickets for each regular con- 
\ cert, the price being regulated each year by 
the Society ; 3. Honorary, a title conferred on 
eminent artists by the unanimous consent of 
J the actual members; 4. Honorary Associate, 
a title bestowed upon eminent persons not 
! belonging to the musical profession. Among 
j the honorary members are Sir Julius Benedict 
j (1S50), and Mme. Parepa-Rosa (1870). The 
conductors of the Society have been H. C. 
Timm (1842-45,, E. J. Loder (1846-48), 
U. C. Hill (1849-51), Theodore Eisfeld ( 1S52- 
60), Carl Bergm.nn (1861-75), Dr. Leopold 
Damrosch (1876), Theodore Thomas (1877), 
Adolph Neuendoiff( 1878), Theodore Thomas 
[(1879). The Society's headquarters are at 
j Aschenbrodel's Club House, 74 East 4th St., 
j but the library — an excellent one — is kept at 
J S33 East '8th St. The following is a list of 
1 instrumental works which it has performed up 
to 1881 : 

1st Time. 

To. 'Finn's 


1842, Dec. 



Symphony (C minor), 

" " 



Quintet (D minor). 

a .< 


• 7 

( herlure to "( (heron," 




Overture (D), 

1845, Feb. 



Eroica Symphony, 

.. <! 



Overture to "William Tell," 

.< « 



< Iverture to "Freyschiitz," 

" Apr. 



Symphony No. 2, 



( Iverture,' "Midsummer Night's Ok 

" " 




.f 41 



"Jubilee" Overture, 



Symphony No. 7, 

< (vertnre to Xauberrlote," 

"Jupiter" Symphony, 



I luminel. 














1st Time. 

Vo. Times. 




Septuor (two movements) 
Symphony ( I > minor) 


Overture to "Euryanthe" 



Overture, "Beherrscher der Ge 




Symphony No. 8, 



Overture, "Hebriden " 
Symphony No. 3, 



Overture to "Jessonda" 



( >verture, "Naids" 




( (verture, "Melusine" 



Symphony No. 3, 



Overture to "Anacreon'' 
Overture to "Jeune Henri" 



Overture, "Marmion" 
Concert overture, 
Symphony No. I, 




Overture, "Les Francs Juges" 


Symphony (O minor) 



Symphony No. 6, 




Choral Symphony (No. 9) 




Symphony, "Die Weihe der Tone" 


Symphony (E flat major) 



Overture to "King Lear" 
Overture (op. 3) 



Symphony No. 1, 




Overture to "Egmont" 
Septuor Concertando, 





Symphony (C major) 
Double Symphony, 
Prize Symphony, 


Overture, "Wood Nymph" 





Symphony No. 4, 


Overture, "Meererstille und Gliickliche Kahrt" 


( tverture to "Les Huguenots" 



Midsummer Night's Dream inn 
Symphony Concertando, 


1850-5 r 


Symphony (C major) 




Symphony (I! rlat major) 
Overture, "Vampyr" 
( >verture, "Vestale" 



Overture, "Robespierre" 
Concerto No. 2 (violin) 

: - 



Symphony No. 4, 
Overture, "Joseph" 




( )verture to "Faust" 
Concerto No. (violin) 



Symphony No. 1, 



Overture, "Ossian" 



Overture, "Fingal's Cave" 

Overture, "Reiselust" 




Overture, "In the Highlands" 




Overture, "Leonore" | No. 3) 

1853 54 


Symphony, "The Seasons" 



Symphony No. 2 ( C 1 
Symphony ( R flat ) - 



( )verture, "Vampyr" 




Overture to "Faust" 




Overture, "Abraham's Sacriiic 
Overture to "I'reciosa" 
( (verture, "Maritana" 




Overture, "Ruy Bias" 



Overture, "Olympia" 



Overture to "Taimhauser" 














Lind painter'. 














1 .indpainter. 



F. David. 




De Beriot. 










Marschnei . 










j. Wiw*. 

Compose/ . 

Concerto (E flat — piano) 


Symphony, "Jullien" 


Overture to "Iphigenia" 


Overture, "Hans Heiling" 


Overture, "Medea" 


Overture to "Faust" 


Overture, "Uriel Acosta" 


Concert Overture, 


Overture, "Chant des Beiges" 


Symphony (E) 


Overture to "Manfred" 


Overture, "Merry Wives of Windsor" 


Overture, "Coriolan" 


Overture, Scherzo and Finale, 


Symphony-Concerto (piano) 


Symphony No. 5, 


Symphony No. 2(D) 


Symphony (F sharp) 


Symphony No. 4, 


Overture to "Siege of Corinth" 


Overture, "Fierabras" 


Concerto (A minor — piano) 



Tasso, poeme-symphonique, 



Overture to "Fidelio" 



Overture, "Festival" 



Symphony No. 3, 


Overture, "Leonore" (No. 1) 



Overture, "Genoveva" 



Festklange, poeme-symphonique, 


Walpurgis Night, - 



Symphony No. 5, 



Les Preludes, poeme-symphonique, 



Overture, "Carnaval Romain" 



Overture to "Rienzi" 


Concerto No. 2 (piano) 


Concerto for violin, 


Overture, "Traum in der Christnacht" 


Overture (B flat) 


Fantasie (piano) 


Symphony, . "Faust" 


Hymn of Praise, 


Overture to "Flying Dutchman" 


Overture, "Scotch" 


Concert Overture, 


Symphony (E flat) 


Overture, "Medea" 


Concerto (violoncello) 



Mazeppa, poeme-symphonique, 



Symphony No. 1 (D major) 



Symphonie Fantastique, 



Overture, "Prometheus" 


Introduction, "Tristan and Isolde" 


Symphony (D minor ) 


Romeo and Juliet (two movements) 


Overture, "Nachtlicher Zug" 


Overture, "Columbus'' 


Introduction to "Lohengrin" 


Overture to "Les deux Journees" 


Overture, "Othello" 


Reformation Symphony, 


Symphony (unfinished) 


Music to "Manfred" 


Overture, "Hamlet" 


Overture, "Semiramide" 





Symphony, "Divina Commedia" 



tst Time. 

No. Time. 




Symphony (C) 

( Overture, "Sakuntala" 



Overture, "Leonore" 1 N 

1X70 71 


Symphony, "Ocean" 


Music to "Egmont" 
Overture, "Aladdin" 
Overture to "Idomeneo" 


Svni] >hony ( ( 1 major) 






1879 80 

Symphony, "Im Wal< 

Symphony No. 2, 

< >verture, "Julius Caesar" 

Overture to "Meistersinger von Niirnberg' 

( iverture, "Macbeth" 

Symphony No. 4, 

Symphony No. 8, 

,, 'Oxford" 
Overture, "Prinzessin Use" 
Overture, "Consecration of th( 
( h erture, "Galilei" 
Symphony N< 



mi to "Loreley" 
••Michel Angel* 




Symphony No. 9, 

Symphony No. 6, 

Symph ny No. 3, 

Symphony No. 1, 

Andante from op. < ; 7, 


( )verture, "Normannezug" 

Overture (op. 15) 

Fantasie — Overture, 

Symphony No. 1, - 

Symphony No. 2, 

Overture, "Julius Ca'sar" 

Overture to "Faniska" 

Overture, "Romeo and Julia" 

Symphony, "Landiche Hochzeil" 



First act of "Walkiire" - 

Scena from "Gotterdammerung" 

Concerto (piano ) 

Concerto ( piano 1 

Symphony No. 1, 

Symphony No. 2. 




1 funnel 

Fantasia, "Francesca di Rimini" 

Symphony No. 3, 

Symphony No. 4, 

Walkiire Ritt und Siegfrieds Tod, 

Third act of "Gotterdammerung" 

( loncerto ( piano) 




Beethov'n- Liszt 


New York Harmonic Society. This 
Society, which was in a measure the successor 
of the "Sacred-Music Society," was organized 
Monday, Sept. 24, 1849. Rehearsals were at 
once begun under the voluntary direction ( f 

H. C. Timm, and soon after Theodore F^isfeld 
was elected permanent conductor. On the 
evening of May 10, 1850, the Society gave its 
first public performance, which consisted of 
the "Messiah." On the <ili of November 


following, the oratorio was repeated, Jenny 
Lind singing the soprano solos. June 28, 
185 1, Mendelssohn's "Elijah" was given at 
Tripler Hall. The Society experienced the 
difficulties which usually beset such an under- 
taking, and was several times reorganized. 
In 1863, a number Ot dissatisfied members 
instituted a rival society, called "Mendels- 
sohn Society." It continued to hold its own, 
however, until 1869, when it met the fate of 
its predecessors, after a useful life of twenty 
years. Its rival society did not very long 
survive it. Among the works which it ren- 
dered are "Creation," "Judas Maccaboeus," 
"Samson," Neukomm's "David," Mendels- 
sohn's "Hymn of Praise," Bristow's "Praise 
to God," Kilter's " Forty-Sixth Psalm," and 
Bach's cantata, "Who believeth and is bap- 
tized" (1S65). The conductors were H. C. 
Timm, Theo. Eisfeld, Geo. F. Brislow, Carl 
P.ergmann, Gen. W. Morgan, F. L. Ritter, 
and J. Peck. 

Sacred-Music Society (The), was organ- 
ized in 1823. The circumstance which led to 
its institution seems to have been a dissention 
between the choir and the vestry of Zion 
("lunch, located at the coiner of Molt and 
Cross streets. The choristers petitioned the 
vestry for an increase of salary or permission 
to give concerts. This being refused, they final- 
ly "resolved to withdraw in a body, and for 
the purpose of continuing the practice of sa- 
cred music formed the Sacred-Music Society. 
The first concert was given at the Presbyterian 
church, Provost street, Monday evening, 
March 15, 1824, with a varied program, inclu- 
ding numerous selections from Chappie. 
Wednesday evening, Feb. 28, 1827.. the Soci- 
ety gave a concert for the benefit of the 
Greeks, which netted £590. Malibran as- 
sisted. This event gave it a fresh impetus 
which was very beneficial. It was not until 
Nov. 18, 1831, at St. Paul's Chapel, that an 
entire oratorio was performed, which was the 
"Messiah." The solo singers were Mrs. 
Austin, Mrs. Singleton, John Jones, A. Kyle, 
J. Pearson, and Thomas Thornton. The 
orchestra numbered ^8 and the chorus 74 per- 
formers. This is said to have been the first 
performance of an entire oratorio in New 
York City. It was repealed Jan. 31 and Feb. 
2, 1832. From this time the Society devoted 
itself to a better class of works. Another im- 

portant event in its history was the production, 
Oct. 29, 1S3S — only two years after its first 
production at Diisseldorf under the direction 
of the composer — of Mendelssohn's oratorio, 
"St. Paul." In 1849, after an existence of 
twenty-six years, the Society ceased to exist, 
and was succeeded by the New York Har- 
monic Society (see preceding). Uriah C. Hill 
was for many years its conductor. 

Arion (The). This society was formed in 
1854 by members who seceded from the 
Deutsche Liederkranz. It is devoted entirely 
to the cultivation of male choruses, and 
women are only invited to participate on 
special occasions. A noteworthy event in the 
history of the society was the production in 
1859 of Wagner's "Tannhauser," for the first 
time in America. Six concerts are given 
each year at its own hall. Its conductors have 
been Meyerhofer (1854-58), Bergmann (1859), 
Ansehutz (1S60-61), F. L. Ritter ( 1862-66), 
Bergmann (1867-70), and Dr. Damrosch (1870 
to his death in 1884). 

New York Choral Society (The) was in 
a measure a consolidation of previously exist- 
ing societies, and was organised in September, 
1823. A small army of officers was elected, 
the president and three vice presidents all be- 
ing clergymen. James H. Swindalls acted as 
first conductor. The constitution required 
that each active male member pay one dollar 
into the treasury. Subscribers were required 
to pay Sio per annum. The first concert of 
the Society was given at St. George's Chapel, 
Beekman St., April 20, 1824, the program 
consisting of selections from Handel, Beetho- 
ven, Mozart and Jomelli. The chorus was 
fifty and the orchestra twenty strong. One of 
the objects of the Society was to assist with 
its talents any benevolent institution. 

Deutsche Liederkranz. The beginning 
of this society dates back to the autumn of 
1846, when a call was issued to the Germans 
of New York. In January, 1847, a consti- 
tution was adopted, a board of directors 
selected, and a conductor appointed. Re- 
hearsals were held at the old Shakspeare 
Hotel and concerts given at intervals. In 
1850, Agricola Paur became conductor, a post 
which be still retains. Four years later a 
dissension occurred which resulted in the 
establishment of the Arion. In 1856 women 
were admitted as active members — a verv 



wise step, and one which increased the scope 
of the society as well as insure 1 greater 
permanency. The society has a building of 
its own, in the hall of which several concerts 
are given each season. Among the more im- 
portant works performed are Mozart's " Re- 
quiem;" Mendelssohn's "Walpurgisnacht," 
"Festgesang an die Kunstler," "Lobgesang," 
finale to "Loreley," and "Antigone;" Schu- 
mann's " Des Sangersfliich," "Manfred," 
" Uer Rose Pilgerfahrt," "Vom Pagen Und 
der Konigstochter," and "Das Paradies und 
der Peri;" Liszt's "Prometheus;" Cade's 
"Coniala;" Schubert's "Die Yerschworenen;" 
Bruch's "Odysseus," etc. 

EuXERPEAN (The) was organized about 
the beginning of the present century, and was 
for a long time the oldest musical society in 
New York City. It was composed of instru- 
mental performers, met every Friday evening 
during the summer months, and gave but one 
concert a year. Its artistic influence seems to 
have been rather small, for the critics of that 
time found much fault with it. At a concert 
given at the City Hall, June 30, 1839, the or- 
chestra consisted of 6 first violins, 5 second vio- 
lins, 4 tenors, 3 violoncellos, 2 contra-basses, 
4 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 
horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, kettledrum, 
drum, and cymbals. The society was, in a 
measure, the predecessor of the Philharmonic 
Society, before whose institution in 1842 it 
ceased to exist. 

Musical Institute. This chorus society 
was organized about 1844. It brought out in 
September, 184b, Haydn's " Seasons," and 
other oratorios afterwards. April 11, 1848, 
Schumann's " Paradise and the Peri" was 
performed, and it is said that the composer 
was very much pleased when he heard of the 
fact (See "Neue Zeitschrift far Musik." ) The 
society also produced Rossini's "Stabat 
Mater" for the first time in America. H. C. 
Timm was its conductor. The chorus num- 
bered 120 and the orchestra 60 performers. 
About 1850 the society ceased to exist, being 
merged, along with the Vocal Society and the 
Sacred-Music Society, into the New York 
Harmonic Society. 

Mason-Thomas Soirees. These stirpes 
were established in 1855, and were given at 
the Dodworth rooms on Broadway and Elev- 
enth street. William Mason was pianist, and 

Theodore Thomas, Joseph Mosenthal, George 
Matzka and Carl Bergmann, constituted the 
string quartet. Bergmann was at the end of a 
year succeeded by Brannes, and finally by 
F. Bergner. The works performed were of 
the highest order and represented both classi- 
cal and modern composers. The soirees mer- 
ited better patronage than they received. 
They were discontinued in 1866. 


The Aroi.1.0 Club, composed exclusively 
of male voices, is the representative musical 
society in this city, and, in excellence of 
ensemble, is vocally what the Philharmonic is 
instrumentally. The Club, now in its fifth 
season, is as successful financially as it is 
musically. Three subscription concerts are 
given during the season under the direction 
of Mr. Dudley Buck, and are attended by the 
best musical people in the city. The class 
of music interpreted, though not particularly 
elaborate, is usually of a high order. Several 
of Mr. Buck's most successful works were 
dedicated to and sung for the first time by 
the Club. Of these were "The Nun of 
Nidros," " King Olaf's Christmas," and 
"Chorus of Spirits and Houris" from Shelley's 
"Prometheus Unbound." The Club from its 
inception has steadily increased in reputation, 
as well as in a financial sense. It originated 
primarily from the defunct St. Cecilia Society, 
and was the outcome of a dispute between 
several prominent members and their conduc- 
tor, Mr. E. J. Fitzhugh. At a meeting held 
at the residence of Mr. Chauncey Ives, Nov. 
1st, 1877, the Schubert Club was organized, 
which was afterward changed to that of the 
Apollo. The first rehearsals were held at 
Evans' music rooms, 177 Montague Street, 
and the initial concert, under Mr. Buck's 
leadership, was given at the Art rooms, Mon- 
tague Street, March 27th, 1878, with a mem- 
bership of twenty-four. The expenses were 
defrayed by each member being assessed a 
pro rata amount. The success of this first 
conceit led to the organization being placed 
upon a solid financial basis. A meeting to 
that end was held June 5th, at the house of 
the late Dr. Albert E. Sumner, and Mr. Wm. 
B. Leonard was appointed president. The 
financial results of the first year showed a 
modest balance for the Club of four dollars. 
The present year shows a balance of £2,508 to 


the bank account of the Club. Subscribing 
members are limited to three hundred and 
active members to sixty. From the former 
party directors are annually elected, in whom 
is vested the government of the Club. The 
officers, who remain the same, are W'm. 1!. 
Leonard, president; L. S. Burnham, vice- 
president; William B. Kendall, treasurer; 
Robert S. Granniss, secretary for board of 
directors; I. A. Stanwood, chairman active 
members ; Henry S. Brown, secretary, and 
William B. Rowe, Jr., librarian. In the 
death of the second vice-president, Dr. Sum- 
ner, the Apollo Club lost not only one of the 
originators, but a valuable counsellor and 
friend. Rehearsals are held Monday evenings, 
at Everett Hall, Fulton Street. 

The Amateur Opera Association is prob- 
ably the most complete organization of its kind 
in the country. Its members are among the 
best amateurs of the city, while the perform- 
ances given are usually of a very creditable or- 
der. The Association is now in its eighth year, 
with an established reputation. From small 
beginnings the society has grown to be a con- 
siderable factor among the several very excel- 
lent amateur dramatic and musical associations 
of the city. The following brief facts will 
show the progress made by 'he Association 
from its inception. It was organized in 1877 
from the choir of .St. Peter's P. E. Church, 
by Mr. Henry E. Hutchinson, who became 
the musical director, a position he retained for 
three years. The first board of management 
was composed of Henry E. Hutchinson, James 
Mogle and James Walter Thompson. To the 
early efforts of Mr. Pogle the .Association owes 
much of its present success. The first opera 
given was "Martha, "which occurred in 1878111 
a hall upon the site of which the Music Hall 
now stands. The success of this opera was 
followed by the production of the "Doctor of 
Alcantara," with Mr. Charles H. Parsons, a 
well-known amateur, at the head of the man- 
agement. Performances were given at the 
Union League Theatre, N. \ ., and at the 
Novelty Theatre in Williamsburg. The "Bo- 
hemian Girl," "Fra Diavolo," "Maritana" 
and the "Pirates of Penzance," followed in 
quick succession, and were given at the 
Academy of Music with more or less success. 
The most ambitious and successful effort yet 
made by tlu- Association was tlu- performance 

of the "Chimes of Normandy," which was a 
revelation even to the most sanguine friends of 
of the society and fairly placed it upon a solid 
and artistic basis. The Association is partic 
ularly fortunate in the selection of its officers. 
Mr. Parsons, president, brings to the position 
real executive ability and hard work, as also 
do Mr. B. R. Weston, vice-president? Mr. 
Henry Gorham, secretary; Mr. A.M. Wilder, 
Jr., treasurer, and Signor Kafael-Navarro, 
musical director. The rooms of the Associa- 
tion are at 179 Montgue Street. 

The Amphion Musical Society has its 
headquarters in the Fiastern District, and 
occupies a handsome suite of club-rooms, 
including a hall for rehearsals, corner of 
Clymer Street and Division Avenue. The 
Society has a two-fold basis — musical and 
social. It is now in its third year and has 
experienced a success almost phenomenal. 
The active membership is limited to sixty and 
the honorary membership to four hundred. 
The former is composed of some good material, 
which, under the able direction of Mr. C. 
Mortimer Wiske, is welded into a compact 
body of voices capable of doing some good 
work. Three invitation concerts are given 
during the season at the Academy of Music, 
which are attended by the best people in the 
Eastern District. The programs provided on 
these occasions are generally of a light char- 
acter and comprise mainly German and Eng- 
lish part songs. The Society was organized 
Sept. 5, 1SS0, and the first rehearsal took place 
Oct. 5th. The initial concert was given Jan. 
24, 1881, in Bedford Avenue Reformed 
Church, with a chorus of thirty-six voices, 
directed by their present conductor, Mr. 
Wiske. The success of this concert stimu- 
lated its promoters to greater activity. At the 
first annual election of officers, held in May, 
Mr. (ieo'-ge Fischer was elected president. 
The second concert of the second season was 
given in the Academy of Music, an interesting 
feature of which was the production by the 
Society of an ambitious composition, •' Frit 
hof." Thomas' orchestra assisted on this 
occasion. The social element is a strong 
feature in the work of the Society and well 
appointed rooms are set apart for social inter- 
course and recreation. The organization 
exerts an educating and refining influence in 
the community to which it especially belongs. 



The presenl officers of the Society are George 
H. P'isher, president; Messrs. Benjamin 
Russell and Geo. \ . Tompkins, vice— presi- 
dents; Win. \i. Seymour, recording secre- 
tary; Robert W. Butler, financial secretary; 
|oseph Applegate, treasurer; Arthur C. 
iluene, librarian, and C. Mortimer Wiske, 
musical director. 

The Brooklyn<;erhi nd, the oldest 
and largest singing society, occupies rooms, 
temporarily, at 200 Court Street. It was 
founded on the cth of July, 1802, l>y the con- 
solidation of the Thalia and Liederkranz,, 
with forty members, all good voices and 
music-lovers. At the different national Sang- 
er festivals, in New York, 1865, Philadelphia, 
1807, and in Baltimore, 186c, the Bund won 
prizes and laurels; „nd again, in Philadel- 
phia, 1S82, carried off the second highest 
prize. The present custom of giving an annual 
masquerade ball originated in 1866, which was 
first held at Montague Hall. The annual 
occurrence of these fancy balls, which take 
place at the Academy of Music, is an event of 
considerable interest to the friends of the 
society and the general public. The society 
is established upon a solid financial basis and 
is conspicuous for its benevolent efforts in 
limes of great distress. The present officers 
and life members are Ceorge Rehn, president; 
John N. Eitel, vice-president; Carl F. Eisen- 
ach, secretary; Ceorge Dietrick, treasurer; 
Charles \Y. Muhlhausen, financial secretary, 
and William Groschel, musical conductor. 

The Dudley Bt ck Cn aki kt Club, organ- 
ized in 1880, enjoys an excellent and extended 
reputation. The class of music interpreted 
by this organization is necessarily of a very 
limited character. The members comprising 
it are all artists of recognized ability, and, 
under the personal direction of Mr. Dudley 
Buck, the eminent composer, are in almost 
constant practice. In the singing of ipiartet 
music the Club is probably without a rival 
in the State, while the concerts given are 
among the most elevating and entertaining of 
I heir kind listened to. 

Academy of Mi sic (The) was erected in 
the year 1850. The first public meeting of 
citizens in promotion of the object was held 
February 14th of the same year, when it was 
resolved to erect a suitable building for musi- 
cal, literary and scientific purposes. To this 

end subscriptions were invited. A building 
committee composed of Messrs. A. A. Law, 
chairman; A. M. White, treasurer; Luther B. 
Wyman and S. B. Chittenden, accepted plans 
submitted by Leopold Frdlitz, architect. The 
builders were John French and Tappan Reeve 
and company ; decorator. Louis H. Cohn. 
The building is a plain structure of Philadel- 
phia brick, and occupies a site of ten lots 
upon Montague street, near Fulton. Its 
dimensions are 250x100 feet, and it was 
erected at a cost of .^220,000. The interior is 
of horse-shoe shape and of Moorish design. 
The general appearance of the building, both 
as to its exterior and interior, is severely 
plain and unattractive. The stage is 70x80 
feet, with a proscenium 44 feet. The audi- 
torium has a sealing capacity of 2300, and is 
divided into parquet, balcony, dress circle and 
gallery. The foyer is 40x70 feet, leading 
from which are two dirctors' rooms. Over 
these rooms is the assembly rot m, 40x90, with 
a sixty feet ceiling. This room is used for 
receptions, musicales, socials, etc. The first 
public performance occurred Jan. 22, 1861, 
with Italian opera under the management of 
Jacob Grau. The initial opera was "II Giura- 
mento," given by a powerful company, in- 
cluding Mme. Pauline Colson, Miss Isabella 
Hinckley, Adelaide Phillips, Signors Brignoli, 
Elena, Ferry, Susini, Steffani, Ipolito and 
Colletti. Sig. Muzio was musical director. 
It was the original intention of the promoters 
of the Academy not to allow the use of the 
building for other than musical or literary 
purposes, which, however, proved financially 
impracticable. The first dramatic performance 
given in the building was under the manage- 
ment of Henry C. Jarrett, and in it Messrs. 
J. W. Wallack and E. L. Davenport partici- 
pated. The Academy is now used for almost 
any purpose for which it may be engaged, 
subject, of course, to the decision of the direc- 
tors. The principal use, however, to which 
the building is devoted are the Philharmonic, 
the Apollo and the Amphion concerts, Italian 
opera, public meetings, and private dramatic 
entertainments. The shareholders number 
about 300, and these, with the directors, ait- 
entitled to free admission, according to the 
charter, to all public performances. The 
present (1884) officers of the Academy are 
Henry Sanger, president ; I. 1 1. Frothinghani, 


treasurer, and C. A. Townseud, secretary. 

Brooklyn Philharmonic Society was 
organized and incorporated in 1857, having in 
view the advancement of music in that city. 
Membership may he obtained by paying the 
sum annually fixed by the directors, but the 
number is limited. The Society is directed by 
a directory of 25 members, annually chosen, 
who appoint the government. Five or more 
concerts are given every season, each preceded 
by three public rehearsals. These are of high 
order, and include the best works of every 
-.lyle, some of which have been produced for 
the first time in America. The orchestra is 
large, and composed of the best musicians that 
can be obtained. At first the Brooklyn Ath- 
enseum was used for the Society's perform- 
ances, but since 1X62 the Academy of Music, 
which is capable of accommodating about 
jooo persons, has been employed for that 
purpose. The conductors have been as fol- 
lows : Theodore Kisfeld ( 1857-62), Theodoie 
Thomas ( 1X021, Theodore Kisfeld (1X03-64), 
Carl Bergmann (1865), Theodore Thomas 
I1X66-69), Carl Bergmann (1870-72), Theo- 
dore Thomas (1873-80). The Society has a 
library of over 100 orchestral works. 

P. J. Smith. 

Brooklyn Conservatory of Music. This 
institution was founded in 1X60 by Prof. J. W. 
Groschel. It was subsequently reorganized 
and improved by Miss Louise Groschel and 
Mrs. S. Groschel-Chadick, daughters of the 
founder, under whose efficient management it 
-.till remains. The former lady was for some 
lime a pupil of the Conservatorium at Stuttgart 
and of Adler at Paris. All the usual branches 
of music are taught and in addition, when so 
desired, the French and German languages. 
A series of four chamber music soirees was 
given during the past season ( 1883 (, the pro- 
grams of which were of high order. The pro- 
prietors of the Conservatory have a summer 
school at Westwood,.N. J., which enables the 
pupils to uninterruptedly continue their studies 
if they so desire. 

Neuendorf!', ADORPH, was bom June 13, 
1843, at Hamburg, and showed a great apti- 
tude for music at an early aye. It was not 
intended, however, that he should follow the 
profession of a musician, but rather that of his 
father, a prosperous merchant. A series of 
reverses led the family to come to tbe United 

States, in June, 1X55, with the hopes of better- 
ing their prospects. Weinlich, basso of a 
German opera company playing in New York 
and a good violinist, became an inmate of the 
household and kindly consented to give young 
Adolph some lessons on the violin. After 
two years' study he secured the position of 
first violinist in the orchestra of the old Stadt 
Theatre. About this time he commenced 
studying the violin under Matzka and theory 
and composition under Dr. Gustav Schilling. 
With the latter he remained two years. In 
the spring of 1859 he made his first appear 
ance as a pianist at a concert given in Dod- 
worth Hall. He accompanied his father on a 
business trip to Brazil, in i860, where he re- 
mained two years. Returning to New York 
he resumed his position as first violinist in the 
Stadt Theatre orchestra. Soon after he re- 
ceived a call to Milwaukee, Wis., as leader of 
the orchestra of the Stadt Theatre there. 
About this time he made the acquaintance of 
Carl Anschtitz, with whom he studied theory 
and composition some time. In the autumn 
of 1864 he succeeded Mr. Anschtitz as con 
ductor of the German opera, having previous- 
ly been chorus-master. With the company he 
traveled and gave performances in many of 
the principal cities of the country. In 1867 
he was engaged as conductor of the Stadt 
Theatre, New York, a post which he held 
until 1871. In the autumn of the following 
year he opened the Germania Theatre, of 
which he was the founder, and with which he 
is still (Jan., 1884) connected. During 1876 
he conducted a series of symphony concerts at 
his theatre. He was one of the American 
representatives at the Wagner festival, Bay- 
reuth, in the same year, acting as special cor- 
respondent of the New York "Staats Zeitung." 
Mr. Neuendorff takes a high place among 
New York's conductors, and is frequently- 
called upon to wield the baton at festivals and 
concerts. As an impresario he has more than 
once visited Europe to secure artists, and 
brought over among others Mme. Lichtmay 
and Theodore Wachtel ( 1 87 1 and 1874). 

Nielson-Rounsville, Madame Chris 

TINE, was born Aug. 10, 1X45, at Christian- 
sand, Norway. She studied under Haberbiei 
at Leipsic, and in 1X7 1 came to the United 
States, locating at Chicago, where she still 
resides as a teacher of the piano. She was 


married to Dr. Rounsville in 1875. 

Xlji'll t ill Rome, A. An operetta in 
two acts. Words and music by Julius Eich- 
berg. First produced at the Museum. Boston, 
Saturday, -Nov. 26, 1804. 

NortOTl»<TOWer» Lilian, who is also 
known by her stage name of Ml.i.K. Noruna, 
is an American lady but studied in Europe. 
She marie her deVmt at the Grand Opera, 
Paris, in 1882, as Marguerite in "Faust." 
Soon after she was engaged by Col. Mapleson 
for Her Majesty's, London, and under his 
management made her first appearance in this 

countrj at the Academy of Music, New 
York, in November, 1883, in her original 
rfile. During the season she visited the prin- 
cipal cities, and will undoubtedly be heard 
here often. As Margvcrite she has few 
superiors, and whenever she appears in that 
rdte she is sure of a flattering reception. 

Notre Dame rte Paris. An opera 

composed by W. H. Fry, and first produced at 
the Academy of Music, Philadelphia, in 
April, 1804. The libretto is by J. R. Fry, 
a brother of the composer. 


Oakley, William H., was born aboiil 
the beginning of the present century at New 
York. He was chorister of the old Mulberry 

Street (now St. Paul's) Methodist Episcopal 
Church in 1S40, and afterwards at other Meth- 
odist churches in New York. With the "Alle- 
ghanians," of which he was one of the found- 
ers, he traveled all over the United States, and 
became widely known as one of the most promi- 
nent Methodist singers and composers. He 
died at New Pork, of heart disease, Jan. 7, 

Oherlin Conservatory of Music. 

This well-known school of music was estab- 
lished in 1865 by John P. Morgan and G. W. 
Sieele. Mr. Morgan, who was an alumnus of 
the Leipzig Conservalorium and later one of 
(he organists of Trinity Church, New York, I 
was its first director. A large proportion of 
the members of its faculty have been educated 
at Leipzig, and naturally the school is modeled 
in no small degree after that institution. Great 
care is taken to give the students only those 
compositions for study which may properly be 
regarded as models, and numerous opportuni- 
ties are offered for hearing the best composi- 
tions of both classic and modern writers. The 
faculty and officers of government now number 
eighteen; and the attendance For the past year 
was 446. The Conservatory is now under the 
able direction of Prof. F. P>. Rice. 

Octave staff". A system of notation con- 
sisting of three groups of lines combined, com- 
prising three octaves of ordinary vocal music; 
dispensing with fiats and sharps; and giving 
to each note its own position. It was intro- 
duced by a Mr. Adams of New Jersey, but 
never came into use, heing of little practical 

Old Folks at Homo, The, some 
times called "Suwanee River" from its mention 
of the river by that name in Florida, is perhaps 
the most popular of all Stephen Foster's songs. 
It was written, both words and music, at his 
old home in Allegheny City in the summer of 
iSqi after his return from an absence of nearly 

a year, which fact no doubt inspired the song. 
Any one having an early copy may be puzzled 
by the line upon the title page, "Written and 
composed by Edwin P. Christy." Mr. Christy 
will be remembered as the manager of the 
celebrated "Christy Minstrels." It seems that 
he met Foster on one occasion in New York, 
and offered him a certain sum for the song in 
question, provided he was allowed to claim the 
authorship of it. Foster cared little for fame, 
and the pressing necessities of poverty must 
have overruled any objections on his part 
which would naturally arise. This is only 
one of the numerous cases in which he was 
taken advantage of because of his poverty, but 
it seems the most atrocious of them all. The 
truth at last became known, and the song is 
now published with the name of its true com- 
poser. Foster entertained a hope that "The 
Old Folks at Home" might rival in popularity 
"Home, Sweet Home." It has probably 
come the nearest to it of any song ever writ- 
ten. The sales have already reached over 
half a million copies, and there is still a large 
and steady demand for it. Unlike many songs, 
its popularity does not seem to be of the trans- 
itory kind, and it is more than likely that it 
will hold its place in song literature for many 
years to come. 

Oliver, Henuy Kkmhi.k, American 
psalmodist, was horn Nov. 24, 1S00, at Bev- 
erly, Mass. In music he was an amateur and 
mostly self-taught. He edited and published 
in conjunction with Dr. Tuckerman, in 184c;, 
the "National Lyre." His other collections 
are "Oliver's Collection of Church Music" 
( i860) and "Oliver's Original Sacred Music" 
(1875). lie is well known by his tune of 
"Federal Street," written in 1832, and still 
popular. It was performed under his own 
direction at the Peace Jubilee of 1S72 by a 
chorus of 20,000, the immense audience join- 
ing. In 1S76 he was residing at Salem, Mass. 
Oil the Prairies. The second (Amer- 
ican) symphony, op. 15, of Dr. Louis Maas. 
It is descriptive of a day on the prairies, and 


is divided into four parts, as follows: 
i. — " Morning on the Prairies," 2. — "The 
Chase" (scherzo) presto, 3. — "An Indian 
Legend," adagio-andante, 4. — " Evening, 
Night and Sunrise." The idea of the compo- 
sition was first suggested to Dr. Maas while 
he was crossing the boundless prairies of the 
West. Dedicated to Ex-President Arthur. 
First performed at the Music Hall, Boston, 
Dec. 14, 1883, with an orchestra of 100 

Opera in America. Anything like a 

complete history of the opera in this country 
is vet to be wiitten. It has existed chiefly in 
the large cities, such as New York, Boston 
and New Orleans, and even at best its life has 
been one of many vicissitudes. It seems, 
according to J. N. Ireland, author of "Records 
of the New York Stage," that some of the 
early English ballads were given in New York 
more than a century ago. " The Beggar's 
Opera" was produced in 1751, "Eove in a 
Village" in 1768, "Inkle and Yarico," "The 
Duenna," and "The Tempest" in 1791, "Guy 
Mannering" by Bishop in 1816, Davy's "Rob 
Roy" in 1818, and others at different times. 
The first season of Italian opera began in New 
York, at the Park Theatre, Nov. 26, 1S25, 
with Rossini's "Barber." French opera was 
tirst introduced at the same theatre, July 13, 
1827, by "Cenerentola." German opera was 
introduced at Niblo's Garden, Sept. 16, 1856, 
with "Robert der Teufel," by Meyerbeer. 
The conductor was Carl Bergmann. The 
introduction of opera boufte dates only from 
Sept. 24, 1867. when "La Grande Duchesse" 
was produced at the French Theatre, and had 
the extraordinary run of 158 nights. In Bos- 
ton the first season of Italian opera began 
April 23, 1847, at ,ne Howard Athenaeum. 
Some of the most important operas, among 
them "Aida," "Lohengrin," and "Die Wal- 
kiire," have been given in New York before 
presented in either London or Paris. New 
Orleans is the only city that has supported the 
opera continuously through the operatic sea- 
son, but since the Civil War it has been of 
minor importance in theatrical affairs. The 
most noted operatic managers whose careers 
are connected with this country are Seguin, 
who commenced in 1838, Max Maretzek, 
whose career dates from 1848, Max and Mau- 
rice Strakosch, Carl Rosa, H. L. Bateman, 

C. D. Hess, etc. 

America has not yet produced anything like 
a distinct operatic school, nor is she likely to 
for some time to come. The heterogeneous 
character of the population and the newness of 
the country forbid. There have been, how- 
ever, several American operas produced which 
may lay claim to the name and with success. 
The principal of them are noticed under their 
respective headings, but it may be well to 
state some facts concerning them here. "The 
Archers; or, The Mountaineers of Switzer- 
land," is probably the first American opera. 
The music is by Benj. Carr, an Englishman, 
who came to this country in 1794; the libretto 
by William Dunlop, and founded on the 
story of William Tell. It was produced in 
New York, April 18, 1796. Another Ameri- 
can opera is "Edwin and Angelina," produced 
in New York, Dec. 19, 1798. The libretto, 
founded on Goldsmith's poem, is by Dr. E. 
! H. Smith, and the music by M. Pellesier, a 
Frenchman who resided in New York. 
"Rip Van Winkle," by George F. Bristow, 
produced at Niblo's Garden, New York, Sep. 
27, 1855; "Leonora," by W\ H. Fry, pro- 
duced at the Academy of Music, New York, 
March 29, 1858; and "Notre Dame de Paris," 
by the same composer, produced at the Acad- 
emy of Music, Philadelphia, in April, 1864, 
are three later and quite successful works. 
"The Doctor of Alcantara," by Julius Eich- 
berg, produced at the Boston Museum, April 
7, 1862, is the most popular American opera 
j ever written. Mr. Eichberg has written three 
I other operas, viz : "The Rose of Tyrol," 
j "A Night in Rome," and "The Two Cadis," 
which have achieved considerable popularity. 
The number of American operas of which 
notice has been taken by no means indicates 
the number that has been written, which is 
very large, but the most of them have been 
of light, trashy character, modelled after the 
French opera boufte, and have sunk into ob- 
| livion almost as soon as born. Attempts have 
j been made by American composers at the 
grand opera, but thus far seemingly without 
any success. One of the latest productions 
in this line is "Zenobia," composed by Silas 
G. Pratt. It was produced at Chicago, though 
without the proper stage scenery, costumes, 
etc., in June of the present year (1882), but 
rather coldly received. That some American 


composer will yet write a grand opera which 
will he a success, can not he doubted, but as 
to whom that person will be remains to be 

Organ, History of in America. 

The first American organ was built by Edward 
Bromfield, Jr., at Boston in 1745. In I75'2, 
Thomas Johnston built an organ for Christ 
Church, Boston. Pact of an instrument built 
by this maker for the Episcopal church at 
Salem, Mass., is still in the possession of Messrs. 
Hook & Hastings. In front there is inscribed 
in German text, in ivory, the following words: 
"Thomas Johnston fecit, Boston, Nov. Anglo- 
rum, 1754." It was a small aff.iir, having only 
one manual and six stops. Mr. Johnston died 
about 1768, and was succeeded by a Dr. 
Leavitt, who engaged in the business for a 
number of years. Henry Pratt, of Winches- 
ter, N. H., who died in 184c, manufactured 
about fifty organs during the early part of the 
century. Meanwhile, notwithstanding their 
great cost, several foreign organs were im- 
ported, chiefly for use in Boston. The first 
foreign organ erected in this country was the 
one in the Queen's chapel, Boston, put up in 
August, 171^, and presented by Thos. Brattle, 

The first American organ builder who be- 
came noted as such was William M. Good- 
rich. Mr. Goodrich was born in 1777, and 
went to Boston about 17(9. In 1S05 he com- 
menced the business of organ building, his 
first organ being one erected in the Catholic 
church of Bishop Chevereux, in Boston. 
Shortly after he was engaged to clean and 
repair several imported organs, from which he 
received great advantage, being a self taught 
artist. So successful was he that, though 
there was a strong prejudice against Ameri- 
can organs, few were imported from abroad. 
He continued in business until 1833. Ebenezer 
Goodrich, brother of William, after learning 
the trade in his manufactory set up in business 
for himself, and manufactured a number of 
organs, mostly small ones. In 1807, Thomas 
Applelon entered the employment of William 
Goodrich, and after remaining there some 
years entered into co-partnership with a Mr. 
Babcock and two geiUlemen by the name of 
Hayts, under the firm name of Hayts, Babcock 
& Applelon, and commenced the manufacture 
of pianos c.\k\ organs. Mr. Goodrich wns 

afterwards induced to join the firm. It was, 
however, dissolved in 1820, Mr. Appleton 
continuing business on his own account. 

Thus far the art of organ building, though 
creditable to so young a country, had remained 
in a rather crude state. In 1827 the manufac- 
ture cf organs was begun in Boston by Elias 
and Geo. G. Hook, the oldest of the brothers 
having learned his trade of Wm. Goodrich, to 
whom he was apprenticed when only sixteen 
years old. The Messrs. Hook (afterwards 
Hook & Hastincs, which see), labored hard 
to produce only good instruments, and with 
them it may be said commenced a new era in 
the history of American organ building. 
They soon took a first position among the 
makers of this country, which they still hold. 
Under their care home-made instruments 
became equal to those imported from abroad, 
and at the prese'nt the art of organ building in 
America is at fully as high a standard as in 
any foreign country. 

Organ, reed. According to some wri- 
ters, free reeds, that is reeds fastened at one 
end and left free to vibrate at the other and 
set in motion by currents of air, are an Ameri- 
can invention. As to this, however, there 
are very grave doubts, though in 1818, Aaron 
M. Peaseley invented an instrument in which 
these reeds were used. The patent is signed 
by James Monroe, President, and John Quincy 
Adams, Secretary of State, of the United 
States, and is in the possession of the Mason 
& Hamlin Organ and Piano Co. The instru- 
ment seems not to have amounted to much, 
and was probably quite imperfect. There is 
one fact, however, about which there can be 
no doubt. It is that the free reed was not 
invented until several years after the beginning 
of the present century. By whom and just 
when is a matter of perplexity and will prob- 
ably remain so, but it would appear from what 
light we have that the idea had an almost 
simultaneous birth and working out in several 
different countries. Thus it will be seen that 
all instruments constructed with free reeds, 
such as the accordeon, seraphine, harmonium, 
etc., are the product of the present century. 

In this country the melodeon was the direct 
precursor of the reed organ. It enjoyed con- 
siderable but brief popularity,. It was first 
introduced about the year 1840. In 1845 or 
1846, two well-known firms commenced its 



manufacture, viz : Carhart & Needham airl 
George A. Prince & Cm., both of Buffalo, 

N. Y. Thelalter linn, which ceased to exist 
only a few years ago, manufactured the l>est 
instruments, many well-preserved specimens 

of Which are still in he met with. The melo- 
tleon ha<! far fewer resources and capabilities 

than the reed organ, and was in every way an 
inferior instrument (See Mei.ojieon). An 
instrument closely resembling the reed organ, 
and which might be called its first cousin, is 
the harmonium. It differs from the reed 
organ, however, internally in several impor- 
tant respects, one of which is the fact that the 
sound is produced by forcing the wind out 
through the reeds instead of drawing it in, as 
is the case with the latter instrument. 

In the year 1847, Emmons Hamlin, then a 
workman in the factory of Prince & Co., of 
Buffalo, but now one of the firm of Mason & 
Hamlin Organ and Piano Co., discovered 
that by twisting and bending the tongues of 
reeds in a certain manner a vast improvement 
in tone resulted. Previously the tongue had 
been left flat and straight, and produced a thin, 
sharp tone. The method of bending the 
tongues gave a much more mellow tone to the 
reed, and to it is probably due the popularity 
of the melodeon, and afterwards of the reed 
organ. About 1861, the first reed organ was 
introduced by Messrs. Mason Cv Hamlin. It 
was a great advance upon the melodeon. The 
present form of case was adopted, several sets 
of reeds and stops employed, and a number of 
other improvements made. It almost immedi- 
ately l>ecame popular, and soon displaced the 
melodeon. Improvements have since been 
made, not only by Mason & Hamlin, but by 
other makers, and has resulted in a truly musi- 
cal instrument, which is probably more large- 
ly used in this country than any other one 
instalment, and enjoys considerable popularity 
in England and other foreign countries. It is 
sometimes manufactured with not only one, 
but two and even three manuals and one 
pedal, and having in all from twenty to thirty 
stops. Ill power and resource it can then 
almost rival the smaller pipe organs. Some 
fine specimens are made by the Mason iV 
Hamlin Organ and Piano Co., by whom the 
instrument was originally produced. 

OSgOOd, GEORGE L., was born April 3, 
1844, and began the practice of music al an | 

early age. lie commenced the study of the 
organ and harmony under John K. Paine, with 
whom he remained until he entered Harvard 
College in 1862. Upon graduating in r866he 
went to Ocrmanv and studied composition un- 
der Haupt and singing under Sieber at Berlin. 
During this lime he became intimately ac- 
quainted with the celebrated song writer, 
Robert Franz, which no doubt influenced him 
to more closely study German lieder. Many 
of Franz's letters and manuscripts are now in 
his possession. From Germany he went to 
Milan and placed himself under Lam- 
perti, of whom he gained a thorough knowl- 
edge of the Italian vocal methods. At the 
expiration of three years he returned to Ger- 
many and gave some concerts with good suc- 
cess. On his return to this country he was 
engaged by Theodore Thomas, with whose 
orchestra he visited the principal cities. He 
then settled in Boston, as a teacher of sing- 
ing, composer, and conductor, where he is 
now (Jan., 1886) located. His compositions 
are mostly songs, which are not only of a 
high order but command a ready sale. As a 
teacher and conductor he is well known and 
is doing excellent service to the cause of 

Osgood, Mrs. Emma Aline, well-known 
both in the United States and England as an 
excellent oratorio singer, is a native of Bos- 
ton (we have been unable to ascertain her ear- 
ly history) and made her debut at a concert of 
the Quintet Club in 1S73. She was well re- 
ceived and offered an engagement by that 
organization, with which she made a conce't 
tour in Canada and the Stales. In 1S75 she 
went to London and studied for some time 
under Sig. Alberto Randegger. Her first ap- 
pearance in England was at Crystal Palace, 
in October of the same year. During 1870 
she sang in Manchester, Liverpool, Birming- 
ham, and other English cities. She scored a 
decided success, and won manv praises as 
prima donna in Liszt's oratorio of "St. Eliz- 
abeth" during a performance in London. 
The whole of 1877 was spent in fulfilling en- 
gagements at the Brighton, Leeds, and other 
festivals, and at numerous concerts. In 
March, 1878, she came to this country and 
sang at the Cincinnati May Festival and at 
Thomas' concerts in New York. Returning 
to England in the autumn she continued her 



engagements (here, singing at Metzler and I a soprano of grea' sweetness and sonority, per- 

Chappell's conceits, London; Charles Halle's I feet throughout its range, and especially adapt - 

grand concert, Manchester; Bach choir con- ed to the singing of oratorios. In rendering 

certs, St. James' Hall, London; in Sullivan's 1 some of the popular ballads she has rarely 

oratorio, " Light of the World," at Liv- been equaled. 

erpool; etc. In 1880 she paid her second, Ostilielli, Ei.iza. See BlSCACCIANTI, 

and in 18S1 her third visit to her MME. 

native country. At the New York, Cin- Ostroleilka. An opera by Jean Henri 

cinnr.ti, and Chicago May Festivals of Bonawitz — his second — written between 1870 

1SS2 she was one of the soloists, and came in ; and 1875. ll ^ as n °t y et heen produced in a 

for a large share of the honors. Her voice is complete form. 


I'ttillarrt, KL *f. & Co., Npw York 

City. The firm of Paillard cV- Co. is the old- 
est now existing "which manufactures musical 
boxes. It was founded at Ste. Croix, Switzer- 
land, in 1814, by the great-grandfather of the 
present members of the New York house. In 
1840, of four brothers of the third generation, 
the two elder remained in Ste. Croix in charge 
of the factory (then a comparatively small con- 
cern), while the two younger came to New 
York and established themselves in business 
:it No. So Nassau street in 1850. One of the 
latter died soon after, ami the surviving broth- 
er, M. ). Paillard, continued alone for 
awhile. He then took a partner, when the 
firm name became Paillard & Martin, 
which it remained until 1861, Mr. Martin 
withdrawing at th: t time. M. J. Paillard 
again continued alone until 1865, when he re- 
ined from any active part in the business on 
accounl ofhis health. He returned to Switzer- 
land, where he died in December, 1868. Pre- 
vious to his departure in 1865, he took into 
partnership his nephew, A. E. Paillard, son 
of the senior member of the Ste. Croix house, 
and the firm name was changed to M. J. Pail- 
lard & Co., which is still retained. The pres- 
ent members are A. E. Paillard and Geo. A. 
Paillard, son of the late M.J. Paillard. 

When Messrs. Paillard & Co. first began 
business the facilities for manufacturing were 
very crude and everything was made by hand, 
the work often being wrought by the workmen 
at their homes. Since that time much valuable 
machinery has been invented, but each instru- 
ment still requires a considerable amount of 
skilled manual labor of the highest order. 
The firm employs 800 workmen in the factory 
at Ste. Croix, the machinery of which is run 
by steam. Every part of the instruments, from 
the rough castings up, is made in the building, 
which is done by no other firm, and which 
results in better and more uniform work. 
With Messrs. Paillard & Co. have originated 
nearly all the improvements in music boxes, 
most of them being due to the inventive gen- 

ius of the late Amedee Paillard of the Ste. Croix 
j house. A stock ranging in value from ?ioo,- 
. 000 to #.150,000 is constantly on hand at the 
j New York house. There is a branch house in 
j London under the firm name of A. Paillard 
& Co. The name of Paillard & Co. has a 
j world-wide reputation and is inseparably con- 
nected with the history of music boxes. 

Pailie, John, one of America's 
leading composers, was born Jan, 9, 183c, 
at Portland, Maine. His parents were musi- 
cally inclined and encouraged his talents, 
which were manifest at an early age. His 
first teacher in piano and organ playing and 
composition was Hermann Kotzschmar, a 
musician of considerable ability residing in his 
native city. He appeared for the first time in 
public, June 25, 1857, as an organist, being 
then eighteen years old, and played a prelude 
and fugue by Bach with great success. Soon 
after he became organist of the Haydn Society 
of Portland, and played the accompaniments 
to the "Messiah" without anv assistance from 
an orchestra. Feeling the need of better 
musical instruction than was then afforded by 
this country, he in 185S proceeded to Germany. 
Locating at Berlin he studied the organ, com- 
position, instrumentation, and singing, under 
Haupl, Wiepreeht, and Teschner, making 
very rapid progress. While there he also 
gave several organ recitals. In 1861 he re- 
turned to the United States, and for some time 
was engaged in giving concerts, performing 
the principal organ compositions of Bach, 
Thiele and other composers, many of which 
had never been heard in this country before. 
The proceeds of some of these concerts 
were given to aid the Union Sanitary Com- 
mission. In the following year (1862) he was 
appointed professor of music at Harvard Uni- 
versity, and in this position he has exercised a 
great and permanent influence in advancing 
the art. He spent the winter of 1866-67 in 
visiting Germany, and his mass was performed 
under his own direction at the Singakademie, 
Berlin, in February, 1867. Work on his 



great esl pro 1 action, ilic oratorio of "St. Peter," 
w:is begun in I069. The first performance 
took place at Portland, June 3, 1873, under 
the direction of the composer. Il was per- 
formed by the Handel and Haydn Society of 
Boston, May 9, 1X74, and was afterwards 
added to the regular repertoire. His first sym- 
phony was performed by Thomas' orchestra at 
Boston, Jan. 6, 1S76. The same year he was 
made a professor of music in full at Harvard 
University, being the first occupant of the 
chair. This position he still (May, 1886) re- 
tains. His "Centennial Hymn" was written 
for the opening of the Exhibition at Philadel- j 
] hia, in May, 1876. The music is of high 1 
order, but adverse criticisms have been passed J 
upon the words ( by Whittier) on account ofi 
their being ill adapted for musical purposes, j 
All of his orchestral works have been per- 
formed in Boston, New York and other cities j 
of this country. Many <>f his smaller works 
may frequently be found oil the concert pro- I 
grams of various artists. His later works be- \ 
gin with the trio in D minor, op. 22, and show j 
a tendency toward the modern romatic school, I 
both in form and treatment. The following is j 
a list of his published works : 

Op. 3. Variations for the Organ — "Austrian j 
Hymn" and "Star Spangled Banner." j 

" 7. "Christmas Oift." Piano. 

" 9. Funeral March. Piano. 

" 10. Mass, in 1> major. Solos, chorus and 

"II. Vier Character-Stiicke. Piano. 

" 12. Ki "inance, C minor. Piano. 

" 10. Two preludes. Organ. 

" 10. "St. Peter," oratorio. 

" 25. Four characteristic pieces. Piano. 

" _o. "In the Country." Ten sketches for I 
the piano. 

" 27. Centennial Hymn. Words by Whittier. i 

" 2c. Four songs for the soprano voice- 

The unpublished works consist of sonatas \ 
for the piano, and for the piano and violin ; | 
fantasias, variations, and other pieces, for the 
organ; a string quartet ; two piano trios ; an 
overture on "As You Like It ;" a svinphonie- j 
fantasia on "The Tempest;" a symphony in C j 
minor (op. 23) and one in A ( op. 34), entitled j 
"Spring;" a duo concertante for violin, vio- | 
loncello, and orchestra; songs; motets; and 1 
nearlv every kind of vocal and instrumental I 

Palmer* Dr. Horatio Un- 
well known as a composer of 

tMONI), who 
ocal music, 

was born April 26, 1834, at Sherburne, N. V. 
His father, Anson B. Palmer, was a musician 
of more than ordinary talent, and possessed a 
very sensitive organization — so sensitive, in- 
deed, that he could scarcely bear the least dis- 
cord. His mother had a fine voice and was 
noted for her self-possession. These qual- 
ities of his parents he seems to have in a 
large measure inherited, making him unusual!} 
successful as a leader and conductor. His 
father died in 1868, at Norfolk, Va., whither 
he had removed after marrying a second time. 
When nine years old he began to sing alto in 
his father's choir, and when seventeen became 
organist and choir-master. Teaching, in 
which he has been so eminently successful, he 
took up when fifteen. One of his character- 
istics was the determination to accomplish 
whatever he undertook. His musical educa- 
tion has mostly been acquired by hard, unre- 
mitting study without the aid of a teacher. 
One of the earliest positions which he filled 
was that of professor of music in the RusnYord 
Academy, Rushford, Allegany County, N. Y. 
In 1S61 he removed to Chicago, where, in 
1866, he commenced editing and plffjffsn'ing 
"The Concordia," a musical monthly. The 
following year he published his first collection 
of music, "The Song Queen," which reached 
the enormous sale of 200,000 copies. Of 
"The Storm King," published in 1871, an 
equal number of copies has been sold. His 
"Theory of Music" (1876) clearly and con- 
cisely presents the elements of thorough-bass, 
harmony, composition, and form, an 1 is an 
invaluable work for the beginner. 

During six of the fifteen years of Mr. Palm- 
er's residence in Chicago he was chorister of 
the second Baptist Church. His reputation 
was already well established and rapidly grow - 
ing. Nearly every moment of his time was 
consumed by various duties, and even the 
Sabbath could hardly be called a day of rest. 
Frequently he was obliged to bribe hackmen 
by an extra fee to drive at the highest legal 
rate of speed. Sometimes his engagement for 
one week would be nearly fifteen ..hundred 
miles from where it was the previous weel. 
While traVeling from one place to another his 
pockets were generally tilled with musical 
proofs, which must be "read and returned by 
the first mail." The amount of work which 
he went through with could hardly have been 


accomplished by a less systematic and ener- 
getic man. His duties still keep him busy, 
and be has little time for pleasure, except such 
as is found in labor. During the last fifteen 
years be has visited nearly every state in the 
Union as conductor of musical conventions. 
At his musical institutes, held every summer, 
many excellent teachers have been educated. 
In 1874 he removed from Chicago to New 
York, where he still (May, 1886) resides. He 
lias charge of the Church Choral Union, re- 
cently organized in that city. The first season 
was begun in March, 1881, with 250 singers. 
At the commencement of the second season 
(1882) the number had increased to 1606, and 
at the commencement of the third season( 1883) 
to 4200. Its object is to elevate the standard 
of music in the churches. Part of the years 1877 
and 1878 and of 1881 and 1S82 he spent in vis- 
iting interesting portions of the Old World. The 
degree of Doctor of Music was conferred on 
him by the Alfred University, Alfred Center, 
N. Y., in June, 1S81. Dr. Palmer's music is 
distinguished for its purity, grace, and melodi- 
ousness, and is deservedly popular. The fol- 
lowing is a complete list of his works, and they 
include all of bis compositions except, per- 
haps, some few minor ones : 

1. The Song Queen (1S67). The sales of 

this book amounted to upwards of 200,- 
000 copies. 

2. Elements of Musical Composition (1867). 

3. Rudimental Class Teaching (1867). 

4. Sabbath School Songs (1868). 

5. The Song Queen, revised (1868). 

(). The Normal Collection of Anthems( 1870) 

7. The Song King(i87i). Sales upwards 

of 200,000 copies. 

8. The Standard, with L.O.Emerson (1872). 

9. Concert Choruses, consisting mainly of 

selections from the works of the great 

masters (1873). 
10. Songs of Love for the Bible School ( 1S74) 
1 1 . The Leader, assisted by L. O. Emerson 


12. The Song Monarch, assisted by L. O. 

Emerson (1874). 

13. The Song Herald (1876). 

14. Theory of Music (1876). 121110., 168 pp. 

15. Book of Anthems (1879). 
if). The Sovereign (1879). 

17. Rays of Light, for Sunday schools (1882). 

18. Concert Gems for Choruses (1883). 

19: Book of Threnodies, for funeral occa- 
sions (1883). 
Pape; William, Barnksmork, was born 
Feb. 27, 1840, (1850?) at Mobile, Ala. He is 
chiefly known as a brilliant pianist and the au- 

thor of many showy transcriptions and arrange- 
ments of popular airs, which exhibit no special 
ability. Of bis life we have no particulars. 

Parker, James C. D., well known as a 
pianist, organist, and composer, was born at 
Boston, June 2, 1828. He graduated at Har- 
vard College and prepared himself for the 
profession of law, but his intense love of music 
conquered everything else. After studying 
awhile in bis native city he proceeded to 
Leipsic, where he placed himself under the 
best masters, making rapid progress and at- 
taining great proficiency as a composer and as 
a performer. He returned to Boston in 
1854, and soon took a leading position in her 
musical affairs. In 1862 he organized an as- 
sociation of amateur vocalists called the 
"Parker Club," which gave, with piano ac- 
companiment, such works as Gade's "Coma- 
la," Mendelssohn's " Walpurgis Night," 
Berlioz's "Flight into Egypt," Schumann's 
"Paradise and the Peri," and "Pilgrimage of 
the Rose," etc. Quietly but surely he has for 
many years been engaged in elevating the 
standard of musical taste. He is at present 
(1886) organist of Trinity Church, and most 
highly esteemed as a teacher of the organ, 
piano, ami harmony. He has also held the 
post of organist to the Handel and Haydn 
Society, and is now professor of the College of 
Music connected with the Boston University. 
His " Redemption Hymn" (words from the 
51st chapter of Isaiah), composed in 1877, 
for solo contralto and chorus, with accompani- 
ment, was first given by the Handel and Haydn 
Society and has since been given by various 
musical societies all over the country. The 
"Manual of Harmony" (121110. 150 pp.) is a 
good work for beginners. Mr. Parker's other 
works consist of various sacred pieces, part 
songs, etc., all of more than ordinary merit. 

Par.SOHS, ALBERT Ross, was born at San- 
dusky, Ohio, Sep. 16, 1847. His American 
teachers were R. Denton, Buffalo, N.Y., 1854- 
-56, and Dr. F. L. Ritter, New York, 1S63- 
-66. He then went to Leipzig, where he 
studied at the Conservatorium from 1867 to 
1869, under Moscheles, Reinecke, Papperit/, 
Wenzel, Oscar Paul, E. F. Richter anil Fer- 
dinand David. In 1870 he was studying at 
the Pianists' High School, Berlin, having Tau- 
sig, Ehlert and Weitzmann as teachers, and in 
1871 at the New Academy of Music, under 



KiUlak. He received much stimulous and 
inspiration from close personal contact with 
Wagner, Liszt, Rubinstein and von Biilow. 
Since 1872 he has been located at New York 
City as organist, teacher, composer and writer. 
He is the translator of Wagner's "Beethoven" 
and the editor of the American edition of Kul- 
lak's edition of Chopin. He has lectured on 
musical topics in various cities and written 
many articles for the musical press. His com- 
positions consist of songs, vocal quartets, etc., 
all well wrilten. Besides these he has edited 
and fingered many piano pieces for instructive 
purposes. He is highly esteemed and very 
successful as a teacher, and is an active worker 
in the Music Teachers' National Association. 
Pattisoil, John Neuon, pianist and 
composer, was born at Niagara Falls, N. Y., 
Oct. 22, 1843. His talents for music, which 
were early manifested, were little encouraged 
by his parents, who considered them a sign of 
laziness. He was sent to school at Lockport, 
but managed by hoarding up his spare money 
to take a term of music lessons and during that 
time he made extraordinary progress. It was 
at first intended that he should be a merchant*, 
but this was changed for the profession of 
medicine, and he went to Buffalo to study. 
So intense, however, was his love for music, 
that, sorely against the wishes of his parents, 
he abandoned everything else and joined a 
concert company. At this time he was about 
fifteen years of age. The manager of the 
companv decamped, which left the young man 
penniless. He started for New York, giving 
concerts to support himself. While there he 
heard the celebrated pianist, Thalberg, on 
whom he called and frankly stated his desires. 
That musician encouraged him to persevere 
and go to Europe. He at once made prepar- 
ations for the trip, and to raise the necessary 
funds insured his life for a certain sum, which 
he succeeded in persuading a friend to accept 
as security for a loan of money. Berlin was 
the city toward which he bent his steps, 
though he had not at that time the slightest ac- 
quaintance with the German language nor any 
influential recommendations. His energy and 
pluck carried him through, and he remained 
in Germany two years, studying with 
Hauptmann, Reinecke, Stern, Marx, and von 
Billow. He played in Berlin with more than 
ordinarv success. In 1861 he returned to the 

United States, but in the following year again 
went to Germany, and studied for some time 
under Henselt, frequently appearing in con- 
j certs. After this he accompanied Thalberg to 
I Italy. Returning to Paris he played at the 
i J'leyel concerts. Since his second return to 
I this country he has repeatedly played in con 
j certs, and accompanied Parepa-Rosa, Kellogg, 
: Ole Bull, Albani, Lucca, and others, on then- 
tours of the States. During 1874 he gave a 
I series ot several lectures on music, illustrated 
i by piano recitals, at New York. His recitals 
will doubtless be remembered by many who 
attended the Centennial Exhibition in 1876, 
i where he played. From May 10th to Nov. 11 
he gave in all 183 performances. He has 
played at the New York and Brooklyn Phil- 
i harmonic concerts with great success. His 
! repertoire consists of nearly six hundred impor- 
| tant works, among which are the most of Bee- 
thoven's sonatas, Bach's preludes and fugues, 
I etc., and is largely played from memory. Mr. 
Pattison is a resident of New York, where he 
! is well known as a pianist, teacher, and com- 
poser. His compositions are mostly piano 
I pieces of various kinds, but include some larger 
j works, such as " Concerto Fantasie-roman- 
j tique," for piano with orchestra ; "Niagara," 
; a grand symphony for an orchestra and mili- 
i tary bond, and " Concert overture for grand 
orchestra," played in Berlin, Germany, with 
i great success and by Thomas' orchestra in 
New York. 
Payne, John Howard, was bom June 
I 9, 1792, at New York. Yery early in life he 
, was taken to Boston, where he made his debut 
as an actor at the old Boston Theatre. He 
became noted in that capacity, both in this 
country and Europe. In 1S41 he was appoint- 
ed consul at Tunis, and died there April 1, 
1852. The remains were buried there but e.\ 
humed and brought to this country in the 
spring of 1883. His monument says that he 
i was born at Boston. This is probably a mis 
take arising from the fact that he lived there 
while very young. Payne forever immortal- 
ized his name by writing the poem of "Home, 
: Sweet Home." Few pieces have been writ 
ten which so touch the heart, and it has so of- 
ten been repeated and is so well known thai 
! there is no need of giving it here. 

Peace Jubilees, The. Two mon- 
ster festivals of this name have been held in 

[ 3° 


Boston. The first one occurred in 186c, and 
surpassed in size anything ever attempted he- 
fore. At the first performance of "Elijah*' 
Mendelssohn had 700 voices, and at the Crys- 
tal Palace, London, in 1862, the chorus num- 
bered 4000, but the chorus of the Peace Jubi- 
lee numbered 10,000 and the orchestra 1000, 
besides bells, anvils, and cannons. A build- 
ing was erected expressly for the accommo- 
dation of the immense audience. The enthu- 
siasm in the city was unbounded, and through- 
out the country the event was looked upon as 
one of the greatest events thnt had taken 
place in the United States. The success of 
the first festival led to the planning and hold- 
ing, in 1872, of a second one, the "World's 
Peace Jubilee." This entirely eclipsed its 
vast predecessor. The chorus numbered 
20,000, and the orchestra was proportionately 
large. Everything was on a scale of grandeur 
never before dreamed of. Several of the fa- 
mous bands of Europe were present. Among 
the distinguished foreign musicians in atten- 
dance and who were specially engaged were 
Abt, who directed his own music, Strauss, 
Hendel, the pianisl, Wely, and others. Finan- 
cially, however, the Jubilee was a failure, 
resulting in a deficit of over #100,000, which 
had to be borne by the subscribers. 

Both of the festivals were originated by and 
were under the direction of P. S. Gilmore 
(See Gli.MORK, P. S.). It was proposed by 
Mr. Gilmore to hold the first festival in New 
York, but not meeting with encouragement 
there he went to Boston, where he received 
the needful support. It is hardly necessary to 
say that Mr. Gilmore, as originator and con- 
ductor of the Jubilees, won a reputation and 
notoriety which he has not yet exhausted. 
As to the artistic and beneficial musical re- 
sults, they were disproportionately small when 
compared with the capital invested. Enthu- 
siasm ran high for awhile, but when it subsi- 
ded there remained little that was permanent. 
This, however, was but the natural result of 
such a festival. While harm may have been 
done to the steady growth of music by its 
transient and superficial character, we may 
with certainty assume that considerable good 
was done also, some of which was undoubt- 
edly permanent. For a fu!l account of both 
Jubilees, the reader is referred to Mr. Gil- 
more's book, "History of the National Peace 

Jubilee and Great Musical Festival," 1 vol. 
758 pp., Boston, Lee & Shepard, 1877. 

Peaborty Concerts. A series of con- 
certs annually given under the care of the 
Conservatory of Music connected with the 
1'eabody Institute, Baltimore, Md. Since 1865 
eight concerts, each of which is preceded by 
a public rehearsal, have been included in 
every series. The programs are of high 
order, and comprise symphonies, suites, con- 
certos, overtures, vocal solos, etc. Every- 
thing is rendered in the best manner, and the 
unusually fine performances of the Conserva- 
tory were such as to call forth heaity praise 
from von Bi'ilow when he was in this coun- 
try, in 1875-76. Since 187 1 the Concerts 
have been under the able direction of Asger 
Hamerik, president of the Conservatory, who 
has given especial attention to the production 
of works by American, English and Scandi- 
navian composers. The orchestra numbers 
50 performers. 

Peak. There was a numerous family of 
this name, all more or less musical. Mr. and 
Mrs. Peak began giving concerts in 1841. In 
1854, by which time there were eight mem- 
bers, they introduced bells into their per- 
formances, and were thereafter known as 
bell-ringers. William H. established another 
company in 1858, Lisetta became noted as a 
singer, and Alfred Tays was violinist. Until 
quite recently, Mr. and Mrs. Peak were still 
giving concerts. 

Pease, Alfred H., pianist and compos- 
er, was born at Cleveland, O., in 1850. His 
early love for music was not much encour- 
aged, but he unaided learned to play the piano 
somewhat. He was sent to school and al- 
lowed no musical instruction of any kind. 
When sixteen years old he entered Gambia 
College, and so assiduously studied as to im- 
pair his health. This led to his going to 
Europe, where his thirst for music greatly 
increased. Having finally obtained parental 
permission to pursue it as a profession, he 
studied the piano under Kullak and von Bil- 
low, composition under Wi'irst, and scoring 
under Wieprecht, making very rapid progress. 
At the end of three years he returned to the 
United States, but made a short stay, going 
back again to Europe, where he studied for 
three years more under the best masters. 
After returning to this country for the second 


time he made an extended concert tour. Pre- 
vious to his death he played in most of the 
important cities and towns. As a pianist he 
was graceful and brilliant and had few super- 
iors. His works are marked by originality, 
close study, and careful writing. They con- 
sist of songs, piano pieces, some orchestral 
compositions, etc. The songs number about 
ioo, the earliest of which is "Break ! Break ! 
Break !" composed in 1864. They are sung 
by Mme. Nilsson and Antoinette Sterling, 
Milles, Albani, Drasdil, and Beebe, Clara 
Louise Kellogg, Myron W. Whitney, and oth- 
er equally eminent singers. Among the piano 
pieces "Antoinette Polka Mazurka," "Caprice 
Espagnol" and "Delta Kappa Epsilon March' 1 
are very popular. In this class are to be in- 
cluded a score of arrangements for four hands, 
from the operas of "Lohengrin," "Faust," 
"Aida," "Crispino," "Les Huguenots," etc. 
Of the orchestral compositions the "Reverie 
and Andante," "Andante and Scherzo," and 
"Romanze," have been performed by Thom- 
as' orchestra in New York and other cities. 
The "Concerto," written in i«75, has also 
been given by Mr. Thomas with great success. 

The death of Mr. Pease was particularly 
sad. For several months previous no trace of 
him could be found, though rewards were 
offered for any information which would lead 
to a knowledge of his whereabouts. He was 
at last discovered in St. Louis, Mo., by a 
newspaper reporter, but it was too late, and 
he died in that city, Thursday, July 13, 1882, 
of congestion of the brain, undoubtedly 
brought on by excesses. He had a bright 
future before him, and, being a young man, 
might have taken a leading position among 
American musicians. His parents, to whom 
his death was a severe blow, now reside at 

PeiifieM, Smith Newhai.i., organist and 
composer, was born at Oberlin, Ohio, April 
4, 1837. He became organist while very 
young. His earlier musical studies were per- 
sued in New York. He subsequently went to 
Leipzig and studied the piano with Moscheles, 
I'apperitz and Reinecke, the organ with Rich- 
ter, counterpoint and fugue with Richter and 
Hauptmann, and composition with Reinecke. 
He also studied at Paris with Delioux. For 
some time after his return he resided at Roch- 
ester, N. Y. He then removed to Savannah, 

Ga., where he established the Savannah Con 
servatory of Music and the Mozart Club. For 
a number of years he has resided at New 
York City. He has given organ recitals at 
the Church of the Pilgrims, Brooklyn, at St. 
George's Church, New York, and more re- 
cently at Chickering Hall. In 1883 he was 
made Doctor of Music by the University of 
New York, and in 18S4 elected president of 
the M. T. N. A. In the autumn of 18S5 he 
founded the New York Harmonic Society. 
Dr. Penfield's compositions consist of organ 


piano music, songs, 


i, glees, a 

string quintet, an overture for full orchestra, 
and a cantata — the 18th Psalm — for soli, cho- 
rus and orchestra. 

Perabo, Ernst, well-known in this 
country as a pianist, composer and teacher, 
was born Nov. 14, 1845, at Wiesbaden, Ger- 
many. He was the youngest often children, 
all of whom became musicians, and the only 
child by his father's second marriage. When 
five years old his musical instruction was 
begun by his father, and his precocity and 
rapid progress may be inferred from the fact 
that v hen eight he could play Bach's "Well- 
tempered Clavier" by heart — a feat worthy of 
an accomplished musician and almost unpar- 
alleled for one so young. In 1852 his parents 
came to the United States, landing at New 
York. During the residence of the family 
there he first appeared in public as a player, 
and with gratifying success. From New York 
the family removed to Dover, N. H., from 
there to Boston, and thence to Chicago, all in 
three years, two of which were spent in 
Dover. While in Boston he again appeared 
in public as a player at a concert under the 
direction of Carl Zerrahn. His father was 
unable to send him abroad to complete his 
musical education, but finally some men of 
means were interested in his behalf, prominent 
among whom was Mr. Scharfenberg (of the 
firm of Scharfenberg <5k Lewis, music dealers), 
who had become acquainted with the family 
while in New York. He was accordingly 
sent to Germany, leaving this country Sep. 1, 
1858, and settled at Hamburg, where he not 
only studied music but literature also. Oct. 
22, 1862, after a resilience of four years at 
Hamburg, he entered the Conservator] ttra at 
Leipzig, receiving instruction on the piano 
from Moscheles and Wenzel, in harmony 


from Papperitz, Hauptmann, and Kichter, and 
in composition from Reinecke. At the public 
examination of May, 1865, he played a part of 
Burgmtiller's concerto in F sharp minor, then 
heard for the first time in Leipzig. 

Having completed his studies at the Con- 
servatorium, Mr. Peraho, in November, 1865, 
returned to this country- He first visited his 
parents, then living in Sandusky, O., and also 
gave some concerts in Chicago and Cleve- 
land. After some hesitation, he in March, 
1866, settled in Boston. He was invited to 
play at the last concert of the season given by 
the Harvard Musical Association, which oc- 
curred April 21st. Since then he has regu- 
larly appeared at one or more concerts of this 
society. He has also given every season ! a 
series of recitals and matinees of his own, 
which are of the very highest order. Among 
other things he has played the whole of 
Schubert's piano sonatas in public. His ie- 
pntohe includes the best works, and he is 
particularly happy as an interpreter of Bee- 
thoven. As a teacher of the piano he is sur- 
passed by few, and he always has a large 
number of pupils. His compositions, mostly 
for the piano, and published both in this 
country and Germany, are quite numerous 
and of great merit. Among them are a Scherzo 
(op. 2), 3 Studies (op. 9), and an Introduc- 
tion and Andante (op. 45). He has published 
some collections of pieces for the use of pu- 
pils, and made concert arrangements of Ru- 
binstein's "Ocean Symphony" and "Dimitri 
Dunskoi." Occasionally he employs his pen 
as a musical writer, though not so often as 
might be wished. 

Perkius, Coi,. Orson, was born Dec. 
17, 1802, at Hartland, Windsor Co., Vt. He 
inherited considerable musical talent and a 
good voice, and when twenty years of age 
had attained some notoriety as a singer. Soon 
after he commenced the career in which he 
was so eminently successful — that of a sing- 
ing-master. He married Hannah Rust, a 
soprano singer of Rochester, Vt., by whom he 
had eight children. Six of them grew to ma- 
turity, as follows : William Oscar, Henry 
Southwick, Azro Orson, Edwin Hazen, Ellen 
Froncilia, and Jules Edson. The first two 
are widely known as teachers, composers and 
conductors, and the last was ( before his 
death) a very fine bass singer. The fourth 

son is also a teacher, and the daughter (now 
Mrs. George S. Cheney of Boston) possesses 
good vocal talents. Mr. Perkins was a man 
of great purity and strength of character. His 
voice, a baritone of extended compass and 
pure quality, he retained up to the close of 
life. After leading a long and actively de- 
voted career, he passed away at Taftsville, 
Vt., at the ripe age of nearly eighty, April 
19, 1882. 

Perkins, Henry Southwick, second 
son of the preceding, was born at Stockbridge, 
Windsor Co., Vt., March 20, 1833. His early 
life was spent in working on a farm, and his 
knowledge of music, was such as could be 
gained during leisure hours. In 1849 the 
family removed to Woodstock, Vt. Having 
arrived at age and being his own master, he 
visited Boston. From there he went to 
Lowell, where he engaged in the show busi- 
ness. The venture was not successful, how- 
ever, and he next became a member of the 
"Mendelssohn (Quartet Concert Company," 
with which he traveled in New Hampshire, 
Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, and 
Vermont. He now fully decided that music 
should be his life-work, and accordingly en- 
tered the Boston Music School, Boston, grad- 
uating therefrom in 1861. After this he com- 
menced holding musical conventions and 
institutes, making Chicago (to which he had 
removed in 1857) his permanent home. In 
1867 he was appointed professor of music in 
the Iowa State University at Iowa City, and 
also director of the State Academy of Music, 
located in the same city. The first post he 
held two years and the second one five years. 
He also held the position of president of the 
Kansas State Academy of Music for five 
years, commencing with 1869. It has always 
been his aim to introduce the best class of 
music by bringing forward such works as 
Haydn's "Creation," Handel's "Messiah," 
Mendelssohn's " Elijah," Mozart's " 12th 
mass," etc. On account of impaired health 
he made a trip abroad in the summer of 1875, 
successively visiting England, France, Switz- 
erland, Belgium, Germany, Austria, Italy, 
and Egypt. At both Paris and Florence he 
spent considerable time in perfecting himself 
in the different branches of his profession. 

Mr. Perkins edited his first work, "The 
Nightingale," for public schools, in t86e, 


being assisted by his brother. He has edited 
in all, either alone or in conjunction with 
others, twenty-live books, the most prominent 
among which are the "Song Echo," "The 
Advance," "New Century," "Perkins' Glee 
and Chorus Book," and "Model Class Book." 
The following is a complete list of his books : 

i. Nightingale (1S60). Public schools. 
2. Sabbath School Trumpet (1864). 
V Church Bell (1867). 

4. .College Hvmn and Tune Book (1868). 

5. Perkins' Vocal Method (1868). 2 vols. 
t>. Song Echo (1871). 

7. Advance (1872). Church music. 

8. River of Life (1873). Sunday schools. 

9. Headlight (1873). Public schools. 

10. Convention Choruses (1874). 

11. Sunnyside (1875). Sunday schools. 

12. Shining River (1875). Sunday schools. 

13. New Century ( 1876). Choirs, classes, etc. 

14. Glee and Chorus Book (1876). 

15. Graded Music Reader, 1 and 2 b'ks (1877) 

16. Graded Music Reader, 3 hook (1878). 

17. Glorious Tidings (187S). Sunday schools. 

18. Perkins' Class and Choir (1879). 

19. Perkins' Graded Anthems ( 1880). 

20. Palms of Victory (18S0). Sunday schools. 

21. Model Class Book (1881). 

22. Good Templar (1881). Temperance. 

23. Song Wave (1882). Public schools. 

24. The Wavelet ( 1882). Public schools. 

25. The Choir (1883). Choirs, classes, etc. 
He has also written numerous popular songs 

and quartets, among which are "Make Your 
Home Beautiful," "Maist Onie Day," "Dear 
Happy Home," "Alone," "Let Me Die by 
the Sea," "Tender and True," "Sweet and 
Low," and "Sleep in Peace." 

Perkins, Dr. William Oscar, eldest 
son of Col. Orson Perkins and brother of the 
preceding, was born at Stockbridge, Windsor 
Co., Vt., May 2^, 1831. He received his 
literary education at Kimball Academy, Meri- 
den, N. H., ami nfter graduating taught for 
some time at New Brunswick, N. J. He then 
went to Boston, where he began teaching 
music in 1858. Having studied with the best 
American musicians, he went to Europe, 
taking voice-lessons of J. Q. Wetherbee, 
London, a fellow of the Royal Academy of 
Music, and G. Perini, Milan. Ever since his 
return to the United States he has been busily 
engaged as teacher, conductor, and composer. 
He has held over 2co musical conventions 
in the Northern States and Canada, conducted 
ten summer "Normals" of from four to six 
weeks each, besides local societies, concerts, 
etc. During a portion of 1871 and 1872 he 

traveled in Europe for the purpose of study 
and observation. The degree of Doctor of 
Music was conferred on him by the Hamilton 
(N. Y.) College in 1S79. 

Mr. Perkins is a musician of more than 
ordinary ability and favorably known through- 
out the country. The following is a list of his 
music books, which contain the most of his 
compositions : 

1. Choral Harmony. For the church. 1859 

2. Nightingale. Day schools. - i860 

3. Union Star Glee Book. - 1S61 

4. Atlantic Glee Book. - - 1861 

5. Tabernacle. For the church. 1862 

6. Golden Robin. Day schools. - 1863 

7. Sabbath School Trumpet. - 1S64 

8. Church Bell. - - 1867 

9. Starry Crown. Sunday schools. 1869 

10. Dominion Songster. (For Canada). 1870 

11. Laurel Wreath. High schools. 1870 

12. Chorister. For the church. - 1S70 

13. Mocking Bird. Day schools. 1871 

14. Orphean. Boys' schools and colleges 1871 

15. Church Welcome. - 1872 

16. Seminary Album. Ladies' schools. 1873 

17. Perkins' Anthem Book. For choirs. 1874 
iS. Shining River. Sunday schools. 1875 

19. Zion. For the church. - 1875 

20. Perkins' Singing School. For classes 1875 

21. Whippoorwill. Day schools. - 1876 

22. Male Voice Glee Book. - 187O 

23. American Glee Book. (Mixed voices) 1877 

24. Herald. For the church. - 1877 

25. Requiem, Funeral occasions. 1878 

26. Crystal Fountain. Temperance. 1878 

27. Singers' Class Book. - 1878 

28. Tree of Life. Sunday schools. 1878 

29. Temple, The. Church and conv'ntion 1879 

30. Anthem Harp, The. For choirs. 1880 

31. Vocal Echoes. ( Female voices). 1881 

32. Choral Choir. Choir and convention 1882 
2^. Peerless, The. For classes. - 1882 

Perkins, Jn.rc Edson, youngest son of 
Col. Orson Perkins, was born at Stockbridge, 
Windsor Co., Vt., March 19, 1845. When 
ten years of age he sang alto in a church 
choir and also appeared in public as a pianist. 
His systematic musical studies were begun in 
Boston when he was about fourteen. There 
he continued until 1867. In that year, after 
some hesitation between the ministry and the 
stage, he went to Paris, where he studied one 
year under M. Delle Sedie. From Paris he 
went to Italy, studying under the best Italian 
masters at Milan and Florence for five years. 
During this period he filled engagements at 
Padua, Pisa, Genoa, Rome, Milan, and one 
of several months at Warsaw, Poland, lb- 
made his regular operatic debut in 1869 with 
great success. By 1873 his fame had reached 


England, ami in that yt'ar he w ith other can- 
didates for operatic engagements appeared at 
La Scala, Milan, before numerous impresarii, 
agents and critics. An incident occurred at 
this time which shows the sharpness of some 
operatic managers. He had sung one selec- 
tion, which was listened to with profound at- 
tention, and was requested to sing another by 
Col. J. H. Mapleson. While this was being 
done, that worthy gentleman "begged his 
friends to excuse him a moment," when he 
hastened behind the scenes, captured the 
young basso and took him to a caf/, and had 
a six years' engagement signed before the 
other agents were aware of it. Upon learning 
of this a Constantinople impresario offered ( !ol. 
Mapleson ^4000 ( nearly S2o,ooo ) for his 

Mr. Perkins made his debut as a concert 
singer in Haydn's "Creation," at Royal Al- 
bert Hall, London, Jan. 13, 1874, before an 
audience of 10,000. His success was instan- 
taneous and complete, and almost amounted 
to an ovation. The praise and compliments 
showered upon him during his operatic tour 
of the English provinces have seldom or never 
been given to any other artist of less than 
world-wide reputation. His repertoire was 
extensive, including "La Favorita," "Don 
Giovanni," "II Flauto Magico," "Zauber- 
flote," "Norma," "Faust," and other operas. 
Mephistopheles in "Faust" and Sarastro in "II 
Flauto Magico" were the roles in which he 
created the greatest impression. He was 
equally at home in the oratorio or opera, and 
in both had rare success. July 23, 1874, he 
was married to Mile. Marie Roze (see Ro/.K), 
the well-known prima donna, who was a mem- 
ber of the same company. With her he vis- 
ited this country for the last time during the 
same summer. Previous to this he had made 
two visits, viz: 1869 and 1871, usually singing 
in the summer institutes of his brother, H. S. 
Perkins. He died at Manchester, Eng., Feb. 
25, 1875. By his death not only America but 
the whole musical world lost an artist of rare 
promise. His voice was a bass of great com- 
pass, depth and tine quality, and excellently 

Perry, Emory, American singer, was 
born July 25, 1799, at Holiston, Mass. When 
seventeen years old he was appointed chor- 
ister, and received $30 a year for his services 

—a fair salary at that time. In 1818 he re- 
moved to Milford, where he received $100, 
and in 1821 to Worcester, where he received 
S300. He was very successful as a teacher of 
singing, and taught upwards of 20,000 pupils. 
His voice was a remarkable one, having a 
compass extending from two octaves below 
middle C to one octave above it. Its quality 
was very uniform, being rich and pleasing, 
though somewhat reedy in the extreme lowest 
register. The date of his death we have not 

Peter, St. An oratorio by John K. 
Paine, op. 20. First produced, under the 
direction of the composer, at Portland, Me., 
June 3, 1873. Given by the Handel and 
Haydn Society of Boston, May 9, 1874. 

Petersilea, CARLYLE, one of America's 
most prominent pianists and teachers, was 
born at Boston, .Jan. 18, 1844. His mother, 
Mary Ann Carew, was an English lady, and 
his father, Franz Petersilea, was a native of 
Oldesleben in the Crand Duchy of Saxe-wei- 
mar, Germany. Franz was destined for the 
ministry, and in consequence received an ex- 
cellent classical education, but his passion for 
music could not be resisted. He devoted his 
life to the art, and will be remembered as an 
able and scholarly musician by many persons 
still living. He died at Mattapan, near Bos- 
ton, Sep. 22, 1878. Carlyle was early and 
systematically instructed in music by his fath- 
er. By the time he was seven years of age he 
was already giving lessons, and when twelve 
performed such compositions as Hummel's 
"Rondeau Brilliant" in public. In order to 
complete his studies he in 1862, being then 
sixteen, went to Germany and entered the 
Conservatorium at Leipzig. There for three 
years he studied under Plaidy, Wenzel, and 
Moscheles, with whom he became a great fa- 
vorite. At the Grand Priifungen, held in the 
gewandhaus of the Conservatorium, he tri- 
umphantly performed the "Henselt Concerto" 
(Moscheles conducting), which had never 
before been played in Leipzig except by von 
Blilow. He graduated with the highest hon- 
ors, being awarded the prize of the Helbig 
fund. He then made a professional tour of 
the principal German cities and was every- 
where received with enthusiasm. Upon re- 
turning to this country he was most cordially 
received at New York, as he also was at Bos- 



ton, where he lirst appeared at a concert giv- 
en in the Music Hall, playing Chopin's F 
minor concerto and Liszt's arrangement of 
Schumann's "P>1 King." He soon settled in 
the latter city and became highly successful 
as a teacher and soloist. Feeling the neces- 
sity of more room for the rapidly increasing 
number of his pupils, he in 1871 founded the 
conservatory now known as "The I'etersilea 
Academy of Music, Elocution and Langua- 
ges," located on Columbus Avenue. 

Early in life Mr. Petersilea astonished musi- 
cians by the extent of his repertoire, which 
now covers nearly the whole field of 
piano literature. Three qualities which he 
possesses to a great degree are reading at 
sight, technique, and a ready and unfailing 
memory. Between January 20 and May 29, 
1S74, he gave a series often recitals at which 
he played from memory the whole of Beetho- 
ven's 32 sonatas, a feat accomplished before 
only by Charles Halle of London. His pow- 
ers of sight reading were evidenced by his 
playing, on one occasion, Chopin's E minor 
concerto with Theodore Thomas' orchestra 
after only a few hours' notice, in the place of 
Josefty. Since 1875 he has been pianist of 
the Boylston Club of Boston, a position for 
which he is admirably fitted. Notwithstanding 
his duties as a teacher, he occasionally ap- 
pears as a soloist at the Philharmonic, Boyls- 
ton Club, and Harvard Symphony conceits. 
Quite recently he made a tour of the West 
with Mrs. Annie Louise Cary-Raymond. As 
a pianist, he possesses the power, depth and 
breadth necessary to interpret Beethoven's 
music, and the delicacy and poetic fancy so 
essential in rendering Chopin's works. As a 
teacher, he has few superiors, as is attested 
by the number of excellent players which he 
has educated. Thus far Mr. I'etersilea has 
given little attention to composing, but it is 
hoped that he may give more in the future. 

Philadelphia takes a prominent place 
among the cities of this country for the num- 
ber of its musical societies and its "vigorous 
musical life." There are sixty -five of the so- 
cieties, the oldest of which is the Musical 
Fund Society, established Feb. 29, 1820. The 
Society built a hall for its use in 1823, and 
about 1830 opened an academy for instruction 
in music. It has liberally aided its profes- 
sional members and their families. For fif- 

teen years the funds have been gradually ac- 
cumulating, and with the sum thus obtained 
it is designed to establish a school of music. 
The Society has quite a large library of music 
in score. The members number fifty, of 
whom foui teen are professional musicians. 
Of the other societies the Orpheus Club was 
organized in August, 1S72, and has 30 active 
and 300 associate members. The Cecilian 
Society has about 400 active members, and 
was founded May 25, 1875. The Beethoven 
Society was organized in i86cj, and the other 
societies at various times. 

The University of Pennsylvania, which is 
located in Philadelphia, has a course of study 
in music. Degrees are bestowed upon stu- 
dents who pass an examination in harmony, 
counterpoint, and composition. The profes- 
sor of music is Hugh A. Clarke, who has an 
orchestra and a glee club composed of under- 
graduates. Among the private institutions 
for musical instruction is the Philadelphia 
Musical Academy, presided over by Mme. 
Emma Seiler, which has a regular attendance 
of over 100 pupils. 

The following is a list of the musical soci- 
eties in Philadelphia, with the name of the 
conductor, and in some cases the year when 
organized : 

Abl Society, Hugh A Clarke. 

Allemania, - - F. W. Kiinsel. 

Amphion Society, 
Arbeiter Sangerbund, 

Arion, - - J. Schaaf. 

Arion (Germantnwn), 
Aurora, - 

Beethoven Liederkranz, - F. W. Kiinsel. 
Beethoven Mannerchor, - L. Grobl. 


Cecilian (1875), - M.H.Cross. 

Cecilian Musical Beneficial Association, 

B. C. S. Wilks (Pres.) 
Columbia Gesangverein, - W. Winter. 

Columbia Burschenschaft, L. Ockenlander. 
Concordia Gesangverein, - E. Gastel. 

Concordia Quartet Club, L. Engelke. 

Eintracht, - - H. Peters. 

Eintracht Quartet Club, 

Fidelio Gesangverein, - G. Wilke. 

Fidelio Mannerchor, 

Gambrinus Sangerkranz, F. Stadier (Sec). 

Germania Liederkranz, - G. Wilke. 

Germania Mannerchor, - C. M. Schmitz. 
Handel and Haydn Society, - C. Sentz. 

Harmonie, - - F. W. Kiinzel. 

Harmonie Quartet Club, 

Kreuznacher Sangerbund, W. Winter. 

Liederkranz, - Dr. Romermann. 

LiedertaLl, . J. W. Jost. 


Liedertafel d. D. F. Gemeinde, P. .1 > «st - 

Lotus Club, C. M. Schmitz. 

Da Lyre, - - F. M. A. Perrot. 

Lyric Club, - - H. Keely. 

Manayunk Choral Society, W. A. Newlan<l. 

Mannerchor, - E. Gastel. 

Mai burger Liedertafel, - G. Folker. 

Mendelssohn Club, W. W. Gilchrist. 

Mozart Hannonie, 

Mo/art Mannerchor, - J. G. Dickel. 

Mozart (Quartet Club, 

Musical Fund Society (1S20), Dr. Dunglison. 

< hchester derD. F. Gemeinde, C. Heinemann 

Orpheus Club (1872), - M. H. Cross. 

Philadelphia Amateur Orchestra, J. Brophy. 

Philadelphia Musical Association, L. Engelke. 

Philadelphia Opera Verein, - F. Wink. 

Philharmonia Mannerchor, 

Quartet Club, - - H. Peters. 

Rothmanner Gesangverein, H. Peters. 

Sangerbund, - C. Gartner. 

Schiller Liedertafel, J. Schaaf. 

Schiller Quartet Club, 

Schwabischer Liederkran/, 

Schweitzer Mannerchor, - J. Brenner. 

Southwark Sangerbund, 

Southwark Liederkranz, 

Teutonia Mannerchor, 

Teutonia Sangerbund, - H. Peters. 

Tischler Mannerchor, - J. Brenner. 

Turner Gesang Section, - J. W. Jost. 

Union Sangerbund, 

West Phila. Choral Society, W. W. Gilchrist. 

W T est Philadelphia Harmonie, - A. Faas. 

West Philadelphia Mannerchor, 

Young Mannerchor, R. Grauer. 

University of Pennsylvania. The 
musical department of this University is under 
the charge of Prof. Hugh A. Clarke. Two 
vears of three terms each cover the course, the 
first being devoted to harmony and the second 
to counterpoint and composition. Pupils of 
both sexes are admitted, provided they have a 
good rudimental knowledge of music and the 
ability to play some instrument. Diplomas or 
certificates are conferred on the judgment of 
the professor at the conclusion of the course. 
Students may at any subsequent time receive 
the degree of Bachelor of Music upon the fol- 
lowing conditions: I. By passing an examin- 
ation in harmony, counterpoint and composi- 
tion, by three examiners appointed by the pro- 
fessor, subject to the approval of the provost; 
the examination to be oral or written, or both, 
at the option of the examiners. 2. They must 
submit to the examiners an original composi- 
tion in the form of a cantata for solos and cho- 
rus, with accompaniment of at least a quintet 
of string instruments. 3. This composition 
must be of such length as to require at least 

twenty minutes for its performance; it must 
contain a four-part fugue, and the accompani- 
ment must be independent, except in the fugue. 
4. The composition must be accompanied by a 
written statement that it is the student's own 
unaided effort. A series of lectures on har- 

: mony, counterpoint and composition are given 

j each term by the professor, the fee for which 
is Sio. 
Philadelphia Musical Academy. This 

1 institution was founded in 1870, by John F. 
Hinimelsbach, Rudolph Hennig and Wenzel 
Kopta. Two years later Kopta returned to 
Europe, and the Academy passed under the 
control of Messrs. Hinimelsbach and Hennig. 
At the end of five years, Mr. Hinimelsbach 
became sole proprietor and director. In 1877 
he also returned to Europe and was succeeded 
by Richard Zeckwer, under whose able direc- 
tion it has since been. Mr. Zeckwer is a 
graduate of the Leipzig Conservatorium, where 
he studied under Moscheles, Hauptmann, 
Richter and Reinecke. He came to America 

j in 1869, and has been connected with the 
Academy from its inception. The methods of 

I imparting instruction are largely modeled after 
those employed in European conservatories. 
All branches of music are taught and the 
principal modern languages. The number of 
pupils in attendance upon the Academy during 

! the year 1884-85 was 755. Among the more 

' noted of the teachers are Richard Zeckwer, 
Rudolph Hennig, F. Grischow, F. E. Cresson, 

I David Wood, Pasquale Rondinella and W. W. 

1 Gilchrist. 

Philharmonic Societies. See Bos 

i ton and New York and Brooklyn. 

Phillips, Adelaide, one of America's 

greatest contralto singers, was born at Bristol, 

England, in 1833. She came to the United 

States (by the way of Canada) with her parents 

when seven years old. Her vocal powers 

were early manifested, and she made her first 

public appearance at the 'Fremont Theatre, 

Boston, Jan. 12, 1842, when she personated 

! several characters in a little comedy. The 

following year she appeared at the Boston 

Museum, also dancing between plays. Thus 

! far she had been instructed by Thomas Comer 

j of Boston, but when she sang before Jenny 

1 Lind in 1850 that lady was so pleased that she 

advised her to go to Europe to complete her 

education. The necessary funds were raised 


Iiy subscription and a benefit concert. She 
arrived in London in March, 1852, where she 
studied the voice with Sig. E. Garcia and 
piano and harmony with \Y. Chalmers. After 
a year an 1 a half, the additional means having 
been furnished by Jonas Chickering, the cele- 
brated piano manufacturer, she went to Italy 
and placed herself under the best masters 
there. Her professional debut was made at 
Milan, Dec. 17, 1854, as Roslna in "The Bar- 
ber of Seville." She returned with her father 
to this country in 1855. In 1S01 she visited 
England, France, and other European coun- 
tries, singing in the principal cities, and meet- 
ing with a warm welcome. At home she 
made repeated tours and won a permanent 
place in the hearts of the people. She joined 
the Boston Ideal Opera Company in 1879, ln 
which she was often beard. Azttcena in 
Verdi's ''II Trovatore" was her favorite rdle. 
Her sphere was by no means confined to the 
opera, for the frequently sang in oratorio at 
the concerts of the Boston Handel and Haydn 
Society with scarcely less success. She ap- 
peared in Boston for the last time at the 
Museum, in November, 1880, at Mary Beebe's 
benefit, and her last appearance on any stage 
was at Cincinnati, in December, 1881. Fail- 
ing health compelled a rest, but it was too 
late, and she died in September, 18S2, in the 
southern part of France, whither she had gone 
seeking relief. Miss Phillip's voice was a 
pure, rich contralto with a compass of 2 Y 2 
octaves, ranging up to B flat in alt. She was 
not only a fine artist, but a kind-hearted, 
noble woman, and her death was lamented by 
a very large circle of friends. Her mother 
died in 1855, the year of her return from 
Europe, and her father, Alfred Phillips, at 
Marshfield, Mass., Oct. 16, 1870. 

Phillips, Philip; was bom Aug. 13, 1834, 
at Jamestown, Chautauqua Co., N. Y., and 
began music teaching when he was nineteen 
years of age. He settled in Cincinnati, but 
in 1866 removed to New York, where he has 
since resided. In the United States and Fag- 
land he is quite widely known as a very pleas- 
ing singer of songs, mostly sacred. He has 
composed a great number of hymn tunes and 
religious pieces, and edited several collections 
of such music, among which are the "Singing 
Pilgrim," " Musical Leaves," "Hallowed 
Songs," "Centenary Singer," "Song Ser- 

mons," and a Hymnal ( 1871 ) for the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. 
Piano in America, The. Anything 

like a complete, or even a partial, historv of 
the development of piano making in this coun- 
try is yet to be written. The piano was being 
manufactured in Europe when this nation was 
horn, yet American inventive genius has done 
as much toward perfecting the instrument as 
that of all other nations combined. The first 
piano produced in this country was made by 
Benjamin Crehore, at Milton, a rural village 
about fifteen miles from Boston, as early as the 
beginning of this century. The house where 
he worked is still standing, and it is to be re- 
gretted that the first piano does not also remain. 
From the business of Crehore grew that of 
Babcock, Appleton & Babcock. In the work- 
shop of the latter named firm John O.sborne 
learned his trade, ana he taught Jonas Chick- 
ering, the "father of the American piano." In 
1S23 Mr. Chickering set up in business for 
himself, and exercised his ingenuity in improv- 
ing the piano. To him in a large measure is 
due the rapid perfection of the American pi- 
ano, which enabled it to successfully compete 
with the best foreign makes. It may be 
added that during the early pait of his career 
Mr. Chickering had a partner by the name of 
Mackay, a sea captain, through whose efforts 
he built up quite a trade in South America. 
Many of his instruments are still to lie found in 
Buenos Ayres. Mr. Mackay died in 1841, or 
was lost with his ship at sea. Some further 
idea of the growth and development of piano 
making in the United States may be gained by 
consulting the histories of Chickering & K«,, 
STEINWAY cV Sons, and other leading piano 

Pinner, Max, pianist, was bom April 
14, 1851, at New York. In 1865 he went to 
Leipzig and entered the Conservatorium 
there. Three years later he placed himself 
under Tausig and Weitzmann at Berlin for the 
study of the piano and harmony. In iN'7j he 
was studying with Liszt, and afterwards met 
with success as a pianist at Berlin, Leipzig, 
Vienna and other cities. He returned to New 
York in 1878 and settled there as a teacher. 
On account .if ill health he lias lately seldom 
appeared in public as a performer. 

Pilgrim's Progress, The. A can- 
tata in three parts. The libretto is founded 


on and taken from Pmnyan's "Pilgrim's Prog- 
ress;" music by J. C. Beckel. Published in 


Pitch. In Europe, efforts have been 
made to establish a uniform pitch, and with 
partial success. The matter has been agitated 
in this country, but without producing any- 
thing very tangible in the way of results. 
Some impetus was given to the movement by 
a meeting of musicians and musical instru- 
ment manufacturers, held at the New England 
Conservatory of Music, Nov. 18, 1882. The 
following preambles and resolution was 
adopted : 

Whereas, there is no fixed standard of pitch 
to which leaders and manufacturers are com- 
pelled to conform ; and 

Whereas, this state of things has led to the ; 
wiriest diversity in tuning instruments and 1 
orchestras ; and 

Whereas, the pitch has gone up nearly a I 
tone and a half since Handel's time, and a | 
quarter of a tone during the past year in 
Boston ; 

Resolved, that we, in this meeting assembled, 
express it as our conviction that, first, there 
ought to be a fixed standard pitch ; second, 
that the prevailing pitch ought to be lowered ; 
third, that we unite upon 260.2 vibrations per 
second for the middle C, as being the pitch 
best calculated to lead to the most desirable 
result, and that we will use our endeavors to 
make this movement universal. 

The report was prepared by a committee 
consisting of Carl Zerrahn, Dr. Louis Maas, 
J. C. D. Parker, A. Kielblock, L. W. Wheeler, 
Edgar A. Buck, and Otto Bendix. Letters 
from B. J. Lang, Theodore Thomas, Mason & 
Hamlin Organ and Piano Co., Hook & Has- 
tings, Hutchings, Plaisted & Co., warmly 
endorsing the movement were read. It is 
to be sincerely hoped that the reforms attempt- 
ed by this meeting will receive public encour- 
agement and eventually be adopted. As will 
readily be seen, the pitch recommended by 
the meeting is very nearly the same as that 
which is fixed by law in France. That it is 
the best one which could have been fixed 
upon, however, is far from certain. A standard 
which makes middle C=2$b would be better, 
as it disposes of any fractions in the octaves 
and almost exactly agrees with the classical 
pitch. The matter is still being agitated, and 
must, in time, lead to beneficial results. 

Plain and Easy Instruction. Prob- 
ably the first practical instruction book on 
singing published in America. The full 

title is "A very Plain and Easy Instruction to 
the Art of Singing Psalm tunes;" and the bal- 
ance of the title page reads, "with the Cantos 
or Trebles of twenty-eight Psalm tunes, con- 
trived in such a manner that the Learner may 
attain the Skill of singing them with the 
greatest ease and speed imaginable." The 
work was issued about 1712, and was prepared 
by Rev. John Tufts, pastor of the Second 
Church, Newbury, Mass. Some two or three 
years later he issued a new and greatly im- 
proved book, containing thirty-seven tunes 
harmonized in three parts. In it he attempts 
to teach the learner to sing by using letters in 
the place of notes. Many editions were 
printed and sold, which would seem to indi- 
cate a great popularity. 

Pond, Sylvanus Billings, was bom in 
Worcester County, Mass., in 1792. While 
still quite young he went to Albany, N. Y-, 
where his fondness of music led him to en- 
gage in the musical instrument business. He 
was at first alone but afterwards associated 
himself with a Mr. Meacham, under the firm 
name of Meacham & Pond. In 1832, upon 
invitation, he went to New York and joined 
Firth & Hall, and the name was changed to 
Firlh, Hall & Pond. He remained with the 
firm many years (See Pond, W. A. & Co.) 
Mr. Pond took a great interest in Sunday 
schools, and soon after going to New York 
connected himself with the Brick Church 
(Presbyterian), of which Rev. Dr. Spring was 
so long pastor. He was for some time leader 
of the choir, and at this time wrote his first 
Sunday school singing book, "Union Melo- 
dies," which was very successful. Another 
one of his works was the "United States Psal- 
mody," for choirs and singing societies, which 
also had a large sale. He was at one time 
director of the New York Academy of Music, 
and afterwards of the New York Sacred Music 
Society. His music is almost exclusively sa- 
cred, and includes several popular hymn 
tunes, among which are "Armenia" (1835) 
and "Franklin Square" (1850). In 1850 he 
retired from active business, and died in 
Brooklyn in 1871, respected by all who knew 

Pond, William A. & Co., New 

I York. About 1815 a young Englishman 
named John Firlh commenced business at 8 

Warren St., New York, as a manufacturer of 



flutes and fifes. He learned his trade with 
Edward Riley, also an Englishman, who be- 
gan business about 1812. William Hall, anoth- 
er of Riley's pupils, set up in business about 
1820, in Wo aster street. Between him and 
Firth there existed a warm friendship (they 
married sisters, daughters of their former em- 
ployer), which resulted, in 1821, in their form- 
ing a copartnership as Firth & Hall and estab- 
lishing themselves at 362 Pearl street. They 
were prospered and steadily built up a very 
desirable trade. In 1830 they added to their 
other business that of making pianos, and 
about the same time commenced to publish 
music on a small scale. Late in 1832 they 
were, by invitation, joined by S. B. Pond, 
who was in the musical instrument business 
at Albany, N. Y. (See Pond, S. B.) The 
firm then became Filth, Hall cS: Pond, and the 
establishment was removed to I Franklin 
Square, which, by the way, was the first pres- 
idential mansion, and is still known as 
"Washington's House." Mr. Pond, after 
entering the firm, took charge of the piano 
department. This seems not to have been 
very profitable, and after twenty years it was 
disposed of. The factory was at this time lo- 
cated at Williamsburg. He also for a long 
time wrote much of the music which they pub- 
lished. In 1847 the f~" m of Firth, Hall & 
Pond was dissolved. Gen. Hall, withdrew, 
and with his son, James F. Hall, commenced 
business on Broadway as William Hall & Son. 
The son subsequently joined the federal army, 
and the father after a few years retired from 
business. He died in 1873 (-^ ee Hall). 
After Gen. Hall's withdrawal the firm became 
Firth, Pond & Co., the company consisting of 
William Pond (for many years head of the 
house) and John Mayell, brother-in law of the 
elder Pond. In 1850, S. B. Pond retired from 
business, and in 1856 the firm removed to 1547 
Broadway. The name was again changed in 
1863, Mr. Firth withdrawing, who, with his 
son, established the house of Firth, Son & Co., 
bought out in 1867 by C. II. Ditson & Co. 
It then became William A. Pond & Co., which 
has been retained to the present day. The 
firm, until very recently, consisted of Col. 
William A. Pond and his son, William A. 
Pond, Jr. It is not only an extensive dealer, 
but publishes very largely, and ranks among 
the leading houses of the United States. For 

Boosey & Co., the English publishers, and 
other foreign firms, it is the accredited agent 
in this country. In 1878 its immense business 
was removed from 547 Broadway to 25 Union 
Square. The head of the house, Col. Wm. A 
Pond, very recently (Dec, 1885) died. 

Poilte, Lorenzo da, poet, was born 
March 10, 1740, at Ceneda, in the Venetian 
States. His parents were very poor, but at 
the age of fourteen he entered the seminary of 
his native town, and after studying five years 
went to Venice to seek his fortune. There he 
had a number of amorous difficulties, and 
being compelled to leave went to Treviso. 
From Treviso (which he was also forced to 
leave) he went to Vienna, becoming court 
poet in the place of Metastasio, who had lately 
died. While holding this post he wrote the 
librettos of Mozart's three operas, "Figaro," 
"Don Giovanni," and "Cosi fan tutte." Leav- 
ing Vienna after the Emperor's (Joseph li) 
death he went to Trieste, where he married 
an English lady, and thence in 1792 to Paris. 
London was his next stopping place, and there 
he was engaged as poet of the Italian opera. 
On account of financial trouble he set sail for 
the United States, and landed at Philadelphia, 
May 30, 1803. He proceeded to New York, 
and was successful as a teacher of Italian. In 
1811 he went to Sunbury, Pa., to manufacture 
liquors, but this, like his other business ven- 
tures, j; roved a failure, and he returned to New 
York. His last bright day was on the arrival 
of the Garcia family, when "Don Giovanni" 
was given. He died at New York, Aug. 17, 
1839, in abject misery, the natural result of the 
life which he led. It was chiefly through his 
exeitions that the fine opera house at the corner 
of Church and Leonard streets was erected. 
The building was opened Nov. 18. 1833, and 
destroyed by fire Sep. 23. 1839. 

Praise to God. An oratorio by Geo. 
F. Bristow — one of his most important works. 
It was produced in i860, and thrice performed 
— the third time by the New York Harmonic 
Society at the Academy of Music, Brooklyn, 
for the benefit of the Old Ladies' Home, and 
netted #2000. 

Pratt, Silas G., was bom Aug. 13, 1846, 
at Addison, Vt. At a very early age his par- 
ents removed West, locating on a farm near 
Plainlield, 111. While still young his talents 
manifested themselves in a decided manner. 



In 1857, on account of his father's financial 
troubles, he went to Chicago and became a 
c'e.k in the house of H. .M. Higgins. He 
subsequently, after serving a year with Root 
& Cady, was engaged by Lyon & Healy as 
their chief clerk. He took up the practice of 
the piano, at which he dilligently labored. 
His first composition, "Lorena Schottisch," 
was written at the age of fourteen. By exer- 
cising the greatest economy, he was enabled, 
in 1868, at the age of twenty-two, to realize 
the long-cherished desire of going abroad to 
secure a good musical education. Under the 
care of Bendel at Merlin, and afterwards of 
Kullak, he made rapid progress. Full of en- 
thusiasm for art, it was but natural that he 
should overdo, ar.d as a consequence he lost 
the use of his right wrist. This was a severe 
blow and destroyed his hopes of becoming a 
virtuoso, but he soon found a consolation in 
composing. Incessant study and work at la.->t 
forced him to take a tour for the benefit of his 
health, during which he visited Leipsic, Eise- 
nach, Coburg, Nuremberg, Regensburg and 
Munich. At the latter place he made the ac- 
quaintance of Gung'l, the celebrated waltz 
composer. While there he also began his 
opera of "Antonio," which was not finished 
until 1874. Upon returning to Berlin he 
p laced himself under F. Kiel for the study of 
counterpoint, and during the winter his first 
symphony was completed. The ensuing sum- 
mer was spent at the baths of Gastein and in 
a trip through Switzerland. With the winter 
he again returned to Berlin, and soon after 
sailed for his native country. His first public- 
appearance here was at Chicago, in April, 
1572, when he gave a conceit chiefly com- 
posed of his own piano and vocal works. The 
great fire of the October before had made the 
city a poor place for an artist, and he was 
forced to accept the clerkship which he had 
relinquished four years before. He attended 
the second great "Peace Jubilee" at Boston, 
having charge of the Chicago musicians. The 
first movement of his symphony \v;:s per- 
formed and well received. Soon after he or- 
ganized the Apollo Club. During the winter 
of 1873-74 he made a short concert tour, after 
which he took up teaching. In the summer 
be re-wrote or completed the opera of "Anto- 
nio," which was successfully produced under 
the direction of Hans Balatka. Early in 1875 

lie again went to Europe for the purpose of 
study and observation. After attending the 
rehearsals of Wagnei's trilogy at Bayreulh, in 
the fall of the same year, lie went to Weimar 
and gave a recital before Liszt and other dis- 
tinguished musicians. His "Anniversary 
Overture" was performed at Berlin, July 4, 
1876, and soon after at Weimar. Owing to 
financial troubles he accepted the position of 
consular clerk, but continued his labors as ;i 
composer. Having achieved several triumphs 
he left Berlin for Paris, and thence proceeded 
to London, where some of his compositions 
were performed. He returned to the United 
States in 1877, and has since resided at Chi- 
cago as teacher and composer. His latest 
large work is the opera of "Zenobia" (see 
ZeNOBIA), which was produced upon the 
stage at McVicker's Theatre, Chicago, and 
fairly well received. The following is a list 

ith the year of 

of Mr. Pratt's wot 
duction : 

Lorena Schottisch, 

Eclipse Waltz, 

Matinee Polka, 

Shakesperian < irand March. 
I The Sigh. Nocturne. 
I The Smile. Polka. 
, Grand March Heroique, 
! Orchestra Galop, 

Ola. Serenade impromptu. 
I The Carousal. Paraphrase on "We 
won't go home till morning." 


Reve d'esprit. Valse characteristic. 

Primeur Nocturne, Bel 

Orb of Night. Waltz. 

Gone. Impromptu. 

Shadow Thoughts. 3 impromptus. 

1. Hidden Whispers, 

2. Silent Complaint, 

3. Mazurka. 

Symphonie sketch, "Magdalena's 
Lament." For orchestra (Ms. ) ' 

Oh, Let Me Love Thee. Song. 

Antonio. Opera. (1st sketch, Ms.) ' 

La Douleur .Mazurka, 

Mazurka Caprice, 

First Grand Symphony (Ms.) 

Dream Wanderings. Paraphrase on 
"The Old Folks at Home." 
I The Smile. Song. 

Rainy Day. Vocal quartet. 

Dream Visions. Vocal. 

Wanderer's Song, 

Soul Longings. Strings and piano. 

Retrospection. Song. 

Homage to Chicago. March. 

Fantasie Caprice, 

First grand polonaise, 




1 868 

1 87 1 

1 87 1 


Opera (if "Antonio" (completion), 1874 

Grand Valse Etude, 1875 

Fant.isie Impromptu, 1875 

Two Rornanzas. Piano. Berlin, 1876 

Opera of "Antonio" (scoring), Weimar, 1876 
Pansy and the Maid. Ballad. " 1876 

Mv Own Ideal, " 1876 

Anniversary Overture (orch., Ms.) " 1876 

Prodigal Son. Symphony. " 1876 

Winds of the Night. Male cho. Berlin, 1877 
Long Ago. Song. Loudon, 1877 

Still dwells my Heart with Thee, " 1877 

Variations, "Sweet bye and bye," 1S77 

Canon. String orchestra. (Ms.) 1877 

Never Again. Song. Chicago, 1878 

Zenohia (commenced), " 1878 

Second grand polonaise. (Ms.) " 1S78 
Stay at Home. Song. " 1878 

Sunset Impromptu. (Ms.) Columbus, Ky. 1878 
Mazurka Andante, Chicago, 1878 

Mazurka Minuet, 187S 

Pastoral for organ. (Ms.) 1S79 

Inca's Downfall. Cantata for solos and 

chorus. (Ms.) 1879 

Nocturne Impromptu, '879 

Caprice Fantastique. (Ms.) 1879 

My Only Own. Song. ^79 

Love in Spring. Song. 1879 

Serenade for string orchestra, !^79 

Wedding Polonaise, 1879 

Baladine. (Ms.; op. 40). 1880 

Waltz Graciuse, 1880 

Zenobia (scoring and completion) op. 41, 1880 
Waltz Semplice, 1880 

Antique minuet and pastoral, 1880 

Meditation Religeuse. Piano (op. 42), 1881 
In Venice. Barcarolle. Piano. 1881 

Overture, "Zenobia," 1881 

Hymn to Night. Song. 1882 

Court Minuet, 1882 

"The sail auf Wielerscheu." Song. 1882 

Fresser, THEODORE, was born of German 
parents at Pittsburgh, Pa., July 3, 1848. He 
early evinced a great love of music, which 
was duly encouraged. In 1864 he became a 
music clerk in a store in his native city, of 
which he rose to be manager in four years. 
While obtaining a collegiate education he 
dilligently studied music. He began his 
career as teacher at Ada, O., in. 1869. Being 
unsatisfied with both his surroundings and his 
attainments, he went to Xenia, O., and entered 
a conservatory there. After three years more 
of teaching, during which time he had charge 
of the musical department in a female semin- 
ary, he went to Boston and studied under the 
best teachers there. In 1876 he look charge 
of the musical department of the Ohio Wes- 
leyan University. He subsequently went to 
Europe, where he faithfully studied for two 
years. On his return lie was appointed pro- 

fessor of music in Hollins Institute, Virginia. 
In 18S3 he established at Lynchburgfc, Va., 
The Etude, a monthly publication for teachers 
and students of !he The following 
year he removed to Philadelphia, where The 
Etude is now published and where he resides, 
devoting much time to teaching. We must 
not forget to add that to Mr. Presser is due the 
inception of the Music Teachers' National 
Association, and its safe passage through the 
critical period of its existence is mainly the 
result of his untiring energy and ability. As 
a teacher he is remarkably successful, having 
a rare faculty both of interesting the pupils and 
imparting instruction. He has some sixty 
etudes in manuscript which he has for years 
used in private teaching, while his published 
piano studies are received with favor by teach- 
ers everywhere. He is the translator and pub- 
lisher of Urbach's Prize Pianoforte Method, 
and has rendered available to American stu- 
dents other important works. Mr. Presser is 
one of the most indefatigable of our musical 
workers and for this alone deserves honorable 
mention. As he is yet comparatively young, 
he will probably live to accomplish much 
more for his chosen art. 

Provost, Eugene, was born Aug. 23, 
1809, at Paris, and studied at the Conserva- 
toire. He obtained the "Prix de Rome." and 
after his return from Italy produced the 2-act 
opera of "Cosimo" at the Opera Comique 
with considerable success. After his marriage 
with Eleonore Colon he went to Havre as 
conductor of the theatre there. In 1838 he- 
went to New Orleans, where he was unusually 
successful as singing master, also holding tin- 
post of conductor of the French theatre. In 
this capacity he produced several dramatic 
pieces of his own, among them "Esmeralda," 
which contains some striking music. During 
1842 he was leader of the orchestra at Niblo's 
Garden, New York. When the Civil Wat- 
broke out Prevost went to Paris, and was 
director of the concerts of the Champs Elysees. 
He was recalled to New Orleans by his son, 
Leon, in 1807, and died there in July, 1872. 
Besides his dramatic pieces he wrote consider- 
able sacred music. He was given the cross 
of the Order of Charles III by the Queen of 

Prince, G-eorge A. A: Co., Buffalo, 
N. Y. This firm of melodeon and retd organ 



manufacturers was established about 1S40, by 
C-eorge A. Prince. In 1S46 Mr. Prince took 
out patents for several improvements in nie- 
lodeons, and was at this time employing 150 

men and turning out 75 instruments per week. 
In 1847 Emmons Hamlin (then a workman in 
the manufactory of Prince & Co.) discovered 
that the tone of the reeds of a melodeon was 
greatly improved by slightly bending and 
twisting the tongues. This gave a renewed 
impetus to their manufacture. Mr. Hamlin 
became a member of the firm of Mason & 
Hamlin in 1854. After the production of the 
reed organ, about 1861; Prince & Co. began to 

make them in connection with their melo- 
deons. All their instruments, of which they 
manufactured nearly 60,000, are characterized 

by a line tone and great lasting qualities. The 
writer has often played upon one of their ear- 
liest melodeons (now 40 years old) and the 
tone, though not powerful, of course, there 
being only one set of reeds, is very sweet and 
mellow. As far as musical capacity is con- 
cerned, the instrument is just as good as when 
first made. The firm, one of the leading ones 
in this country, became embarrassed during 
the financial crisis which has just passed, and 
about 1875 was forced into bankruptcy. 


Qltig'g', J- Travis,. the well-known musi- 
cal writer and editor of the American Music 
Journal, is a native of Philadelphia, where he 
began his career as a journalist. He has been 
identified with many musical enterprises, no- 
tably the inauguration of the Thomas orchestral 
concerts in 1876 at the F'orrest Mansion Garden, 

I Philadelphia. He has also written several 
I popular songs and light compositions for the 
piano. At various times he has been engaged 
I as musical editor upon the St. Louis Critic, 
I the Kansas City Times, the Chicago Herald, 
! and Freund's Music and Drama, besides con- 
; tributing for leading papers in his native citv. 


Read, DANIEL, one of the eaily American 
psalmodists, was born in Connecticut (pre- 
sumably at or near New Haven, where he was 
long a resident) in 1757. His first work was 
(he "American Singing book, or a New and 
Easy Guide to the art of Psalmody, " issued in 
1 77 1 . In 1793 he published the "Columbian 
Harmony," consisting entirely of church mu- 
sic, and in 1S06 the " Litchfield Collection," 
containing 112 pages of similar music, much 
of which was original. Read's music may be 
classed with that of Billings and Holden, and 
though it contains some crudities, it is full of 
life and vigor. Some of his tunes are in gen- 
eral use at the present day and are likely to 
live for a long time to come. "Windham," 
" Sherburne," " Russia," " Stafford," and 
"Lisbon," are known to almost every church 
singer. He died at New Haven in 1836. At 
a concert of ancient music given at New Haven 
in May, 1853, the pitch-pipe originally be- 
longing to Read was used, and much of the 
music rendered was of his composing. 

Records of the New York Stage. 

The title of a valuable work comprising a his- 
tory of the New York stage from 1750 to i860, 
giving the date, and in most cases the cast, of 
all dramatic works produced thereon. It was 
edited by Joseph N. Ireland, now (1886) a 
resident of Bridgeport, Conn., and issued to 
subscribers at $15 for the 8vo. and ^25 for the 
4to. The first volume appeared in December, 

1866, and the second one in April or May, 

1867. Part of the edition, which numbered 
only 200 copies, was sold to non-subscribers 
at S25 and ^40. The work has now become 
rare an. I commands quite a premium. Could 
there be a sufficient demand, a second edition, 
bringing events down to the present time, 
would probably be issued. It is to be regret- 
ted that the work is not more accessible, and 
that similar histories of the stage in the prin- 
cipal cities of the United States have not been 

Redemption Hymn, in E Hat, for 

contralto solo, chorus and accompaniment, l>\ 

J. C. D. Parker. Words from the 51st chap- 
ter of Isaiah. Composed in 1877, and given 
by the Handel and Haydn Society of Boston. 
Since performed by musical societies all over 
the country. 

ReeAes, David Walus, wt.s born Feb. 
14, 1838, at Oswego, N. V. His early musi- 
cal advantages were few, but when fifteen 
years old he was apprenticed to Thomas Can- 
ham, a hand instructor, with whom he dilli- 
gently studied the violin and the cornet. At 
the age of nineteen he became leader of a 
circus band. Soon after he went to New 
York, joining I )odworth's Orchestra, and sub- 
sequently Rumsey and Newcomb's Minstrels. 
With the latter company he went to England, 
where he was presented with a tine cornet by 
Henry Distill. In 1862 he became a member 
of Dodworth's Band in New York, and was 
the first to perform Levy's celebrated "Whirl- 
wind Polka" in America, astonishing every- 
one by his triple tongueing, the secret of 
which he learned in London. In February, 
1S66, be accepted the position of leader of the 
American Band, Providence, R. I., which he 
still (1885) retains. He has brought the or- 
ganization up to a high standard. Mr. Reeves 
has frequently appeared in Boston, New York 
and other cities as soloist, being an excep- 
tionally fine player. His compositions are 
mostly for military bands. They exhibit many 
musicianly qualities, and some of them have 
obtained a wide popularity. 

Remmertz, FRANZ, bass singer, is a na- 
tive of Diisseldorff, Germany, where he was 
born probably about 1845. It was designed 
that he should be an architect, but music 
proved the greater attraction, and he removed 
to Munich to cultivate his talents. He made 
his debut as an operatic singer, but has con 
lined himself mostly to the concert room. In 
1869 he came to New York, where he has 
since resided. He sang at the New York, 
Cincinnati and Chicago May Festivals of 
1SS2, and has filled engagements in nearlj 
ever\ part of the country, earning a national 



of rugged, 

reputation. His voice is 
quality, and his singing 
ergy and force. 

Ricliardsow, Nathan, was born at 
South Reading, Mass., in 1823." He studied 
music for several years with Dreyschock at 
Prague. After his return to the United States 
he prepared and published his "Modern 
School for the Pianoforte," which was little 
more than a transcript of his lessons with bis 
teacher. The criticisms which it evoked led 
him to prepare his "New Method for the Piano- 
forte" (Boston, O. Ditson& Co.), which has 
had a popularity equaled by no other musical 
instruction book. The sales have thus far 
footed up to over 500,000 
amount to about 20,000 copies annually, 
lie was one of the founders of the firm of Rus- 
sell & Richardson, music dealers, Boston. 
John W. Moore, in his "Dictionary of Musical 
Information," states that Richardson died in 
Paris (whither be had gone on account of 
failing health), Nov. 19, 1855, but W. S. B. 
Mathews in "How to Understand Music" 
gives the year as 1858. This is probably 
nearer correct, as the "New Method" was 
not published until 1851). 

KU'O, FENELON B., Doctor of Music, was 
born at Green, Ohio, Jan. 2. 1841. He was 
educated at Hillsdale College, Mich., after 
which he entered the Boston Music School, 
graduating therefrom in 1863. In 1867 he 
went to Germany and entered the Conserva- 
torium at Leipzig. After two years of study 
there he returned to the United States, and 
was, in 1S71, appointed professor of music in 
Oberlin College, Oberlin, O., and director of 
the Conservatory connected with that institu- 
tion. He is still (June, 1886) located at 
( Jberlin, where he has done much to elevate | 
the standard of music. His time is entirely 
devoted to teaching and looking after the in- ] 
terests of the large school which is in his 
charge. The degree of Doctor of Music was 
conferred on him by Hillsdale (O.) College, : 
and that of A. M. by Oberlin College. 

Richings-Bernard, Mme. Caroline, ; 

was born in England in 1827, and came to the 
United States when very young. She made j 
her Jrbnt as a pianist at Philadelphia, Nov. j 

30, 1847, and in 1852 sang for the first time 
in "La Fille dll Regiment." She sang in 
English and Italian opera throughout the 
country with much success until 1867, when 
she married a tenor singer, P. Bernard, in 
consequence of whose managerial and finan- 
cial inability she soon lost what money she 
had previously earned. In 1873 she organ- 
ized an "Old Folks Concert Company," which 
proved a failure. After this she taught at 
Baltimore and Richmond. She v/as the prin- 
cipal singer of the "Mozart Association" at 
the latter place, which annually produces a 
number of operatic works. Her last public 
... appearance was in August, 1881, when she 
copies, and still sang in an operetta of her own, "The Duch- 

voice was a tine 
good acting. She 


ess," at Baltimore. lit 
one and supplemented by 


f Otie account say, 
mt 1830. 

bom nt Gloucester 

rlied of small-pox at Richmond, Jan. 
lamented by all who knew her. 

Kip Vail Willklo. An American ro- 
mantic opera. The libretto is by J. H. Wain- 
wright ; the music by George F. Bristcw. 
First produced at Niblo's Garden, New York, 
Sep. 27, 1855, by the Pyne-Harrison English 
opera company, after which it was performed 
for 30 consecutive nights. It was translated 
into Italian, provided with new scenery, cos- 
tumes, etc., and was on the eve of a revival 
with Miss Clara Louise Kellogg as the hero- 
ine, when the Academy of Music was de- 
stroyed by lire in 1865. With the exception, 
perhaps, of F2ichberg's "Doctor of Alcanla- 
ra," it achieved a success equaled by no other 
American work, and deserves more recogni- 
tion at the hands of our ir/tpresarii. 

Kilter, Dr. Frederic Louis, was born 

at Strassburg in 1834. His father was of 
Spanish extinction, and the family name was 
originally Caballero. He commenced his 
studies at an early age with Hauserand 11. M. 
Schletterer, and when sixteen he was sent to 
Paris, where they were continued under the 
care of his cousin, Georges Kastner. Soon 
after he went to Germany, and made dilligent 
use of his time while there. In 1852, being 
then eighteen, he returned to Lorraine, where 
he was appointed professor of music in the 
Protestant seminary of Fenestrange. Such 
were the representations made by some of the 
family who had settled in the United States, 
he was induced to come to this country. For 
several vears he resided in Cinninnati, con- 



tributing much to the musical life and ad- 
vancement of taste in that city by his enthu- 
siasm. He formed the "Cecilia" (choral) 
and "Philharmonic" (orchestral) societies, 
which produced for the first time in America 
a number of important works. In 1X62 he 
went to New York, where he became conduc- 
tor of the Sacred Harmonic Society — a post 
which he retained for eight years — and of the 
Arion Choral Society (male voices). He or- 
ganized and conducted, in 1867, the first musi- 
cal festival held in the city, and during the 
same year received the appointment of pro- 
fessor of music and director of the musical 
department of Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, 
N. Y., whither he removed in 1874. He still 
(May, 18S6) holds the position. The degree 
of Doctor of Music was conferred on him by 
the University of New York in 1874. 

Dr. Ritter's literary labors include articles 
on musical topics, printed in French, German, 
and English periodicals, and several books. 
His most important work is "A History of 
Music in the Form of Lectures," published at 
Boston (Ditson & Co.); vol. 1, 1870; vol. 2, 
1874. A second and much enlarged edition 
has appeared in London (W. Reeves). He 
edited the English edition of "Das Reich der 
Tone" — The Realm of Tones (Schuberth & 
Co., New York, 1883) — and wrote the Appen- 
dix, containing short biographies of American 
musicians. His new books, "Music in Eng- 
land" and "Music in America" (Chas. Scrib- 
ner's Sons, New York) were issued in Nov., 
1883. As a composer, he may be classed 
with the modern Franco-German school. The 
following is a list of his works : 
Op. 1. "Hans," cyclus cf Persian songs. 

" 2. Preambule Scher::o. Piano. 

" 3. Ten children's songs. 

" 4. Fairy Love. 

" 5. Eight piano pieces. 

" o. Six songs. 

" 7. Five choruses. Male voices. 

" 8. Psalm 23rd. Female voices. 

" 10. Five songs. 

" 11. Organ fantasia and fugue. 

" 12. Voices of the Night. Piano. 

" 13. Dirge for Two Veterans. Poem by 
Walt Whitman, with melodramatic 
music for the piano. 

" 14. The 95th Psalm. For female voices, 
with organ accompaniment. 

" 15. Six songs. 

" 16. Suite for Pianoforte. 

" 17. The 4th Psalm. For baritone solo, 
chorus, and orchestra. 

I Ten Irish melodies with piano accompani- 
ment; "A Practical Method for the Instruc- 

- tion of Chorus Classes," in 2 parts ; "O Salu- 

j taris," baritone solo and organ; "Ave Maria," 

I mezzo-soprano solo and organ ; "Parting," 

I song for mezzo-soprano voice; ]] 3 sympho- 
nies, A, E minor and E flat ; "Stella," poeme- 

I symphonique d'apres Victor Hugo; overture, 

'"Othello;" concerto for violoncello and or- 
chestra ; concerto for piano and orchestra ; 

! fantasia for bass clarinet and orchestra ; Sep- 

j tette -serenade, for flute, horn and string quin- 
tet ; string quintet; several string quartets; 

; the 46th Psalm, for soprano solo, chorus and 

j orchestra, first performed at the New York 

J festival of 1867. 

All works to the sign, ]] , have been pub - 

: lished ; the rest still remain in manuscript. 

; Many of the larger ones have also been ren- 
dered by the Philharmonic societies of New 
York and Brooklyn. 

FANNY RaymOND-Ritter, wife of the pre- 
ceding, is well known as the author or trans- 
lator of several musical works. She has 
brought out translations of Ehlert's "Letters 
on Music" (Ditson & Co.) and of Schumann's 

I essays and criticisms, "Music and Musicians;" 
and written two pamphlets, "Some Famous 

j Songs," an art historical sketch, and "Woman 
as a Musician." The latter three are pub- 

I lished by Schuberth & Co. 

Itiv^-Kiug' (pronounced rcc-vay} Julie, 

I generally conceded to be one of the first 
pianists in America and equaled by few of her 
sex in the world, was born Oct. 31, 1857, at 

j Cincinnati, O. Her genius for music was 
inherited from her mother, Mine. Caroline 
Rive, an eminent teacher (See succeeding 
sketch), and became evident when she was 
little more than an infant. Her mother, 
therefore, carefully instructed her in the art 
from the first, and to this fact much of her 
present success may be attributed. So rapid 
was her progress that before attaining the age 
of eight years she appeared in public at one 

; of her mother's conceits, playing Thalberg's 

■ "Transcription of Themes from 'Don Juan.' " 
Soon after she went with her mother to New 
York, where she studied under Wm. Mason, 
S. B. Mills, Francis De Korbay, and Pruckner_ 
In order to complete her education she, at the 

j age of fifteen years, went to Europe, receiving 
instructions from Reinecke at Leipzig, Blass- 



man and Kischpieter of Dresden, and, finally, 
from Liszt at Weimar. She made her profes- 
sional achat, under Reinecke's direction, at 
one of the Euterpe concerts, Leipzig, having 
attained her seventeenth year, before a highly 
cultured audience. On this occasion she 
played Beethoven's third concerto and Liszt's 
second rhapsodie, and was received with such 
enthusiasm as to almost create a furore. 
Seldom has so young an artist gained such a 
signal victory upon first appearance. Just 
as she was about arranging for a tour of Europe 
she was suddenly recalled to the United States 
bv the death of her father, who was killed in 
a railroad accident. Her American reputation 
dates from her hist appearance in Cincinnati, 
during the winter of 1873-74. It was greatly 
increased by her appearing at a concert of the 
Philharmonic Society, New York, in the 
spring of 1875, when she played Liszt's con- 
certo in E flat and Schumann's "Faschings- 
schwank" (op. 2b), a very severe task for 
any player. The following winter she 
played Beethoven's 5th concerto at the Phil- 
harmonic concerts, and was received with 
every possible token of appreciation. Her 
first appearance in Chicago was during the 
second season of the Apollo Club, at the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. There her tri- 
umph was even more decided than it had 
been at any other place. During the last 
twelve vears she has performed at upwards of 
1800 concerts and recitals. Nearly every 
important musical society in this country and 
Canada has engaged her one or more times as 
soloist, and she has played in all the principal 
cities. For some time alter leaving Cincin- 
nati she made Chicago her home, but now 
(May, 1886) resides at New York, where she 
holds a distinguished position. Nine years 
ago she was married to Mr. Frank H. King, 
who is well-known in musical circles. 

Mme. Rive- King can hardly be overrated 
as a player. She possesses a wonderful com- 
mand of her instrument and a consummate 
technique, which enables her to perform the 
most difficult pieces with ease. Constant 
practice from earliest childhood has given her 
great wrist and digital power, and there is no 
perceptible diminution of the force and clear- 
ness of her touch, even during the perform- 
ance of the heaviest compositions. Slow 
playing has developed the full, round tone 

which is one of the characteristics of all her 
interpretations. She at once enters into the 
spirit of the work, and strives to bring out and 
make apparent the intention of the composers 
Her programs are models of good tr.ste, in 
which both the classical and the romantic 
schools are fairly represented. One thing 
greally in her favor as a player is her fredom 
from nervousness when appearing before an 
audience; indeed, the presence of an audience 
seems rather to inspire her. Mme. Rive-King 
is not alone a great pianist, but has displayed 
considerable talent as a composer. The fol- 
lowing is a list of her compositions and tran- 
scriptions, all piano solos : 

Andante und Allegro (Mendelssohn, op. 64). 
Ballade et Polonaise de Conceit (Vieux. — 38). 
Bubbling Spring. Tone poem characteristic. 
"Carmen" (Bizet). Grand fantasia. 
Concert sonata in A major (Scarlatti). Re- 
vised and fingered. 
Gems of Scotland. Caprice de conceit, in- 
troducing the airs of "Kathleen," "An- 
nie Laurie," and "Blue Bells of Scot- 
Hand in Hand. Polka caprice. 
La ci Darem la Mano (Chopin, op. 2). 
March of the Goblins. Also for 4 hands. 
Mazurka des Graces. Morceau de salon. 
< >Id Hundred. Paraphrase de concert. 
On Blooming Meadows. Concert waltz. Also 

arranged for 4 hands. 
Pense'es Dansantes (Thoughts of the Dance). 

Valse brilbante. Also for 4 hands. 
Polonaise Heroique. Morceau de concert. 

Also for 4 hands. Dedicated to Liszt. 
Prelude and Fugue (Haberbier-Guilmant). 
Rhapsodic Hongroise, No. 2 (Liszt). 
Wiener Bonbons (Strauss). 
"Tabs from the Vienna Woods." 
Impromptu in A flat. 
"Nearer, My God, to Thee." 
"Home, Sweet Home." 

RJV6, Carolink, ncc Staub, mother of the 
preceding, was born in France, in the year 
1822. She had a fine soprano voice, and 
took lessons from Garcia, who advised her to 
adopt the lyric stage as a profession. This 
she did not do, but married a young French 
artist named Rive. Together they came to 
the United States, landing at New Orleans, 
then the great musical center. During a 
severe cholera epidemic they lost three chil- 
dren. They then removed to Baton Rouge, 
La., thence to Louisville, Ky., and finally, 
about 1854, to Cincinnati, O. There she was 
very successful as a teacher, and had a large 
number of pupils. Feeling that her health 


was failing, she went to vesicle with her 
• laughter in New York, and died there Oct. 
31, 1S82. Her husband died about nine 
years previous. Mine. Rive was not only 
most highly esteemed as a teacher, but equal- 
ly so as a woman. For many years she lived 
a true Christian life, and was beloved by all 
who knew her for her sympathy, kindness, 
and charity. 

Boot, Dr- George Frederick, one of I 

America's most popular composers of vocal 
music, was born Aug. 30, 1820, at Sheffield, 
Berkshire Co., Mass., and is the eldest of a 
family of eight children. His youthful years 
were spent in working on his father's farm, 
but his soul was full of music, and he learned, 
unaided, to play several musical instruments. 
By the time he had arrived at the age of eigh- 
teen, life on the farm had grown to be irk- 
some. Knowing that his calling lay in the 
line of music, he was anxious to be about it. 
Accordingly, in 1838, having obtained the 
consent of his parents, he went to Boston to 
enter upon the career for which nature so ad- 
mirably fitted him. For some time after 
arriving in the city no opening to his taste 
presented itself. While still undecided what 
to do, A. N. Johnson, then a popular and suc- 
cessful organist and teacher in Boston, took 
him into his music school on trial. The result 
was so satisfactory that Mr. Johnson gave him 
a permanent position as a teacher and admitted 
him to his own home. A year later a part- 
nership was formed between the two. About 
the same time he became director of music nt 
Winter Street and Park Street churches. In 
1844 he was induced by Jacob Abbott, whose 
name is familiar in literary circles, to remove 
to New York and become instructor of music 
in Abbott's Institute. He had not long been | 
there before he found his time fully occupied 
in teaching in various private institutions. He 
was also given charge of the music in the old 
Presbyterian Church, Mercer street, now well- 
known as the "Church of Strangers," under 
Dr. Deems. About the time of his removal 
from Boston, or soon after, he was married to 
Miss Mary < )live Woodman, a most estimable 
young lady, who proved a great helpmeet to 

In 1850 he went to Paris, where he spent a 
year in dilligent study. Shortly after his re- 
(urn home he determined to trv his ability as 

a composer, and the result was his famous 
song of "Hazel Dell." It was published by 
Wm. Hall & Son of New York, became one 
of the most popular songs of the day, and even 
now has a steady and quite large sale. The 
publishers immediately made arrangements to 
issue all of his compositions for three years. 
Fearful of failure he had used the German 
equivalent of Root, "Wurzel,' ' for a signature, 
and many of his later pieces bear the same 
name. "Hazel Dell" was followed by the 
cantata of "The Flower (^ueen" (1851), 
words by Fanny J. Crosby. It was hist pro- 
duced in New York City, with great success. 
Desiring to devote more time to composition, 
he retired to "Willow Farm" at North Read- 
ing, a home erected by himself and brother 
for the comfort of their parents. There he 
remained several years, only leaving his 
seclusion when called upon to conduct musi- 
cal conventions. In the summer of 1852 the 
first Normal Musical Institute (See Institutes 
of Music, Normal), was held in New York, 
the faculty consisting of Dr. Lowell Mason, 
Thos. Hastings, Wm. B. Bradbury, and Dr. 
Root. The idea and scheme originated with 
Dr. Root, and has been productive of much 
good. He still takes the lead with his "Nor- 
mals," though they are now held by other 
teachers. He is also one of the leading con- 
vention conductors (See Conventions, Mr- 
SICAI.), having been engaged in the work for 
the last forty years, the earlier part of this 
period in conjunction with Dr. Mason, W. B. 
Bradbury, and others. In i860 Dr. Root 
went to Chicago and became one of the firm 
of Root & Cady, music-publishers. They 
were very successful, and one of his books 
alone, the "Triumph" (1868) paid a profit of 
about ^50,000. Through the great Chicago 
fire of October, 1871, they lost all their stock, 
valued at about ^200,000. Soon after the 
firm was dissolved, Mr. Cady going to Xew 
York. Dr. Root still (May, 1886) resides in 
Chicago, and is still busy in editing various 
works, composing, and conducting. Some 
years ago he transferred his services to John 
Church & Co. of Cincinnati, who ate now his 
publishers. The degree of Doctor of Music- 
was bestowed upon him in 1881 by the Uni- 
versity of Chicago. 

Dr. Root occupies an important place in (lit- 
musical history of this country. It was Lowell 



Mason who lifted music from almost nothing 
and gave it an impetus, but he left no belter 
follower than Dr. Root to carry on his work. 
It is as a composer of songs and other vocal 
pieces that Dr. Root excels. While they are 
within the comprehension of the masses they 
have an elevating influence and are admirably 
adapted for raising the standard of music, 
which has been the one great object of his 
life. Of course, in time many of them will 
pass into oblivion, but this is nothing against 
their past or present value. Among the songs 
which have gained a national popularity may 
be mentioned "Ha/el Dell" (1851); "Rosalie, 
the Prairie Flower" (1852-53); "Battle Cry of 
Fredom," written in answer to T. F. Seward's 
t famous "Rally 'round the Flag, Boys," and 
sung by the Hutchinson Family at the great 
mass meeting at Union Square, New York, 
in 1861 ; "Tramp, Tramp, Tramp, the Boys 
are Marching," which has been heard in 
every shape from one end of the land to the 
other; "Just Before the Battle, Mother;" 
"Vacant Chair," all of which, except the first 
two, belong to the war period ; "The Old 
Folks are (lone," "A Hundred Years Ago," 
and "Old Patomac Shore." "There's Music 
in the Air" is a tine quartet, and for many 
years held its place as a standard piece for 
serenading purposes. "Shining Shore" has 
long been a great favorite in Sunday schools. 
All of the cantatas are popular, and some of 
them contain many gems. Among the books 
are "Sabbath Bell," "Diapason," "Triumph" 
"Silver Lute," "Choir and Congregation," 
"Chorus Castle," "Realm of Song," and 
"Musical Cirriculum." The latter is a most 
excellent and comprehensive work for the 
piano. Space wdll not permit us to name any 
more, but the following is a list of Dr. Root's 
principal works, wdth year of publication : 

1. Academy Vocalist. Ladies' voices. 1848 

2. Flower Queen. Cantata. Words 

by Fanny J. Crosby. First pro- 
duced in New York City. 1S51 

3. Daniel. Cantata. First produced 

in New York City. 1852 

4. Pilgrim Fathers. Cantata. First 

produced in New York City. '$54 

5. Belshazzar's Feast. Cantata, hirst 

produced in New York Citv. 1855 

(... Festival Glee Book. 1856 

7. Haymakers. Cantata. First pro- 

duced in New York City. 1856 

8. Sabbath Bell. Church music. 1856 

9. Diapason. Church music. i860 

IO- Cabinet Organ School. 1863 

11. Musical Cirriculum. Foi the piano. 1864 

12. Silver Lute. Day schools. 1865 

13. Coronet. Clees, etc. 1S67 

14. Triumph. Church music. 1868 

15. Prize. Sunday schools. 1870 

16. Forest Choir. Day schools. 1871 

17. Model Organ Method. 1872 

18. Glory. Church music. 1872 

19. Choir and Congregation. Church. 1875 

20. FirslYearsin Song Land. Day schools 1879 

21. Palace of Song. Classes and con: 

ventions. J ^79 

22. Song Tournament. Cantata. 1879 

23. Chorus Castle. Choral societies. 1880 

24. Under the Palms. Sunday school 

cantata. 1S80 

25. David, the Shepherd Boy. Sunday 

school cantata. 1881 

26. Realm of Song (The). Classes and 

conventions. 1882 

27. Choicest Gift (The). Sundayschool 

cantata. i&Sj 

28. Pure Delight. Sunday schools. 1883 
Dr. Root's two daughters, NELLIE and 

May, are respectively contralto and mezzo- 
soprano singers. 

I^OOt, Frederick W., son of the pre- 
ceding, was born at Boston, June 13, 1846. 
His musical instruction was begun when he 
was five years old by his father, and when 
about fourteen he was placed under the care 
of B. C. Blodgett, who took great pains to ad- 
vance his pupil. He subsequently studied 
with Wra. Mason, Robert Goldbeck, and Jas. 
Hint, an organist of some repute. After the 
removal of the family to Chicago, in i860, he 
frequently assisted his father in conducting 
conventions, also taking voice lessons from 
Carlo Bassini of New York at intervals. In 
1S69 he went to Europe and spent several 
years in study and travel. On returning to 
the United States he resumed his studies with 
Wra. Mason and Carlo Bassini. He has since 
mainly devoted himself to teaching, conduct- 
ing, and composing, and now (May, 1886) 
resides at Chicago. As a teacher of vocal 
music he is very successful and takes a lead- 
ing position. In 1866 Mr. Root was employed 
by Root & Cady, for whom he did a great 
deal of arranging and composing of music, 
having the popular taste in mind. Some of 
his pieces, however, were of true artistic fin- 
ish, notably the song, "Beyond," which is 
worthy of attention. He remained with the 
firm until the tire of October, 187 1. Mr. 
Root's works consist of a cantata, composed 
for the Beethoven Society; a vocal method ; 



ri burlesque operetta; a class singing book; 
songs, glees, choruses, etc. "The Landing 
of the Pilgrims" (to Mrs. Heman's words) is 
a particularly tine piece of choral writing. 
For several years he was editor of the "Song 
Messenger," and still contributes occasional 
articles to the musical press. 

Rose Of Tyrol. An operetta in two 
acts. Words from the French; music by 
Julius Eichberg. Produced at the Museum, 
Boston, Monday, April o, 1868. 

Rndersdorff, Hermine or Erminia, 

was horn at Ivanowsky in the Ukraine, Rus- 
sia, Dec, 12, 1822, her father being a distin- 
guished violinist there at the time. She 
studied singing at Paris with Bordogni and at 
Milan with de Micherout. After this she ap- 
peared at various concerts in Germany, and 
sang in Mendelssohn's "Lobges'jng, " June 5, 
1840, at Leipzig. In 1S44 she married, at 
Frankfort, Dr. Kiiehenmeister, a professor of 
mathematics. From 1852 to 1854 she sang in 
light French and new German operas with 
great success at Berlin, having previously ap- 
peared in the principal German cities. .May 
23, 1854, she made her first appearance in 
England, at Drury Lane, London, as Donna 
hiu, 1 in "Don Giovanni," and was well re- 
ceived. She was engaged at Covent Garden 
and other London theatres for several years, 
and during the intervals between the seasons 
visited the English provinces, Germany, Hol- 
land and Paris. It was, however, as a concert 
singer that she excelled, and consequently 
she was frequently called upon to sing at the 
principal festivals. Her rendition of some 
oratorio parts was magnificent and produced a 
wonderful effect. In 1 871 she was induced to 
come t.) the United States by the Handel and 
Haydn Society of Boston, and such was her 
reception that she was prevailed -upon to 
make this country her permanent home. She 
sang at the Peace Jubilee of 1872, but mainly 
devoted herself to teaching, in which she was 
very successful; indeed, so great was her suc- 
cess that she soon took a leading position in 
the profession and was compelled to accept 
only such pupils as gave evidence of a special 
talent. Among the vocalists she trained may 
be mentioned Anna Drasdil, Emma Thursby, 
Isabel Fasset, Emily Winant, Fannie Kellogg, 
Helen Billings, Eugenie Pappenheim, Carlot- 
ta Patti, Minnie Hauck, etc. 

Mme. Rndersdorff was not only a teacher 
and singer, but occasionally appeared in the 
role of a composer. She also contributed mu- 
sical articles to various publications, and in 
1873 furnished the libretto of Randegger's 
cantata of "Fridolin," produced at the Bir- 
mingham (Eng. ) festival. Having accumu- 
lated considerable money, she bought an 
estate of 84 acres in a quiet rural town near 
Boston, where she spent the summer months 
in agricultural recreations. After a year's 
painful illness, death released her from suffer- 
ing, Sunday morning, Feb. 26, 1882. She 
was conscious to the last moment, and gave 
full directions for the disposition of her prop- 
erty. Her name was well known on both 
continents, and her death produced a feeling 
of gloom in musical circles throughout the 
country. She will not soon be forgotten as a 
most estimable musician and woman. 

liildolphseii, John Frederick, singer, 
actor, and teacher, was born March 19, 1827, 
at Hamburg, Germany. He early received 
instruction on the violin, also in theory and 
composition. At the age of sixteen he entered 
the orchestra, playing under Karl Krebs and 
Richard Wagner. Oct. 6, 1848, he arrived in 
New York City as a member of Gung'l's 
famous band. After Gung'l's return to Eu- 
rope, he was engaged for four or five years as 
a member of the orchestra of the Italian ( >pera, 
New York, then conducted by Max Maretzek. 
During a portion of this period he studied 
singing, and made his ddbut as an operatic 
singer at Niblo's Garden, New York, in Mme. 
Anna Bishop's English Opera Company in 
1853. Having sung for a number of years in 
opera, he traveled extensively throughout the 
country as a concert singer. In 1862 he was 
called to Boston by the Handel and Haydn 
Society to sing in the "Messiah." He located 
there and was for a long time a prominent 
teacher and singer. About the year 1875 he 
again took up his travels, accompanying Mme. 
Camilla Urso in her tours of this country. In 
November, 1879, be was called to Cincinnati 
as professor of singing in the then newly es- 
tablished College of Music. This position he 
still (May, 18S3) retains. His abilities as a 
teacher are of high order, and he is particu- 
larly well versed in everything that pertains 
to the vocal ait. He has composed a number 
of songs, that of "Break, Break" being far- 


liculaily fine, and a Te Deum in B Bat. 
Ryder, Thomas Philanoer, was born at 

Copasset, Mass., June 29, 1836. He early 
manifested a great love for music, but his 
tastes received no encouragement previous to 
his fourteenth year, when he was given some 
instruction upon the piano by a friend. His 
progress was very rapid, and he soon began 
composing little pieces. While still young he 
was thrown upon his own resources by the 
death of his father, but he managed to obtain 
time to practice music. When nineteen he 
began studying with Gustav Satter, and also 
took some lessons in organ playing and har- 
mony. After holding various positions as 
organist, the first of which was at Nyannis, 
Mass., he became organist at Tremont Tem- 
ple, Boston, a position which he held for 
nearly ten years. His skill as an accompanist 
is equaled by few. He still resides in Bos- 
ton, and numbers among his pupils many tal- 
ented musicians. His compositions are mostly 
for the piano. The first one to attract general 
attention was the "Chanson des Alpes," pub- 
lished in 1SS0 bv White, Smith & Co. Among 

his other popular pieces are "Old Oaken 
Bucket," "Nearer, My God, to Thee," "A 
Dainty Morsel," " Lida," "Rustic Maiden," 
"Sounds from the Glen," etc. lie is also 
acknowledged to be a choral conductor ><( 
unusual skill, and has filled many important 
positions in this capacity. 

Ryder, George H., & Co., Boston. 

This house, which manufactures church or- 
gans, was established Nov. 1, 1870, by Geo. 
H. Ryder, who is at present sole proprietor. 
About two organs per month are turned out, 
the total number thus far constructed is 112, 
varying in price from £600 to #6000 or more. 
Mr. Ryder, who was born May 9, 1838, has 
had twenty -five years' experience in the busi- 
ness, and is, besides, an excellent organist, 
having officiated in several of the Boston 
churches. A selected force of workmen is 
employed in the factor)', which is located at 
Reading, Mass. Mr. Ryder has built many 
organs for use in and around Boston, as well 
as various ones throughout the country, among 
which are 1st Baptist Church, Chelsea, Mass., 
and 1st M. E. Church, Cleveland, Ohio. 


Schilling, DR. GUSTAV, well-known as 
a musical writer, was horn Nov. 3, 1805, at 
Schweigershausen, Hanover, where his fath- 
er was a clergyman. He was educated at 
Gottingen and Halle, and in 1830 became 
director of Stopel's Music School at Stuttgart. 
In 1S57, on account of financial difficulties, he 
was compelled to leave his native country and 
came to the United States, landing at New 
York. Two years later (1859) he was also 
compelled to flee from thence. He then 
spent several years in wandering throughout 
Canada, and probably at one time resided in 
Montreal. In 1871 he settled at Burlington, 
Iowa, as a teacher, also contributing articles 
to various German-American publications, 
under the nonts de plume of "The Deceased" 
and "The Hermit of Iowa." Seemingly im- 
pelled by some restless spirit, perhaps also 
hoping to better his financial condition, he 
removed from Burlington to the State of Ne- 
braska, where he died in June (?), 1880.* 
He left a daughter, but whether or not any 
other children we have been unable to ascer- 
tain. Al one period of his residence in the 
West he had a music school. Dr. Schilling 
wrote ".Esthetics of Music," in 2 volumes; 
"Polyphonomos," a book relating to harmo- 
ny ; "The Musical Europe," a collection of 
biographical sketches; a "Dictionary of Mu- 
sical Words ; a work on acoustics, one on 
harmony, etc. He als:> rewrote Philip Eman- 
uel Bach's piano school. But the work by 
which he will longest be rememhered is the 
"Encyclopedic der gesammten musikalischen 
Wissenschaften, oder Universal Lexikon der 

*Grove's "Dictionary of Music and Musi- 
cians''' states t fiat he is- still living in Montreal, 
in which it probably follows Mendel's "Biction- 
ary." This, however, is a mistake, mixing, 
perhaps, from //is luiving once lived in the place 
named. It is certain that //■■ died as above stated, 
though the exact dale and place have not as vet 
been determined. Right liere I would acknotvl- 
edge my indebtedness to J/;. Karl Merz, editor of 
"Brainard's Musical World" [who correspon- 
ded with Schilling fm several years) for the 
pacts of his life during his residence in . imerica. 

Tonkunsl" (Encyclopaedia of General Musical 
Knowledge, or Universal Lexicon of Music), 
7 vols., 8vo., Stuttgart, 1S35-40; published in 
this country by Schuberth & Co., New York. 
It is thought he left in manuscript a work 
entitled "Art of Touch," which he is known 
to have written. Many of his works have 
been severely criticised, and perhaps justly 
so, though they contain much that is good. 
Schilling's life was one of unusual adversity and 
change. Plow much of this was due to him- 
self we will not undertake to say. His light, 
which rose so brightly in Germany fifty years 
ago, suffered extinction in the New World, far 
from his native country. 

Sehlesinger, Daniel, was born at 
Hambu-g, Dec. 15, 1799. His study t.f the 
piano began when he was five years old, and 
later he took some lessons on the organ. For 
some time he was employed in a counting 
house, but music held the chief place in his 
devotions. While in London on one occa- 
sion he happened to hear Ferdinand Ries, 
and at once became a pupil of that musician, 
making rapid progress. He also took lessons 
of Moscheles. He was elected a member of 
the Philharmonic Society, London, and played 
in several concerts of the society, producing 
several of his own compositions. In 1832 he 
made a professional tour, visiting Hamburg, 
Leipzig, Vienna, Paris, and other cities. At 
the suggestion of one of his brothers he in 
1836 came to the United States, landing at 
New York, and making his debut as a pianist 
at the National Theatre, wilhout/however, 
meeting with a very good reception. In the 
following year, at a second appearance, he 
played HummePs A flat concerto and was 
applauded. His time was mostly devoted to 
teaching, but from time to time he came 
before the public as a player. He died at 
New York, Jan. 8, 1838. 

Scllflenfeld, Henry, was born at Mil- 
waukee, Wis., Oct. 4, 1856, and educated at the 
Leipzig Conservatorium and under Lassen at 
Weimar. We have few particulars of his life, 
but his compositions evince more than ordinary 



talent as a composer. Among them is an 
"Easter Idyll ;" a cantata, tor solos, chorus 
and orchestra ; several sonatas, piano pieces, 
songs, etc. 

Scllllltze, Edward, was born in Ger- 
many about [828. He was one of the mem- 
bers of the Germania Orchestra (See that 
heading), and came to this country with that j 
organization in 1S48. When it disbanded 1 
(1855) he located in Boston, where he for a j 
long time resided, esteemed as a teacher and l 
player. In 1877 he became director of the! 
musical department of the SyracuseUniversity, 
which conferred on him the degree of Doctor 
of Music. 

Sejfiiin, Arthur Edward Sheldon, | 

was born at London, April 7, 1809, and re- ; 
reived his musical training at the Royal 
Academy of Music. In 1S2S he made his 
(//out as a singer at a concert and was well 
received. During 1833 and 1834 he was en- | 
gaged at Covent Garden, and from 1835 to ! 
1837 at Drury Lane, singing, meanwhile, in 
various festivals and concerts. He came to j 
the United States in 1838, and on Oct. 15th j 
of that year appeared at the National Theatre, 
New York, as the Count in Rooke's "Amilie." 
Subsequently he organized an opera company 
called the "Seguin Troupe," which gave per- 
formances in many of the towns and cities of 
this country and Canada. He died at New 
York, Dec. 9, 1852. His voice was a bass of 
peculiar depth and richness. It is said that he 
was elected a chief by one of the Indian tribes 
and given a name meaning "The man with 
the deep, mellow voice." 

Soji'llill, Ann, nte Childe, wife of the pre- 
ceding, was also a pupil at the Royal Acad- 
emy of Music, and made her dibut at the same 
time and place as her husband. Some time \ 
after, they* were married, and she came with j 
him to this country. She sang with him in ' 
operas until his death, in 1852, when she re- 
tired from the stage and settled at New York. ; 
She was still living there in 1882. 

Seiler, MME. Emma, was born Feb. 23, ! 
1821, at Wiirzburg, Bavaria, where her father 
occupied a high social position. The most 
prominent artists and scientists were numbered 
among the friends of the family, which fact 
had a marked influence upon the education of 
the children. At the age of twenty-one years 
she married a Swiss physician, and went to 

reside with him near the village of Langen- 
thal, Canton Berne, where she remained nine 
years. In 1851 she had the misfortune to lose 

her husband, and was left with two little chil- 
dren without any means of support. Having 
been well trained in singing and possessing a 
tine voice, she resolved to become a teacher 
of the art. She soon found, however, that 
she was far from fitted to do this. Not only 
was she destitute of an}- starting point from 
which she could proceed, but also of any 
method. This led her to study the various 
vocal works published and at the same time 
take lessons of the most celebrated teachers, 
but from them she learned little new. Each 
teacher had a different system, and these sys- 
tems were arranged with little regard for logic 
or the structure of the throat. Mme. Seiler 
rightly came to the conclusion that ignorance 
could work more harm in the teaching of vo- 
cal than in any other branch of music. And 
this fact she was destined to have illustrated 
in her own experience, for while studying 
under the care of an eminent teacher she en- 
tirely lost her voice. After this calamity she- 
studied the piano under Frederic Weick at 
Dresden, with a view of becoming a teacher 
of that instrument. While devoting herself to 
this department of teaching she heard of nu- 
merous cases where persons had lost their 
voice through injudicious methods of training, 
and this, combined with the loss of her own 
voice, made her determine to obtain such 
knowledge as was necessary to a natural and 
healthy development of the powers of the 
human voice. With this object in view she 
embraced every opportunity to hear the great- 
est singers, and even went to Italy, but there, 
as later in France, she found the same igno- 
rance and superficiality. 

On he* return she sought the counsel of 
Prof. Helmholtz, at that time residing at Hei- 
delburg. Through the assistance of that dis- 
tinguished scientist she became familiar with 
all the new discoveries in acoustics, learned 
the properties of true musical tones, and 
finally succeeded in producing them with her 
own voice. She then brought into requisi- 
tion the laryngoscope (then just invented 1 to 
observe the physiological processes which go 
on in the larynx during the production of such 
tones. The constant strain broke down her 
health, and for a year she was compelled to 


<U'sist from labor. Soon after resuming her 
investigations she published the results in a 
little hook, "Altes unci henesuber die hens- 
hilding der Stimme, von E. Seiler," at Leip- 
zig, where she was then staying. As may be 
imagined, the work at once created a decided 
sensation, though no one suspected its being 
written by a woman. One of the special fea- 
tures was the description of a pair of cartilages 
which she discovered in her investigations, 
and of which anatomists had previously been 

In consequence of an article written by her- 
self and printed in the Leipzig "Musik Zeit- 
ung," she was offered and accepted a position 
at Vienna. She was prevented from fulfilling 
her engagement, however, by the war of 1866 
between Germany and Austria, which imme- 
diately broke out. This made it impossible 
for her to support herself by teaching in Ber- 
lin, where she had been residing for some 
time, and she accepted the invitation of some 
friends in the United States to come to this 
country. She landed at Philadelphia, pro- 
vided with letters of introduction from Prof. 
Helmholtz, Du Bois Ramant, and other scien- 
tists of Europe, which gained her admission 
to many of the first families of the city. There 
she continued her studies in the physiology of 
the voice, and as a result published, in 1869, 
"Voice in Singing," which was received with 
such favor, both by scientists and by musi- 
cians, that a second edition was soon called 
for. In recognition of her labors, she was 
elected a member of the American Philosoph- 
ical Society, an honor seldom or never before 
conferred upon a woman in America. Shortly 
after the publication of the work she opened 
a school of vocal art, in which she employed 
her method. In 1875 she was led, on account 
of the many persons who applied to her for 
vocal culture in speaking, to publish a third 
work, "The Voice in Speaking," in the 
preparation of which she had the assistance of 
her son. Dr. Carl Seiler. 

Mme. Seiler recently gave up her school, 
and now devotes all her time to private teach- 
ing and the preparation of a new edition of 
her German hook. With the exception of 
Manuel Garcia of London, she is, perhaps, 
the only vocal teacher who has, to any great 
extent, cultivated a scientific knowledge of 
the voice, and it is grat Tying to know that her 

labors are appreciated in a measure at least. 
To students of voice-culture her works are a 
great boon, and they may always be consulted 
with profit. 

Seward, Theodore Frelinghuysen, 
was born at Florida, Orange Co., N. Y., Jan. 
2 5> I &35- He early devoted himself to music, 
and has been very successful as a teacher of 
piano, organ, voice, and theory. He is the 
editor, either wholly or in part, of the fol- 
lowing works, which contain much of his 
music: "Sunnyside Glee Book," "Temple 
Choir," "The Singer," "Coronation," "Vine- 
yard of Song," "Glee Circle," "Pestalozzian 
Music Teacher," and "Tonic Sol-fa Music 
Reader." At different periods he has been 
editor of the "New York Musical Pioneer" 
and the "New York Musical Gazette," and 
now has charge of the "Tonic Sol-fa Advo- 
cate." He is one of the chief champions of 
the tonic sol-fa system in America, to the 
spreading of which he devotes much of his 
time. His present residence is Orange, N. J. 

Sharland, John B., was born ofEng. 
lish parents at Halifax, N. S., in 1837. Early 
in life he went to Boston, where he learned 
the trade of a piano maker in Jonas Chicker- 
ing's establishment. The numerous artists 
whom he heard, however, led him to ahandon 
the piano business and take to music as a pro- 
fession. He soon became a successful pianist 
and teacher, and rapidly acquired a leading 
position among Boston's musicians. Mr. 
Sharland has been connected with the follow- 
ing musical societies: (1.) The "Cecilia 
Club," as pianist. (2.) The "Lurline Club," 
so-called from Wallace's opera of "Lurline," 
as conductor. After giving a few concerts it 
was discontinued, owing to the breaking out 
of the Civil War. (3.) The "Foster Club," 
as conductor. This society received its name 
from its patron, Oeorge Foster, Esq,, and pro- 
duced Schumann's "Gypsy Life" and other 
works of that class. On the death of Mr. 
Foster it was merged into the "Cecilia" (not 
the society previously referred to). Mr. Shar- 
land's connection with it covers a period of 
four years, and he was succeeded by John 
Howard. (4.) The "Boylslon Club," as con- 
ductor, from the autumn of 1872 to April, 1875. 
Much of the musical proficiency of the Club 
is due to his efforts. He was succeeded by 
Geo. L. Osgood. (5.) The "Thomas Choral 



lt consisted of 

Society," so-called in compliment 

.lore Thomas, as conduc 
joo voices, and the following are some of the 
works given dming its existence of several 
years : "Song of Destiny" (3 times ), Brahms; 
"Prometheus," Liszt; 9th Symphony (3), Bee- 
thoven ; "Faust," (4), Berlioz; "Orpheus" 
(3), Gluck. The society was supported by 
Mr. Thomas' orchestra. Mr. Sharland was 
for two years organist and director of Mr. Al- 
ger's choir of 40 voices, which gave concerts 
at the Music Hall every Sunday. He was 
also one of the music committee and organist 
with Dr. Willcox at the great Peace Jubilee, 
and hail the training of the 10,000 children's 
voices. At the present he is director of the 
"Newport Choral Society," founded six years 
ago; the "Brockton Choral Union," now two 
years old; the "Belmont Choral Union," also 
two years old ; the "Boston Glee and Madri- 
gal Society ;" and instructor of music in the 
public schools of Boston. The latter posi- 
tion he has uninterruptedly held for the last 
eighteen years. 

Slierwin, William Fjsk, was bom at 

Ashtield, Franklin Co., Mass., March 14, 
1826, and has gained considerable reputation 
as a teacher, composer, and conductor of con- 
ventions. He has editetl, in conjunction with 
others, several collections of music, and writ- 
ten a large number of songs, anthems and 
other vocal pieces. He now ( April,, 188b) 
resides at Boston and is connected with the 
New England Conservatory of Music. 

Sherwood, William Hall, one of 
America's most celebrated pianists, was born 
at Lyons, N. V., Jan. 31, 1854. His father, 
Rev. L. II. Sherwood, M. A., a fine musi- 
cian, was founder of the LYONS MUSICAL 
Academy (See that heading). At a very 
early age his musical talents began to mani- 
fest themselves, and to his father's careful 
training he probably owes much of his sub- 
sequent success. Such was his progress that 
between the ages of nine and eleven years he 
appeared in concerts in New York, Pennsyl- 
vania and Canada. The ensuing six years 
were mostly spent in obtaining a general edu- 
cation, though he frequently gave lessons at 
his father's institution. Having full} deter- 
mined upon music as a profession, he in the 
summer of 1871 placed himself under the care 

Dr. Willi 


1, wh 

is then holding 

a normal institute at Binghamton, N. Y. 
L pon the advice of that musician he went to 
Berlin in the autumn of the same year and 
became a pupil of Rullak. After seven 
months of study he was one of those selected 
to play at Kullak's annual concert at the Sing- 
akademie, and performed Chopin's fantasia in 
F minor, op. 49, receiving great applause. 
His health becoming somewhat impaired, he 
left Berlin and went to Stuttgart, where he 
remained several months, studying composi- 
tion under Doppler. He then returned In 
Berlin and continued his studies under Kullak 
and Weitzmann. Several piano pieces which 
he now completed were very favorably com- 
mented upon, and a capriccio, op. 4, was 
published by Breitkopf & Hartel some time 
later. Also five piano pieces, ops. I, 2 and 3, 
by M. Behr of Berlin, and taught by Theodore 
Kullak in his advanced classes. During his 
second winter in Berlin, he played Beethoven's 
"Emperor Concerto" several times, once at 
the Beethoven festival (Wuerst, conductor), 
when he was compelled to bow to the applause 
and recalled no less than eight times ! 

The Mattering beginning would have turned 
the head of more than one young artist, but 
not so with Mr. Sherwood. He began to feel 
dissatisfied with his technique and touch, and 
spent more than a year in developing the fa- 
cility of his fingers and wrists, studying for a 
period to excellent advantage with Deppe. 
In February, 1875, l.e repaired to Leipzig and 
placed himself under Richter for the study of 
counterpoint and composition. He did not, 
however, long remain there, for on the arri- 
val of Liszt at Weimar he went to that place, 
accompanied by his wife, formerly Miss Mary 
Fay, a talented pianist, whom he married in 
the autumn of 1874. Liszt received them 
warmly, showing them many kindnesses, and 
even consented to become godfather to their 
first child. At Liszt's last matinee of the sea 
son, Mr. Sherwood played twice, before a 
distinguished audience. He then proceeded 
to Hamburg and played Grieg's A minor con- 
certo at a philharmonic conceit. During his 
stay of two weeks he made six public appear- 
ances, and was received each time with great 
applause. At the Singakademie, Berlin. Feb. 
18, 1876, he gave his own concert, assisted by 
his wife, which was a great success and unan- 
imously praised by the German press. 



In May, 1876, after having been abroad 
nearly five years, Mr. Sherwood returned to 
the United States. He played at Boston, New 
York, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, 
St. Louis, Chicago, Detroit, Buffalo, and 
nianv other cities east and west, fully estab- 
lishing a reputation as one of the finest of 
modern pianists. During the Centennial Ex- 
hibition he frequently appeared at the Phila- 
delphia Academy of Music before immense 
audiences, arousing great enthusiasm. In the 
autumn of 1S76 he settled at Boston, and soon 
came to be in great demand as a soloist and 
teacher. For two or three seasons he taught 
at the New England Conservatory of Music, 
but becoming dissatisfied with some tilings 
about the conservatory system, particularly 
the short time allowed for lessons, he discon- 
tinued this work, and has since given only 
private instruction. He gave two recitals at 
the opening of Hershey Music Hall, Chicago, 
Jan. 23 and 25, 1877, which materially added 
to his fame in the West. In the summer cf 
1878 he held a very successful normal at his 
native place, which was followed by two at 
Canandaigua, N. Y. hie has also given nu- 
merous recitals and lectures at the annual 
meetings of the Music Teachers' National 
Association. During May and June, 1879, he 
made a tour of the Northern and Western 
States, which embraced the following places : 
Boston (3), Providence, R. I., Portland, Me., 
Cambridge, Andover, Bradford, Taunton, and 
Lowell, Mass., Oberlin, (). (3), Pittsburgh, 
Pa., Lexington, Ky., Cincinnati (2), Chicago 
(6), St. Louis (4), Milwaukee, Wis. (2), St. 
Paul, Minn. (2), Cedar Rapids (2), Burling- 
ton, Dubuque, and Burlington, la., Owatom- 
ca and Minneapolis, Minn., Evanston, lib, 
Detroit, Mich., Buffalo, Auburn, and Syracuse, 
N. Y. He has also made repealed similar 
tours. Among Mr. Sherwood's later recitals 
may be mentioned the series given in the 
hall of the Academy of Arts, Philadelphia, 
during the week commencing Dec. 4, 1882. 
The programs were especially comprehensive, 
and included a number of pieces by American 
composers. He lias made a feature of short 
lecture analysis of the works performed at 
many of his recitals. 

As a pianist Mr. Sherwood possesses many 
excellent qualities. A perfect techniqife is 
united to great delicacy as well as depth of 

expression. The works of the great masters 
are rarely so well rendered as when in his 
hands, while he enters into the spirit of the 
modern school's productions ; indeed, he may 
justly be classed with the most eminent of liv- 
ing players. So fully has his time been occu- 
pied in teaching and other duties, he has had 
little opportunity for composition. His works 
probably do not number over 15 or 20. We 
have already mentioned the five piano pieces 
and capriccio, ops. 1, 2, 3 and 4. Of the 
others may be named a Scherzo in E major, 
op. 7; an Idyll in A major, op. 5, No. 2; a 
Mazurka in A minor, op. 6, No. 2; a "Scherzo 
Symphonique" in G sharp minor ; Allegro 
Patetico and Medea, ops. 12 and 13, and a set 
of six pieces, op. 14. 

Sherivood, Mks. William II., nee Miss 
Mary Neilson Fay, was born at Williamsburg, 
N. Y., about 1855. She studied under Wm. 
Mason, Richard Hoffman, Gustav Satter, and 
for a short time with Rubinstein during his 
stay in this country. Upon advice of the lat- 
ter she went to Berlin and placed herself under 
the instruction of Kullak. After her marriage 
with Mr. Sherwood in the autumn of 1874, she 
accompanied him on his travels, and assisted 
him at his last conceit in Berlin. Since re- 
turning to the United States, she has frequent- 
ly taken a part in her husband's recitals, and 
is well-known everywhere. Besides being 
one of the finest lady pianists of our time, she 
is very successful as a teacher. 

SlierWOOd, Eik;ar II., teacher, pianist, 
and composer, was born at Lyons, N. Y.. in 
1845, and is brother of L. H. Sherwood, prin- 
cipal of the Lyons Musical Academy. His 
father, Hon. Lyman .Sherwood, was a promi- 
nent lawyer of his day. He was able to play 
the violin when four years old, but his musical 
talents were not encouraged. The practice 
of medicine was the profession chosen for 
him, and he entered the office of a local phy- 
sician for study. In 1S62 he enlisted and 
served through the war. At its close he re- 
turned North and chose music as a profession, 
studying and practicing dilligently. He com- 
menced his career as a teacher, in which he 
has been remarkably successful, in a seminary 
at Dansville, N. Y. He now resides at 
Rochester, N. Y. He has written numerous 
songs and piano pieces. Many of the latter 
are used bv musicians generally for concert 



and teaching purposes. Of them we may 
specify "Grand Menuet" (A flat), "Polonaise" 
I A minor) and "Anemone" (rondeau) as 
being particularly fine. 

Shllinway, NehEMIAH, an early Amer- 
ican psalmodist, published at Philadelphia in 

1S01, The American Harmony, a book of 

220 pages, including a singer's manual. Many 
of the tunes and anthems were of his compo- 
sition. As to his birth or death or any other 
particulars of his life we are ignorant. 

Silver Threads Among the <iol<l. 

A popular song and chorus, written about ten 
years ago (1872). The words are by Eben K. 
Rexford; the music by H. P. Danks. For 
some time after its appearance it was all the 
rage, being everywhere sung both in private 
and public, and achieved a success only par- 
alleled by a few of Winner's, Foster's and 
Hays' songs. The sales were several hun- 
dred thousand copies. 

SillJ»er, Otto, was born July 26, 1833, at 
Sora, Saxony. In 1S51 he entered the Con- 
servatorium at Leipsic, where he remained j 
until 1855, studying under Richter, Moscheles, j 
and Hauptmann. He went to Dresden in 
1859, and for two years at intervals studied \ 
with Liszt, of whom he was a devout admirer j 
and follower. Upon being offered a position i 
as teacher in the new conservatory of Theo- j 
dore Thomas and Win. Mason, he came to 
New York in 1867. Early in 1873, the con- j 
servatory having previously come to an end, | 
and at the instance of Mr. Thomas, he went 
to Cincinnati and took charge of the chorus of j 
the first Cincinnati May Festival. To his zeal ; 
and ability much of the success of the Festival j 
was due, and at the same time he secured to 
himself no little fame. Becoming in great 
demand as a teacher and conductor, he settled j 
in Cincinnati. He had the training of the 
choral forces at the May Festivals of 1875 and j 
1878, but in 1880 was succeeded by Mr. 
Brand. At the Festival of 1878 he conducted 
Liszt's "Graner" mass, and his own "Ode," 
composed expressly for the opening and ded- 
ication of the Music Hall. Upon the organi- 
zation of the College of Music in 1878 he was 
engaged as one of the instructors, and is now 
(May, 1884) professor of the piano and theory 
and one of the lecturers on music. In this 
capacity he has done good work, and very 
materially assisted in advancing the interests 

and reputation of the College. In 1880 he 
was one of the committee of three appointed 
to pass judgment upon the compositions of- 
fered in competition for the prize of ?iooo 
offered by the Festival Association. He is 
highly esteemed in Cincinnati and elsewhere, 
and takes a prominent place among American 
musicians. Mr. Singer's compositions are nu- 
merous, though few of them have been pub- 
lished. In all of them he shows a decided 
leaning toward the modern school represented 
by Liszt. They consist of '-The Landing of 
the Pilgrim Fathers" (1876) cantata, and "Fes- 
tival Ode," cantata, composed for the dedica- 
tion of the Music Hall, Cincinnati, in 1878; 
several symphonies ; two concertos for piano 
and orchestra ; variations for two pianos, op. 
1; fantasia for piano and orchestra, op. 2; duo 
for piano and violin, op. 3; a rhapsodie in C ; 
and a number of piano pieces. 

Smith, Dexter, was born at Peaborly, 
Mass., Nov. 14, 1839, and has gained consid- 
erable reputation in musical circles. He has 
written several songs, and numerous poems. 
For a long time he was editor and publisher of 
"Dexter Smith's Paper," which ceased to ex- 
ist a number of years ago. He now has edi- 
torial charge of "The Musical Record," pub- 
lished by 0. Ditson & Co., Boston. 

Smith, Wilson George, was born in 
Elyria, Lorain Co., O., Aug. 19, 1855. His 
predilection for music was early manifested, 
but received no encouragement. He was un- 
able, from poor health, to pursue a collegiate 
course, and after graduating from the public 
schools of Cleveland, held a responsible posi- 
tion in a prominent wholesale mercantile 
house for several years. The permission of 
his parents to follow music as a profession 
having at last been obtained, he went to Cin- 
cinnati and studied for some time with Olto 
Singer. A number of compositions written 
about this time were favorably commented 

j upon by several eminent musicians and en- 
couraged him to persevere. In 1880 he went 
to Berlin, where he remained two years, 
studying the piano with Xavier Scharwenka, 
( >scar Raif and Moritz Moszkowski, and theory 
and composition with F. Kiel, Phillipp Schar- 
wenka and Franz Neumann, with all of whom 

j he was a favorite. During his slay in Berlin, 
he was several times compelled to suspend 
studv and practice entirely on account of 


nervous prostration. Returning to America, | 
he located at Cleveland, where he still resides. | 
Soon after, a number of his compositions — a 
set of characteristic piano pieces dedicated to 
Edward Grieg — were published by A. P. 
Schmidt ,V Co., of Boston. They called forth 
a flattering letter from that musician. Several 
of his pieces were performed by Calixa Laval- 
lee at his first American recital before the 
M. T. N. A., and were received with marked j 
favor. Mis name is now to be found on the 
concert programs of many distinguished 
artists. Mr. Smith is the editor of the Modern 
Classic and Encore Series published by S. | 
Hrainard's Sons, which display his musicianly i 
abilities. lie is also acquiring considerable 
reputation as a musical writer and critic, 
being connected with some of the best musi- 
cal journals in the country. If his life is 
spared, he will undoubtedly take the front 
rank in the musical profession. Previous (o . 
op. 10 his compositions comprise such as were | 
written before he went abroad. The follow- ! 
list of his works does not include many j 
fugitive and stray pieces : 

10. Two songs. 

11. Mazurka Hongroise. 

12. Valse Melodique. 

13. Moment Musicale. 

14. Two piano pieces. 

15. Serenade for piano. 

16. Theme and variations (Ms.) 

17. Petite Valse de Conceit. 

18. Homage a Grieg (5 piano pieces). 

19. Two songs. 

20. Three songs. 

21. Echoes of Ye Olden Time (4 piano j 

22. Two songs. 

23. Swedish Dance. 

24. Menuet and Danse Arabesque. 

25. Gavotte and Mazurka. 
20. Valse Sentimental and Mazurka. 
27. Penseed' Amour (Romance for piano) ! 

ketches for piano ; 



«' _\X. Characteristic s 

transcriptions. 1. Norwegian Dance 
(Grieg), 2. Courante (Handel), 3. 

Two Songs (Franz). 

Soiltliaril, L. 11., bom about 1826, is 
well known in this country as an organist, 
composer, and teacher, lie has edited sev- 
eral collections of music, and written two or 
three operas. His "New Course in Harmo- 
ny" was published in 1S55, and "Elements of 
Thorough-Bass and Harmony" ( i6mo 100 ppj 
in 1867. He resides at Boston. 

Stanley, W. II., a tenor singer of some 

repute, was born in England, and came to this 
country in 187 1. Since coming here he has 
sung in the principal cities in concerts, ora- 
torios and operas, p'or some time he resided 
at Boston, but now resides at New York. His 
repertoire includes "Bohemian Girl," "Mar- 
tha," "Patience," "Mascott," "Messiah," 
"Samson," "Elijah," "Creation," "Judas 
Maccaba-us," "St. Paul," "Joshua," and 
other well-known works. 

Star Spangled Banner.. One of 

the most beautiful and popular of American 
national songs. The words were written by 
Francis Scott Key, Esq., (died in 1846) dur- 
ing our second struggle with England, in 
1812, and according to an eminent writer un- 
der the following circumstances : "A gentle- 
man had left Baltimore with a flag of truce, 
for the purpose of getting released from the 
British fleet a friend of his who had been cap- 
tured at Marlborough. He went as far as the 
mouth of the Patuxent, and was not permitted 
to return, lest the intended attack on Balti- 
more should be disclosed. He was, therefore, 
brought up the bay to the mouth of the Pa - 
tapsco, where the flag vessel was kept under 
the guns of a frigate ; and he was compelled 
to witness the bombardment of Fort McHenry, 
which the admiral had boasted he would carry 
in a few hours, and that the city must fall. 
lie watched the Hag of the fort through the 
whole day, with an anxiety that can be better 
felt than described, until the night prevented 
him from seeing it. In the night he watched 
the bombshells, and at early dawn his eye 
was again greeted by the proudly waving flag 
of his country." It was while watching the 
progress of the battle that night that Key 
wrote the words which have now become im- 
mortal. The Hag which was the source of his 
inspiration was made by a Mrs. Sanderson, 
then a girl enly fifteen years old, and present- 
ed to Col. George Arinistead, commander of 
the fort, just before the British ships came up 
the bay. After the war it was given back to 
Mrs. Sanderson, in whose family it has since 
retrained. The State of Maryland has re- 
peatedly tried to purchase the valuable relic, 
but always without success. Mrs. Sanderson 
died at New York City, in 1SS2, at the age of 
eighty-five years. 

The words of the Star Spangled Banner 
were adapted to English music by F. Dnrang 


when freemr 

and tirsl sung by him in a house near the 1 1 « » I 
iday Theatre, Baltimore. The song was first 
printed by B. Edes of the same city. Thefour 

stanzas written by Key are as follows, to 
which is added a fifth stanza by Dr. O. W. 
Holmes : 
i. ( I say, can you see i>v the dawn's earlv 

> say, can you see by 

What so proudly we hailed at tl 
last gleaming, 

Whose stripes and bright bars, through the j 5 
perilous fight, 

O'er the ramparts we watched, were so gal- 
lantly streaming ? 

And the rocket's red glare, the bombs burst- 
ing in the air, 

( lave proof through the night that our flag was 
still there/ 

4. ( >h, thus be it e\ 

Between their loved home and war's desola- 
tion ; 

Blest with victory and peace, may the heaven- 
rescued land, 
I Praise the Bower that hath made and preserved 
us a nation. 

Then conquer we must, when our cause it is 

wili g ht ' s And this be our motto, "In G 

is our trust. 
with liberty' 

at be 

On the she 

When our land is 

If a toe from within strike a bit 

Down, down with the traitor that dates to 

The flag of her stars and the page of her 

story I 

i Bv the millions unchained who our birthright 
y seen through the - have inedj 

mist of the deep, We will keep her bright blazon forever un- 

Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence stained ' 


What is that which the breeze, o'er the tow- j Chorus — 1st vers,-. 

ering steep, | O say, does that star spangled banner still 

As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half dis- | wave 

closes? O'er the land of the free and the home of the 

Now it catches the gleam of the morning's brave? 

first beam, 
In full glory reflected, now shines in the: " verse. 

stream. ! 'Tis the star spangled banner, O long may it 

3. And where is that band which so vaunt- 
ingly swore, 

'Mid the havoc of war and the battle's con- 
fusion, Last verses. 

A home and a country they'd leave us no And the star spangled banner in triumph shall 
more ? wave 

Their blood has washed out their foul foot- j While the land of the free is the home of the 
step's pollution. brave. 

No refuge could save the hireling and slave 

From the terror of flight or the gloom of the j The following is the melody as first written, 
grave. and as it is now sung : 

O'er the land of the free and the home of the 


As originally written 


G- # 

I *-*\ 

-0- ' 







As now sung. 


w +^++-+~ m 


qz^:*^— 3d: 

-,- +#— #- 

i — #t ^==p3==3n=l=-l xz=: zip-" ^ 



-h-t— »-#- 


Steck, George A: Co., New York 
City. This American piano manufacturing 
firm was established in 1X57, by the present 
senior partner, George A. Steck, who had 
previously worked at the trade for a number 
of years. Mr. Steck and his partners have 
been very .successful, and their instruments 
are known for their good tone and durable 
workmanship all over Europe and America. 
Mr. Steck has taken out several patents, one 
in 1870 for an improvement in the upright 
piano frame. 

Steiniger-Clark, Anna, pianist and 
teacher, was born in Magdeburg, Prussia. 
! Her f.ither, an officer in the Prussian artillery, 
I removed to Berlin, but died soon after, when 
i she was about eight years old. Her musical 
; talents were plainly evident when she was 
little more than an infant. A year after her 
father's death, she began her studies under 
the direction of Agthe, with whom she re- 
mained some time. After taking a few lessons 
of Ehrlich, she became a pupil of Kullak. 
While under Agthe's care she had made her 

II o 


dt'but, when sixteen years old, al a concert in 
the Royal ( >pera House, Berlin, taking pari in 
Mozart's concerto for three pianos. She 
continued her studies after this, but all the 
while became uiore and more dissatisfied with 
the systems of instruction used by her teachers. 
Some time after, Ludwig Deppe arrived in 
Berlin, of whom she at once became an ardent 
pupil. In 1S78, accompanied by Mme. Aafke 
Kuypers, she made a successful tour of Hol- 
land, receiving" distinctions from the Queen of 
Holland. Othei tours followed until her 
reputation had spread over the greater part of 
Europe. During the winter of 1882-83 she 
made a tour ol Germany. About this time 
she met in Berlin a young American musician, 
Frederick Clark, an excellent pianist, whom 
she soon after married. With him she came 
to the United States in 1885, and made her 
first appearance at a concert of the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra, under Gericke's direc- 
tion, in the Music Hall, Boston, playing 
Beethoven's concerto in G minor. She now 
resides at Boston, and devotes much of her 
time to teaching. She locates the source of 
power in playing in the shoulder region, and 
liases her system accordingly. Frau Steiniger- 
Clark's playing proclaims her to he a true 
artist and one of the Fust pianists of our time. 
During the past season (January and Febru- 
ary, 1880) she gave a series of six Beethoven 
concerts in Chickering Hall, Boston. She- 
played the ten sonatas of Beethoven for piano 
and violin, thus given for the first time in 
America, the Eroica variations, sonatas ops. 
110 and 111, and 7, 10 and 3, etc., for piano 
solo. Afler this she was engaged by Herr 
Gericke as piano soloist of the Boston Sym- 
phony Orchestra during its western tour in 
April, when she played in Cincinnati, Chica- 
go, Cleveland and other cities. 

Steinway, Henry Engelhard, well- 
known as founder of the piano house bearing 
his name, was horn at Wolfshagen, Duchy of 
Brunswick, German}-, Feb. 15, 1 7<)7- His 
particular genius made itself manifest in early 
boyhobd by the manufacturing of various mu- 
sical instruments for his own use. While 
still young he entered a factory and learned 
the business of organ making. In 1S49 he 
sent his son, Charles, to this country to report 
upon the prospects of piano manufacturing, 
and in l8=;o followed with the rest of the fam- 

ily, establishing the house of Steinway & Sons 
(see succeeding article |. He remained at the 
head of the firm until his death at New York, 
Feb. 7, 1871. of his son,, Henry, Jr., died 
al New York, March 11, 1865; Charles, at 
Brunswick, during a European tour, March 31, 
18O5 ; and Albert, at New York, May 14. 
1S77, the latter two of typhoid fever. The busi- 
ness is now conducted by C. F. Theodore and 
William Steinway, assisted by the younger 
members of the family. 

Steinway & Sons, New York City. 
Henry K. Steinway (originally Steinwcg, hut 
anglicised to Steinway), founder of this cele- 
brated piano making house, was horn in 1797, 
at Wolfshagen in the Duchy of Brunswick. 
At the age of fifteen he was, through wars and 
accidents, the sole survivor of the family, 
which originally consisted of twelve persons. 
When seventeen, he entered the army, from 
which he was honorably discharged on be- 
coming of age. It was then his desire to 
become a cabinet maker, but the guilds re- 
quired five years' apprenticeship and live 
years' service as a journeyman before he 
could become his own master. This he would 
not submit to, and after working one year as 
a cabinet maker under an irregular master, he 
turned his attention to organ making and set- 
tled at Seesen, a city of about 3000 inhabitants 
at the foot of the Hartz mountains. In Feb- 
ruary, 1825, he was married, and on Nov. 
25th of the same year his eldest son, C. F. 
Theodore, was born. Mr. Steinway soon 
commenced making pianos on a small scale, 
and as early as August, 1830, he exhibited 
one grand, one grand square (3 strings), and 
one square at the state fair of Brunswick. The 
business had reached large proportions when 
it was seriously crippled by the Prussian 
"Zollverein" in 1845, £lr "' totally destroyed 
by the Revolution of 1848. The remote 
thought of some lime emigrating to America 
now became an ever present one, and in 
April, 1849, Charles, his second son, was sent 
over to inspect the ground. So favorable 
were the reports made that the next year the 
whole family, with the exception of Theodore, 
who remained behind to complete unfinished 
work, came to the United States, landing at 
New York, June 5, 1850. On their arrival 
the family consisted of, besides the father 
and mother, four sons (not counting Then- 



dore), Charles, Henry, William and Albert, j 
and three daughters. For three years the 
father and eldest sons worked in various man- 
ufactories that they might become thoroughly 
familiar with the American trade. In March, 
1853, 'hey united and formed the firm of 
Steinway & Sons. Their headquarters were j 
at first on Varick street, but increase of busi- j 
ness necessitated one removal after another. I 
In 1855 they exhibited a square piano, the 
iron frame of which combined the overstrung 
scale with the single casting. In 1858 they : 
purchased the plot of ground bounded by ' 
Fourth and Lexington avenues and 52nd and 
53rd streets, on which their present factory 
was erected. The fine marble building on 
East 14th St. was built in 1863, and three 
years later the well-known Steinway Hall, 
located on the same lot, was opened to the 
public. To such an extent did their business 
increase that in 1870 and 1871 they bought 
several hundred acres of land at Astoria, L. I. 
(opposite 100 to 120th sts. ), on which a steam 
saw-mill, iron and brass foundries, etc., were 
erected. Henry, the third son, died March 
11, 1865, and Charles, the second son, March j 
31 of the same year, in Brunswick, while on a 
European tour. In consequence* Theodore 
gave up his business in Brunswick and be- , 
came a partner of the New York firm. 
Henry, the father, died at New York, Feb. 7, 
1871. The firm now (18S6) consists of C. F. 
Theodore Steinway, William Steinway, Henry 
W. T. Steinway, Charles If. Steinway, Fred- 
erick T. Steinway, Henry Ziegler, and George j 
A. Steinway. In 1875 they opened ware- 
rooms at 15 Lower Seymour street, London, 
with a concert hall attached, and in 1SS0 a 
branch establishment was opened at No. 20-24 I 
Neue Rosenstrasse, Hamburg, Germany. J 
They have, besides, agencies all over the 
world. It is hardly necessary to add anything 
in praise of their pianos, fir they are known j 
and esteemed all over the world, having in- 
variably taken first prizes wherever exhibited. 

Sterling 1 , Antoinette, was bom, ac- 
cording to Grove's "Dictionary of Music and 
Musicians," at Sterlingville, N. Y., Jan. 23, | 
1850. In 1867 she went to New York and 
placed herself under the care of Sig. Abella. 
She then went to Europe and studied with 
Mme. Marches) at Cologne, Pauline Viardot I 
at Baden-Baden, and Manuel Garcia at Lon- 

don. On returning to the United States, in 
1871, she was well received as a concert sing- 
er. May 13, 1873, she gave a farewell con- 
cert at Irving Hall, Boston, and then went to 
England, where she made her first appear- 
ance at the Promenade Concerts, Covent Gar- 
den, Nov. 5th. She soon became very popu- 
lar, and in 1875 was married to John Mac- 
Kinlay, since when she has resided at Lon- 
don. Her voice is a contralto of great rich- 
ness, volume and compass. 

Stickney, John, one of the early Amer- 
ican psalmodists, was bom at Stoughton, 
Mass., in 1742. He traveled from place to 
place throughout the New England States, 
and became well-known as a teacher, com- 
poser, and publisher of music. In 1774 he 
issued "The Gentlemen and Lady's Musical 
Companion," printed by Daniel Bailey of 
Newburyport. It is a small collection of 
psalms, anthems, etc., with rules for learning 
to sing. He finally settled at South Hadley, 
and died in 1826. His wife was also a good 
singer and teacher. 

St. l^Ollis. The first musical society to 
attain any degree of permanence and general 
popularity in this city was the 

It was organized in i860, and for ten years 
exercised a most healthful influence in the 
growth of local musical art. Charles Balmer 
was the president and the leading spirit of the 
organization, and the conductors were Edward 
Sobolewski and Egmont Frolich, the latter 
during the last three seasons. Both choral 
ami orchestra] works were performed at pub- 
lic concerts, with frequent semi -public soirees 
for the rendition of smaller compositions. 

There are a large number of singing socie- 
ties among the German population, the most 
prominent of which are the 

Botli of these societies have sung with honor 
at the great sangerfests held in various parts 
of the country. 

flourished a few seasons, but succumbed, like 
its predecessi rr, 

to financial troubles. Numerous choral socie- 
ties for the production of oratorios, cantatas 
and light operas, have been organized from 
time to time, but only to attain a brief 



Three or four years ago, however, a musi- 
cal revival set in, and one of the first expres- 
sions was the formation of the 


Good performances of the "Messiah," "Det- 
tingen Te Deum," "Elijah," and other large 
works, have been given by this society, under 
the direction of Joseph Olten, and the public 
interest seems to warrant expectations of per- 

Idle present season ( 1883) has been signal- 
ized by another organization, which has 
called itself 


in honor of Henry Shaw, Esq., one of the 
most philanthropic and distinguished citizens 
of St. Louis. 

A few seasons ago the 

was founded for the purpose of producing good 
orchestral works. It is a complete orchestra 
of 55 instrumentalists, and their work, under 
the leadership of Augusf Waldauer, is exert- 
ing an excellent influence. A series of six 
concerts are given by subscription during the 

Various efforts to found and maintain cham- 
ber concerts have been made at different times, I 
and now St. Louis is the possessor of two 
siring quintets, known respectively as 
Both have good metal, and the first-named j 
has given a series of excellent concerts every 
season for the last three or four years. The | 
latter is a recent organization. 

For chamber concerts St. Louis has one of 
die most charming and suitable halls in the I 
world, viz.: the Memorial Hall attached to 
t he Art Museum. For larger conceits the 
Mercantile Library, Philharmonic, and Tem- 
ple halls have long clone unsatisfactory duty. 
The city is now on the eve of coming into 
possession of a grand Exposition and Music 
Hall, which will equal or surpass any effort of | 
the kind Ihus far made in this country. The 
plans call for a grand hall to seat 4000 spec- 
tators, with stage room for a colossal organ 
and 1000 persons, and a smaller hall to seat 
1200 persons. Hie stock is all subscribed for, 
and the autumn of 1S84 will witness the St. 
Louis Music Hall an accomplished fact. 

Of conservatories and schools of music, St. 

Louis has its quota. Besides the BEETHOVEN 

CONSERVATORY, mentioned under its own 
heading, there are a College of Music con- 
ducted by M. J. and A. J. Epstein, and a 
small institution called the Haydn Conserva- 
tory. Musical talent is abundant, and the 
members of the musical profession are, as a 
class, thoroughly respectable and competenl, 
numbering among their ranks several in li- 
viduals ol" marked ability and extended repu- 

For several years considerable encourage- 
ment has been given by the churches toward 
the development of good church music, and 
there are now several choirs which will com- 
pare favorably with the best in sister cities. 
The Second Baptist Church takes the lead in 
this direction, with E. M. Bowman as its di- 
rector and organist. Of the other churches 
noted for their good music are the Messiah, 
Si. George's, First and Second Presbyterian, 
Pilgrim, St. Xavier's, St. John's (Catholic), 
and Shaare Emeth. 

Stoughton Musical Society (The), 

STOUGHTON, Mass. ddiis is the oldest exist- 
ing musical society in America, and seems to 
have sprung from the labors of William 
Billings. It was organized Nov. 7, 178.6, 
after the close of the Revolutionary war. Its 
first president and leader was Elijah Dunbar, 
Esq. The annual meeting of the members 
takes place on Christmas day, and in the eve- 
ning a concert and supper is given. The 
membership is now rive hundred, drawn from 
Stoughton and surrounding towns. It was 
exclusively male until a few years ago, when 
ladies were admitted, though they had long 
sung in the chorus. The Society published 
in 1828 a compilation of church music, and in 
1878 the "Stoughton Musical Society's Col- 
lection of Sacred Music," a volume contain- 
ing many pieces by early American compo- 
sers, which are thus saved from being lost. 
The present president of the Society is Mr. 
Winslow Battles. 

Ktrakosch, Maurice, was horn at Lem- 
berg, Galicia, in 1825. His father, who was 
wealthy, removed to Germany in 1 828, and 
there the young man had every opportunity 
of gratifying his passion for music. He be- 
came a fine pianist, and alter completing his 
education traveled from Denmark to Russia. 
At St. Petersburg he was received with 1 s 


necial favor. Returning to Paris, he spent 
three years in traveling in France, Spain and 
Italy, being everywhere well received. In 
1848 he came to the United States, and has 
since made it his permanent home at New- 
York. He .married Amalia Patti. His repu- 
tation is now almost exclusively that of an 
impresario, in which capacity he has acted for 
50 years, having organized his first company 
in 1855. 

StralvOS<'3l, Max. brother of the prece- 
ding, -was born in 1834. He is finely edu- 
cated, ami is said to fluently speak several 
languages. He came to this country and was 
at first associated with his brother as business 
manager. When Maurice went to Europe in 
1859 with his sister-in-law, Amalia Fatti, he 
became general manager. Among the famous 
artists which have traveled under the man- 
agement of the brothers are Thalberg, Mine. 
Farodi, E. Mollenhauer, Mme. la Grange, 
Mme. d'Angri, Mine. Frezzolini, Karl Formes, 
Brignoli, Amadio, Barili, Mme. Gazzinga, 
Adelina Fatti, Natali, Gottschallc, Carlotta 
Fatti, Carlo Fatti, Wehle, Errani, Mancusi, 
Mme. Farepa-Rosa, Miss Kellogg, Mile. 
Nilsson, Miss Cary, Yieuxtemps, Capaul, 
Mario, Mile. Torriani, Campanini, lei Puente, 
Mile. Lucca, Mile, di Murska, Mile. Albani, 
Mile. Heilhron, Carpi, de Bassini, Tagliapie- 
tra, Mme. Tietjens, Mme. Goddard, Mme. 
Carreno, Tom Karl, Mme. Roze, Mile. Fi'.ta, 
C. R. Adams, and La-zarini. 

Sll(l<ls, William F., was bom at London, 
England, March 5, 1843. When seven years 
of age, his parents came to the United States 
and located on a farm near Gouverneur, St. 
Lawrence Co., X. Y. His musical tastes 
manifested themselves at an early period, so 
that by the time he was fifteen he could play 
the violin, guitar, flute, cornet, and violon- 
cello. A year or two later he was permitted 
to practice on the piano of a friend, and most 
eagerly did lie avail himself of the oppor- 
tunity, walking three miles rfter the day's 
work for that purpose. Soon after the com- 
mencement of the Civil War he entered tin' 
army, and it was while a convalescent soldier 
at the hospital, New Orleans, in 1864, that he- 
took his first regular music lessons of a French 
professor. Nine years later he was a pupil 
at the Boston Conservatory of Music, where 
he studied the organ under Eugene Thayer, 

and the violin and composition under Julius 
Eichberg. Mr. Sudds is located at Gouver- 
neur, where he keeps a fine music store, ad- 
joining which is a studio. He is organist of 
the First Baptist Church, and until recently 
had charge of the musical department of 
Gouverneur Seminary. On account of the 
growing demands of his publishers, he has 
to reject many applications for instruction in 
music. In appearance lie is tall and well 
proportioned, walks in a vigorous, energetic 
manner, and is quite near-sighted, hut does 
not wear glasses in the street, hence he often 
passes his friends without recognition. Mr. 
Sudds' music comprises nearly every kind of 
composition, both vocal and* instrumental. 
Some of his pieces have become very popular 
ar.d all of them find a ready sale, as may be 
inferred from the fact that his income from 
his musical works alone is several thousand 
dollars per annum. Of his pieces of higher 
order may he mentioned "Sky Lark," "Slum- 
ber Song," "Trust her not," etc. His num- 
bered works run up to 140, besides which he 
has written a large quantity cf fugitive and 
unnumbered pieces. The following is a list 
of his more important productions : 

Books. — Anthem (Jems, vol. 1 ; Anthem 
Gems, vol. 2; National School for the Piano- 
forte, 1881, an excellent work which has been 
highly commended ; National School for the 
Pianoforte, abridged; National Guide to Reed 
Organ Playing; Parlor Organ Treasury; Part 
Song Galaxy; Quartet Choir Collection. 

Songs and Part Songs — Douglass Tender 
and True, Guess Who, What Pack the Val- 
leys? What Cares the World' for Me ? Slumber 
Song, The Sky Park, I Love My Love, Twi- 
light on the Sea, Honor the Brave, What 
Care I how fair She be ? 

Instrumental. — Sounds at Day Dawn; 
1st Grand Valse Brilliante, 2nd do, 3rd do ; 
American Triumphal March ; Message of 
Love, polka; Message of Love, waltz ; Bells 
of Shannon, morceau ; Elfin Dances, 3 nos., 
op. 87; Evening Hour, op. 84; Enchantment, 
polonaise, op. 91; I.e Sou Doux, reverie, op. 
102; Realms of Fancy, morceau, op. 114; 
Poire d'Elite, waltz brilliante, op. 115; As 
Twilight Falls, nocturne, op. 120; Shepherd 
Girl, morceau, op. 121 ; Bon Ton, galop, op. 
127; Dance of the Fairies, waltz brilliante, 
op. 128; Days that are Gone, reverie, op. [36. 



Sulleril, j- William, was born at Suf- 
ferns, N. Y., Nov. i, 1820. He commenced 
teaching music at the age of twenty years, and 
has held several positions as organist. He is 
well-known throughout the Western States as 
a conductor of musical conventions, in which 
work he has been much engaged. lie has 
compiled and edited several collections of 
music, and composed numerous pieces. His 
residence is at New York City. 

Swan, Timothy, one of the early Amer- 
ican psalmodists, was of Scottish descent, and 1 
was born at Worcester, Mass., July 23, 1758. 
He began to teach music at the age of seven- 
teen years, and in 1S01, while residing at 
Sheffield, published THE NEW ENGLAND HAR- 
MONY. It was printed at Northampton, by 
Andrew Wright, and contained 104 pages. 

A copy <>f the hook was presented to the Har- 
vard Musical Association, by the author, Oct. 
26, 184I. After publishing his book he re- 
move. 1 to Vermont, but finally returned and 
settled at Northheld, Mass., where he died 
July 23, 1S42, respected and beloved by all 
who knew him. Some of his tunes still hold 
their place in books of psalmody, among 
which are "China," "Pownal" and "Poland." 

Sweet Bye and Bye. A simple mel- 
ody and refrain, composed by J- P. Webster, 
an American composer, but of whom little is 
known. It is one of the most popular relig- 
ious tunes ever written, and is sung in every 
civilized country of the world. The melody 
has formed the theme of variations by differ- 
ent composers. The words are by S. F. 

Talc of the Viking, The. A can- 
tata founded on the old legend of the same 
name, by George E. Whiting. For solos, 
chorus and orchestra. Written about 1875. 
Published by Schirmer of New York. 

Taylor, Samuel Priestly, organist, was 
born at London, England, in 1779, and was 
able to play the organ when only seven years 
old. In 1806 he came to the United States 
and settled in Brooklyn, holding several posi- 
tions as organist there and in New York, and 
giving instruction on the organ, piano, violin, 
violoncello, and clarinet. He entered one of 
the bands during the war of 1812, and was 
president of the old Philharmonic Society. 
In 1819 he removed to Boston, and was or- 
ganist of the Handel and Haydn Society for 
two years. While there he compiled a popu- 
lar organ instruction book. He returned to 
Brooklyn in 1826, where he continued to 
teach until 1864, and to play the organ up to 
the advanced age of ninety-two years. He 
was still living in 1S74. 

Thayer, Alexander Wheelock, U. S. 
Consul at Trieste, Germany, was born at 
South Natick, Mass., Oct. 17, 181 7. He is a 
frequent contributor to the American musical 
press and the author of numerous articles in 
Grove's "Dictionary of Music and Musicians," 
but he calls for mention here on account of 
his " Life of Beethoven" (Ludwig von Bee- 
thoven's Leben," a work which far surpasses 
all others in accuracy and extent of research. 
The first volume was published at Berlin in 
1866, the second in 1872, and the third ha s 
just appeared. 

Thayer, Dr. Eugene, one of America's 
most celebrated organists, was born at Mendon, 
Ma>s., Dec. 11, 1838. He early manifested a 
love for music, but did not begin the study of 
the organ until the age of fourteen. In 1862 
he was called to Boston by the inauguration 
of the great organ in the Music Hall, being 
one of the performers on that occasion. His 
reception was cordial and secured him a high 
place in Boston musical affairs, which he con- 

tinued to hold for nearly twenty years. In 
1865 and 1866 he was in Europe, studying 
with Haupt, Wieprecht and other masters, 
and afterwards visited and played upon all the 
famous organs of the Old World. For many 
years he held the highest positions in Boston, 
having been organist of the Music Hall, edi- 
tor of the "Organist's Journal" and of the 
"Choir Journal," director of the "Boston 
Choral Union," of the "New England Church 
Music Association," and of many other socie- 
ties. He is virtually the originator of free 
organ recitals in this country, having given 
the first one April 10, 1869, in the old Hollis 
Street Church, Boston. Since that time he 
has given many hundreds elsewhere and has 
performed over three thousand times in public 
in the leading cities of America and Europe. 
These recitals have exercised no little influ- 
ence in raising the standard of musical taste. 
He has delivered many lectures, and is a con- 
tributor of acknowledged ability to various 
magazines and journals. On all matters per- 
taining to the organ he is one of the first au- 
thorities. In 1881 he accepted a call to the 
Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church (Rev. Dr. 
John Hall's), New York, and has since resided 
in that city, devoting his time to church com- 
position, teaching and invention. He is the 
inventor of several valuable patents. His 
degree of Doctor of Music was earned by 
passing the Oxford test, his composition being 
a cantata for soli and chorus, in eight real 
parts, with full orchestral accompaniment. 
He has also written other compositions, both 
published and unpublished. 

The Corsicau Bride. An opera by 

Edward Mollenhauer. It was produced at 
j Winter Garden, New York, in 1S62. Artisti- 
; cally it was a success but financially a failure, 
j owing to the unsettled condition of the country 

under favorable circumstances, it would prob- 
ably have met with the success which it 

Thomas, THEODORE, one of America's 


[on mosl conductors, was born at Ostfriesland, 
Hanover, Oct. u, 1835. When ten years of 
age (1845) he came to this country with his 
parents. He had been taught the violin by 
his father, n good violinist, and after arriving 
he i 1 was for some time engaged as ( rche li il 
player in theati ■-, min itn ! ' oupes, and opera 
and concert companies. In 1853 he joined 
the Philharmonic Society, having previously 
tried his hand at conducting both German and 
Italian ope;;:, but resigned his membership 
in 1S5S. The same year he commenced, in 
conjunction with William Mason, Carl Berg- 
man!!, J. Mosenlhal, and George Matzka, a 
Jt>s of classical music, which wen- 
continued two or three seasons. Soon after he 
began the organization of his orchestra, and 
in 1S64 commenced his symphony concerts at 
[rving Hall. These concerts met with con- 
siderable opposition at first, but soon came to '. 
J>e recognized as one of New York's chief 
musical institutions. They were continued j 
until 1878. In 1866 Mr. Thomas originated 
the " Summer- Night Concerts" at Central 
Park Garden. In order to keep Ids orchestra 
together, he began traveling with it during 
the winter season, Imt this undertaking did not I 
prove a financial success and had to he aban- 
doned. In 1878 he accepted the position of 
director of the newly-established College of 
Mud-, Cincinnati, but resigned the post in 
18S1 and returned to New York, where he i 
now resides and holds various positions as 

Mr. Thomas has conducted all of the Cin- 
cinnati May Festivals thus far, beginning with 
1873, and of New York and Chicago of 
At the most of them his orchestra was 
engaged. During the present summer (1883) 
hi i tour with his orchestra includes the princi- ] 
pal cities from New York to San Francisco. 
At Chicago he gives six weeks of "Summer- 
Night Concerts." It is almost solely as a con- 
ductor that he has achieved Ids present high 
position. While he possesses many social 
qualities, he wields the b&ton with a nun hand, 
and i'i consequence his orchestra has tea he i 
a degree of proficiency rarely attained by any 
simiiar organization, either in this country or 
Europe. l!is programs are of the highest 
order, on which the old and new masters are 
fairly represented. Ii is not too much to say- 
that he has done as much as almost any i thei 

person in raising the st; ndard of music in this 
country. Thus far lie has not appeared in the 
■ ompo ■: . 

Thomas, John K ., songwriter, was horn 
at Newport, South Wales, in 1N30, and can e 
to the United Stati s at an earl) age. For 
some time he was connected with a minstrel 
troupe on Broadway, ami later with the Seguin 
English opera company, assuming the role of 
Count in the "Bohemian Girl" and various 
other characters. He finally permanently 
settled at New York, where he still (Juno, 
18S5) resides with Ids wife and family. Mr. 
Thomas is chiefly noted for his songs, both 
sacred and secular, some of which have be- 
come very popular. Among his best known 
and most important productions are "Annie < f 
the Vale," "Cottage by the Sea," " 'Tis but 
a little Faded Flower," "Mother Kissed me 
in my Dreams," "Beautiful Isle of the Sea," 
"The Owl," "Fishes 111 the Sea," "Sweet be 
thy Repose," "Against the Stream," " [an- 
ette," "Angel Voices," "Land of Dreams," 
"The Hand that Rocks the World." "The 
Voice of Effie Moore," " Eileen Alanna," 
"Seek and ye shall find" (sacred), "No 
Crown without the Cross" (sacred), "The 
Mother's Prayer," "Flag of the Free" (patri- 
otic), "May Cod Protect Columbia," etc. 

Thompson, Will L., was bom at bast 
Liverpool, Ohio, Nov. 7, [849. He com- 
menced the study of music when eight years 
of age, and at seventeen went to Boston and 
tool, a. regular course under the best teachers 
there. He afterward went to Leipzig and re- 
ceived private lessons for some time. Mr. 
Thompson's ambition was to become a writer 
of songs for the masses, ami in this In' has 
been eminently successful. In 1874, while 
spending a season at the seashore, he wrote 
the popular songs, "Gathering Shells from 
tl.o S< a-Shore" and "Drifting with the 1 tde," 
which lie offered to a well-known music-pub- 
lisher for $25 each. Fortunately for him, his 
offer was not accepted, anil he determine. I to 
go into the publishing business himself. Ac- 
cordingly he opened an establishment at East 
Liverpool, Ids native place, and his songs a.t 
once sprung into popularity. "Gathering 
Shells" alone reached the enormous sale of 
265,000 copies. lie has written about fifty 
songs, all of which have been successful. 
"Come Where the Lilies Bloom" is perhaps 



his most popular quartet. Few American 
composers have gained a greater reputation 
in writing popular music for (lie masses than 
Mr. Thompson. 

Ttmrsby, Emm y C.,was horn at Brooklyn, 
N. Y., Nov. 17, 1857. Her father was of 
English descent and her mother came of one 
of the old Knickerbocker families. She first 
studied with Julius Meyer of her native city, 
and subsequently with Sig. Errani of New 
York and Mine. Rudersdorff of Boston. She 
then went to Italy and studied for some time 
under Lamperli and San Giovanni. On her 
return to this country she appeared in concerts 
and oratorios, but did not attempt any operatic 
rdlcs. Her fi'st concert was given at Plymouth 
Church, and proved to be a great success. In 
1875 sll(J was engaged by P. S. Gilmore for his 
popular summer-night concerts, and when he 
afterwards traveled with his military band she 
accompanied him as the leading vocalist. In 
consequence, her reputation soon became a 
national one, and she was offered and accepted 
an engagement as singer in Dr. Taylor's 
church, Xew York, at a salary cf $3000 per 
year. She was subsequently engaged by 
.Maurice Strakosch, and under his manage- 
ment went to Europe, singing in concerts at 
London, Liverpool, Paris, Cologne, and other 
places. In England especially she was very 
warmly received and made many friends. 
During the season of 1879-80 she traveled 
throughout die United States, and became a 
gen ml favorite. Since that time she has fre- 
quently sung both in this country and Europe. 
Miss Thursby occupies a leading position 
among America's concert singers. 

Tillim, HENRY C, was bom at Hamburg, 
Germany, July n, 1S11, and studied under 
VIethfcssel and Jacob Schmitt. In 1835 he 
came to the United Slates, and made his firsl 
appearance as a pianist at the old Park The- 
atre, New York, playing Hummel's Hondo 
Brilliant, in A. tie accepted the post of sec- 
ond horn player in the orchestra of the same 
theatre, and occasionally played piano solos 
between the acts. Later on he traveled as 
director with a sort of operatic company 
which gave peiformances in the Southern 
States, lie has held positions as organist in 
various New York churches, was one of the 
founders of the New York Philharmonic So 
ciety, and for many years its president. He 

also occasionally officiated as conductor, and 
tor several years w s the piano accompanist. 
Latterly his lime has mostly been devoted to 
teaching. He has composed numerous works, 
but lew of them have been published. For 
nearly half a century he has labored in the 
best interest of musical art, and may justly be 
considered one of its pioneers in this counti y. 
Of a kind, amiable disposition, he is highly 
respected by all who know him. 

Toedt, Theodore J., was born in New 
York about thirty-five years ago. [lis musi- 
cal education was mostly gained from his sis- 
ter, a good sob, violinist. He is a member of 
the choir of St. Bartholomew's Church, and 
has frequently appeared as a conceit and ora- 
torio singer in the principal cities of the 
Union, with a fair amount of success. He 
sang in the New York May Festival of 1S82. 
His voice is a tenor of pleasing quality but 
limited power. 

Tonilins, William L., conductor and 
teacher, was bom in England about 1844. 
He studied music in die tonic sol-fa schools, 
and with ('.. A. Macfarren and Edourd Silas. 
In 18(9 he came to New York, and from 
thence went to Chicago, where he still ( July, 
1885) resides as conductor and teacher of 
vocal music. 

T0Urj6e, Dl:. EBEN, who must be reek- 
one 1 among the leading American educators, 
and who is well known as the founder and 
head of the New England Conservatory of 
Music, was born at Warwick, R. U, June 1, 
1S34, and is one of the descendants of the 
French Huguenots who fled to this country 
soon after the Edict of Nantes and settled in 
Narragansett. When only eight years old lie 
was working in a factory at East Greenwich, 
and being compelled to struggle with poverty 
he found little opportunity to gratify his musi- 
cal inclinations, which even then began to be 
manifested. By rigid economy he managed 
to attend the Academy at East Greenwich for 
some time, and at eleven became the chorister 
in the Methodist church in I'henix. The 
choir was at that time one of the best in the 
country. Soon after he became a pupil of 
Henry Eastcot of Providence, an 1 speedily 
received the appointment of church organist. 
By the time he had reached the age of sc\i 11- 
teen He was a clerk in a Providence music 
Store, and two years later became a dealer 



himself at Fall River. He also taught music 
in the public schools, and edited "The Key 
Note," which was afterward merged into the 
"Massachusetts Musical Journal," under his 
care. During this time he dilligently studied 
under the hest Boston teachers. In 1856 he 
went to Newport, R. I., as organist of Trinity 
Church, and was an instructor in music, con- 
ductor of choral societies, etc. As early as 
1853 he introduced and used the class or con- 
servatory system of teaching, with over 500 
pupils. Several years later he founded a 
music school at East Greenwich (chartered by 
the State in 1859), which gave him greater 
opportunity to carry out his plans. In order 
to gain a thorough knowledge of the work, 
he went to Europe, where he remained until 
1S64, visiting the best foreign conservatories 
and entering himself as a pupil. On his re- 
turn, he went to Providence, and there founded 
the first conservatory in America — that is, 
which was called by that name, for his school 
at East Greenwich was really one. Its pros- 
perity was such that in 1867 a removal to Bos- 
ton was deemed advisable. In 1870 it was 
incorporated by the Massachusetts Legisla- 
ture, under the name of New Englanu Con- 
servatory <>f Music (A full description of it 
is given under the heading, Boston). Dr. 
Tourjee is still at its head. When a College 
of Music was instituted in the Boston Univer- 
sity, in 1872, he was elected Dean, and still 
occupies that position. 

Dr. Tourjee is a man of varied and brilliant 
talents, which he fortunately uses for the ad- 
vancement of that which is pure and noble. 
As a musical educator and organizer, he holds 
rank among the very first in this country, but 
his activity is not confined to the sphere of 
music alone. For several years he was presi- 
dent of the Y. M. C. A., and whatever tends 
to benefit mankind in any way receives his 
hearty commendation and support. He has 
compiled several collections, among which 
are the "Chorus Choir," the "Tribute of 
Praise," and the M. E. Church Hymnal. 

Trajetta, Phii.ipO, was born January 
S (?), 1777, at Venice. After having become 
well grounded in the rudiments of music, l.e 
studied under Feneroli and I'erillo, and subse- 

quently under l'iccini at Naples. On the out- 
break of the revolution he joined the patriot 
army, and was in consequence confined in a 
dungeon, but at the end of eight months was 
released and shipped on board an American 
vessel, arriving at Boston in the winter of 
1799. After a short stay in Boston he went to 
New York. He then traveled extensively in 
the South, resided for some time in Virginia, 
and finally died at Philadelphia, Jan. 9, 1854. 
He was a thorough contrapuntist, a fine singer 
and a good performer on various instruments. 
Among his works are the cantatas of "The 
Christian's Joy," "Prophecy," "The Nativ- 
ity" and "The Day of Rest ;" the oratorios 
of "Jerusalem in Affliction" and "Daughter 
of Zion ;" and the opera of "The Venetian 

Trac.T, James M., was born at Bath. N. 
II., in 1839. H' s musical talents were early, 
manifest, and at the age of eleven years he- 
was sent to Lowell, Mass., where he received 
his first regular music lessons of a Mrs. Ful- 
some. Some time after, his father having re- 
moved to Concord, N. H., he continued his 
lessons under John Jackson of that place. He 
then went to Boston and studied the organ 
and harmony with L. II. Southard and the 
piano with Carl Hause. After remaining in 
Boston about two years he accepted an en- 
gagement as organist and director of music of 
the Unitarian Church, Bangor, Me. In 1858 
he went to Leipzig, Germany, and entered 
the Conservatorium there, also privately study- 
ing with Plaidy, Richter, and Knorr. At the 
end of two years he proceeded to Weimar, 
where he was a pupil of Liszt for one year. 
Returning to the United States in 1861, he 
settled at Rochester, N. V., as a pianist and 
teacher. Five years later he removed to 
Boston, where he now (July, 1886) resides. 
For the past twelve years he has been engaged 
as one of the principal teachers in the Boston 
Conservatory of Music. He is the author of 
the "Boston Conservatory Method for the 
Piano, Theory, and Harmony," several books 
of technical studies, and of various articles in 
musical publications. He has also given 
eight series of piano recitals, playing at the 
last series all of Beethoven's sonatas. 


Upton, Georgk P., was born Oct. 25, 
18:54, at Roxbury. Mass. He was educated at : 
Brown University, Providence, R. I., from 
which he graduated in 1S54. The following 
year, being then of age, he went to Chicago, 
and immediately entered upon newspaper 
work, writing his first article for the "Native 
Citizen." In 1856 he became city editor of 
the "Chicago Evening Journal," retaining the 
post until 1862. While connected with this 
journal he first employed his pen in musical 
work, his being the first criticisms written in 
that city. In 1862 he became city editor of 
the "Chicago Tribune," in 1S63 war corres- 
pondent, in 1S64 night editor, in 1867 news 
editor, and in 1868 literary, dramatic and art 
editor. Since 1871 he has occupied a place 
upon the regular staff. He was its music 
critic until 1882, when he resigned the posi- 
tion. Mr. Upton's musical works consist of, 
besides innumerable short articles on various 
topics, "Woman in Music," 1 vol., 1882, pub- 
lished by Osgood & Co., Boston; "The Stan- 
dard Operas," and translations of "Nohl's 

Life of Haydn," "Life of Liszt" and "Life of 
Wagner," which are issued by Jansen, Mc- 
Clurg & Co. of Chicago, and are valuable 
additions to our musical literature. He has a 
line musical library, containing over 1000 

Urania. "Urania, or A Choice Collec- 
tion of Psalm-Tunes, Anthems and Hymns. 
From the most approv'd Authors, with some 
entirely new : In Two, Three and Four Parts. 
The whole peculiarly adapted to the use of 
Churches and Private Families. To which 
are prefix'd the Plainest and most Necessary 
Rules of Psalmody. By James Lyon, A. B., 

1 Hen. Dawkins, fecit. 1761. Price 15s." This 
work was printed at Philadelphia, from hand- 

1 somely engraved plates, and contains twelve 
pages of musical instruction. It was dedica- 
ted "To the Clergy of every Denomination in 
America," and contains the names of 142 sub- 
scribers. It contained a number of original 
pieces, but was mostly compiled from English 

\ sources. Lyon is said to have been finnn- 
ciallv ruined bv the venture. 


Van ZaiMlt, Marie, was born in 1S61, 
in the state of Texas, and is of Dutch extrac- 
tion, as is indicated by her name. Her happy 
childhood days were spent on her father's 
large farm. She learned to sing almost as 
soon as to talk, her mother being an excellent 
vocalist. The Civil War depriving her father 
of his fortune, it was proposed that the young 
singer's talents should be utilized in assisting 
to support the family. She sought employ- 
ment in one of the Eastern cities and then 
went to London, where she met and was 

greatly encouraged by Patti. She entered a 
convent school as hoarder, studying with 
great energy. After leaving the convent she 
studied, among other teachers, with Lamperti 
at Milan for a short time. She then sang in 
many of the cities of Northern Europe, and 
having gained considerable reputation, was 
offered and accepted an engagement at the 
Opera Comique, Paris, appearing in the rdlc 
of Mignon. 

Miss Van Zandt, though young, is an unu- 
sually fine singer, of whom much may be 


expected in the future. Her countenance is 

an expressive one, indicating both refinement 
and depth of thought. She also possesses a 
rare but none the less commendable trait — 
that of sound common sense, which was mani- 
fested in her refusing to Italianize her name. 
During her earlier life she learned many 
healthful and practical accomplishments. 
Though having many rich jewels, she rarely 
ever displays them, and her simple tastes are 
evident from the furnishing of her apartments. 
America has produced some of the most cele- 
brated singers of the world, and Miss Van 
Zandt certainly deserves a high place among 

Vintage, Th<*. One of the earliest of 
American operas. The libretto is by William 
Dunlop; the music by Victor Pellisier, a 

French resident of New York. Produced nt 
New York in 1799, with good success. 

Voice s The. A 20-page monthly, foun- 
ded in January, 1879, by the present editor 
and proprietor, Edgar S. Werner, and pub- 
lished at 48 University Place, New York. 
Il is an international review of the speaking 
and singing voice, is the organ of the vocal 
and elocutionary professions, and makes a 
specialty of the cure of vocal defects and voice 
culture. Subscription price, Si. 50. Issued 


Walter, Rev. Thomas, was born at Rox- 
bury, Mass., in 16c 6, and published in 1721 
"The Grounds and Rules of Musick Ex- 
plained : or an Introduction to the Art of 

Singing by Note : Filled to the Meanest Ca- 
pacities. Let everything that hath breath 
praise the Lord." The work passed through 
several editions, the last of which was pub- 
lished in 1764. Most of the tunes, twenty- 
four in number, were taken from Ainsworth's 
Psalms or Ravenscroft's collection. Walter 
died in 172S. 

Warren, George William, was born at 
Albany, N. Y., Aug. 17, 1S2S. He early de- 
voted himself to music, and removed to New 
Vork City, becoming known as an organist, 
composer and teacher. Many of his piano 
pieces, songs, etc., have gained considerable 
popularity. He still resides at New York. 

Warren, Samuel P., one of the leading 
American organists, was born at Montreal, 
Canada, Feb. iS, 1S41. As his father was an 
extensive organ manufacturer, he early be- 
came thoroughly familiar with the usual de- 
tails of construction. Having passed through 
college and evincing more than usual musical 
talent, it was decided that he should visit 
Europe to pursue his studies. In iS6t he 
went to Berlin, where he received instruction 
from Haupt (organ), G. Schumann (piano), 
and Wieprecht (instrumentation). He es- 
picially devoted himself to his favorite instru- 
ment, and after completing the usual four 
years' course, returned to Montreal. The 
following year (1S65) he removed to New 
York, where he is still (May, 18S5) residing. 
For two years he was organist of Dr. Bellow's 
church, next of Grace Church, and then of 
Trinity Church, after which he returned to 
his old post at Grace. Church. Mr. Warren, 
strange to say, has as yet published nothing 
for his instrument, and his printed composi- 
tions are confined to some sacred music and 
songs. His organ conceits have done much 
to render familiar the best grade of organ 

Warren, Alfred E., was born about 
1834, at a smalltown of England called Ed- 
monton. His father was a prominent piano 
manufacturer of London, and at one time 
maker to Her Majesty' the Queen. When 
about eighteen years old he resolved to follow 
music as a profession, and placed himself 
under the best teachers of London, where he 
obtained the most of his musical education. 
He then received and accepted a tempting offer 
to go to Calcutta, India, where he remained 
several years, meeting with much success. 
Failure of health compelled him to seek a 
different climate, and he came to this country, 
arriving here in 1861. Boston has ever since 
been his place of residence, and he has 
achieved a national reputation as a pianist, 
composer and teacher. Mr. Warren did not 
appear in the rdle of a composer until after 
coming to this country, his first published 
composition being "Valse de Favorita," is^ 
sued by Ditson & Co. in 1861. His "InmaiB 
Line," march, dedicated to William Inman, 
Esq., became very popular. It was composed 
for the World's Peace Jubilee of 1872, 
and performed there, Saturday, June 22. His 
"Strauss Autograph Waltzes" were also very 
popular, and as no name was at first attached 
to them, it was for some time supposed that 
they were by Strauss himself. The following 
are the best known and most important of his 
works : 

Inman Line. March. 

March de Syrious. 

Strauss Autograph Waltzes. 

Strauss Engagement Waltzes. 

Life in the Tropic Waltzes. 

Thoughts of Love. Mazurka. 

Rays of Hope. Mazurka. 

Army and Navy. March. Written for the 
dedication of the monument on Boston 
Common. A manuscript copy of the 
piece and a photograph of the composer 
was placed in the box under the base. 
Songs. — Silent Evermore, Life of a Sailor 

Free, The Fisherman's Wife, Under the 

Leaves that Fall, Good bye, my dearest, 

good bye, Sleep On, Sad Tears are Falling, 



Webb, George James, was born in Wilt- 
shire, England, June 24, 1S03. He was in- 
tended for the church, but gave much of his 
time to the study of music, which he subse- 
quently adopted as a profession. In 1S30 he 
came to the United States and settled at Bos- 
ton, becoming an earnest and efficient co- 
laborer of Dr. Lowell Mason. He was one 
of the founders in 1836 of the Boston Acad- 
emy of Music (seethe heading, Boston), 
and one of the earliest conductors of symphony 
and oratorio performances in Boston. For 
many years lie held a leading position as 
teacher of singing and the piano. In 1S70 he 
removed to Orange, N. J., teaching in New 
York City. His compositions mostly consist 
of church tunes and pieces, some of which 
have come into general use. He was resid- 
ing in New York in 1SS1, and still active. 

Weber, ALBERT, celebrated as a piano 
manufacturer, was born in Bavaria, but early 
came to the United States and settled in New 
York in 1845. He worked at his trade during 
the day and gave music lessons at night, being 
a practical musician. For some time he oc- 
cupied a position as organist at one of the 
churches. Through economy and hard labor 
he managed to save a considerable sum of 
money, and in 1852 founded the present ex- 
tensive house of Weber. He continued to 
manage the business to the time of his death 
in 1S79, when he was succeeded by his son, 
Albert Weber, Jr. (See succeeding article.) 

Weber, Albert, New York. The 
Weber piano manufacturing house, one of the 
leading in the United States, was founded in 
1852, by the father of the present proprietor. 
His early struggles were of a nature to dis- 
courage an ordinary person, but by indomitable 
pluck and energy he succeeded in establishing 
the business on a sound footing, and winning 
his way against all opposition. The erection 
of the present factory was begun in 1867, but 
the business did not begin to assume its pres- 
ent proportions until four years later, when 
750 instruments were turned out in a year. 
In 1S78, two years after the Centennial, the 
production was 1650, and in 1870, 1900 instru- 
ments. The elder Weber died in 1879, and 
was succeeded by his son, Albert Weber, Jr., 
(born in September, 185S) who has since suc- 
cessfully carried on the immense business. 
Branch houses were established at Chicago 

and Boston in 1SS0. About sixty pianos are 
now finished at the factory every week. 
Webster, Joseph P., was born about 

1830, at Manchester, N. H. He became 
known in New England as the director of a 
quartet company called "Euterpeans." He 
subsequently went West, and for some time 
resided at New Albany, Ind. In i8( She pub- 
lished, at Chicago, "The Signet Ring," a 
collection of music for Sabbath schools. He 
wrote some songs, a cantata, and some other 
music, but will longest be remembered for his 
famous melody of "Sweet Bye and Bye." 
His death occurred some eight or ten years 
ago in Wisconsin. He left a daughter, Miss 
May, we think, who has considerable talent as 
a musician. 

AVels, Karl, was born at Prague in 1S30, 
and while yet a young man came to this coun- 
try, settling at New York, where he is esteemed 
as a pianist, composer and teacher. He pub- 
lished in 1864 a collection of church music, 
but is chiefly known for his piano composi- 
tions, among which are three transcriptions, 
"Sleep well, sweet Angel," "Good Night, 
Farewell," and "Little Mendicant." 

Werrenratli, George, tenor singer, 

was born at Copenhagen, Denmark, about 
1840. His musical career began at Hamburg, 
Germany, where he studied under Canthal, 
the composer. After appearing in concerts 
and operas in the minor cities of Germany, he 
accepted a three years' engagement at the 
Royal Opera, Wiesbaden, sustaining rSles in 
" Faust," " L' Africaine," " Lohengrin," 
" Magic Flute," " Stradella," " Martha," 
" Der Freischutz," and "Belisario." At the 
end of this time he went to Paris to continue 
his studies. From there he proceeded to 
London, successfully appearing in English 
opera and concerts. During his stay he became 
acquainted with Gounod, with whom he trav- 
eled in concert tours of Belgium. Upon the 
advice of Gounod he went to Milan and stud- 
ied a year under Lamperti. Returning to 
England he filled various engagements until 
1876, when he came to the United States. 
Ilis first appearances at New York and Boston 
were at the symphony concerts given by 
Theodore Thomas. He was engaged as one 
of the principal singers upon organization of 
the Wagner Opera Festival, and his rendition 
of Lohengrin showed him to be an actor of 


more than ordinary al> 

His success in I the early American psalmodists. His music 
torio, particularly the " Messiah," was popular in his day, and a few <>f his tunes 
>n," and "Samson," is nearly as are still to be found in church collections. 

opera. He was the first to He died at his native place, Tidy 21, 1861. 


marked as in th 

give in America a series of song recitals, in- 
troducing this style of concert in Chicago, in 
February, 1S79, when in four evenings he 
sang seventy-five classical songs. In 1881 he 
gave two series of song recitals in Brooklyn, 
which were highly praised. During his resi- 
dence of six years and a half in America, Mr. 
Werrenrath has been engaged as solo tenor of 
Plymouth (H. W. Beecher's) Church. Last 
summer (1882), while on a visit to his native 
city, he had the honor of singing before the 
royal family of Denmark. He is a fine lin- 
guist as well as a finished musician, speaking 
with almost equal ease the Danish, Swedish, 
German, French, Italian and English lan- 
Westenclorf, Thomas P., was born at 

Bowling Green, Caroline Co., Ivy., Feb. 23, 
1S47. His father was of German birth ami 
his mother a native of Virginia. When In: 

What is Home Without a Moth- 
er ? The title of one of Sep. Winner's most 
popular songs. It is the second one which he 
wrote, and vvr.s composed, both words and 
music, in 1S51. In a short time it became all 
the rage, being sung, played and whistled 
everywhere, and the sales were enormously 
large for the lime. Its popularity was subse- 
quently dimmed by the production of "Listen 
to the Mocking Bird." 

Wheeler, J. Harry, was bom Oct. 5, 
1842, at Lynn, Mass. His father and mother, 
both of whom are living (1886), were highly 
musical, his father having directed musical 
societies and choirs for more than forty years. 
He was placed under the private teaching of 
the best masters of his native city, and while 
yet attending school at the age af fifteen he 
began teaching large classes in vocal music. 
At this time he was offered and accepted the 

was twelve years old the family removed to [ directorship of a large chorus organization. 

Chicago, where he received his musical edu- But the home musical culture was only as an 

and the violin un ler Henry Declerque. For ; parents that he should lead a mercantile life. 
some time he taught brass bands, and subse- j He was therefore placed in a prominent Bos- 
quently in a State institution at Flainfield, ; ton business house. In that city he was con- 
Ind. During the past eight years he has been ! stantly under the influence of music and musi- 
engaged in teaching at the Louisville House | cians, and after a few years abandoned the 
of Refuge, Louisville, Ky., where his wife is business for music. After this he received 
also employed. Mr. Weslendorf has written ; musical instruction from the best teachers in 
about 300 vocal and nearly as many inslru- Bostor. singing in public with success. Some 
mental pieces. 

Of his songs, "Our Litth 
Darling's Grave," "I'll take you Home again 
Kathleen," "Toddlin Down the Brea,' 
"From Jerusalem to Jeriei 
the Old Folks, Tom," an< 


110 little pop 
instrumental pieces a 
p," "In Life's Fair M< 

time later he traveled in the West and South, 
holding musical conventions with success. 
He enlisted during the war and was sergeant- 
Don't Forget major of a western regiment. After this he 
■ others, have ] went to Europe, studying voice culture with 
Garcia, San Giovanni, Trivulsi, Bruni, Lam- 
perti, and other celebrated teachers, and thor- 
oughly preparing himself for that branch of the 
profession. On his return to the United 
States he was engaged as a teacher of the 
voice and singing at the New England Con- 
servatory of Music, Boston, a position which 
he still retains. Many of his pupils have lie- 
come eminent as opera, concert and church 
singers and teachers. As a teacher he is 

Among his 
i " Gingham 
nine Walt/.," 



"Innocence," "Sounds from Fairyland," 
"Harvest Morn," "Love's Greeting," etc. 
His little daughter, Jennie, h:s often figured 
in his songs, and is the prime cause of many 
of them. He has recently completed an 
opera on which he has been engaged for three 
years, which will probably be produced soon. 

Wetlliore, Dr. Truman S., bom at equaled by few, having had a vast experience. 
Winchester, Conn., Aug. 12, 1774, was a He has written much upon vocal culture. His 
contemporary of Stephen Jenks, and one of work entitled "Vocal Physiology" has mel 


with a very large sale, and is said to be one 
<>f the most practical works on this subject 
ever written. He is also director of the Bos- 
ton Normal Musical Institute, which is held 
every summer. 

Whiting, George Elbridge, was bom 
at Holliston, Mass., Sep. 14, 1842. At the 
age of five years he began the study of music 
with his brother, Amos, then organist of a 
church at Springfield. He soon relinquished 
the piano for the organ, and when thirteen 
made his first public appearance as a player. 
Two years later he went to Hartford, Conn., 
an I soon after became organist of one of the 
churches there, succeeding Dudley Buck. 
While there he founded the Beethoven Society. 
In 1862 he removed to Boston. Having stud- 
ied with Mr. Morgan of New York, he went 
to Liverpool, Eng., where for a year he was a 
pupil of the famous English organ player, 
Best. On returning home he was engaged as 
organist of St. Joseph's Church, Albany, N.Y. 
Being unsatisfied with his attainments, he spent 
some time at Berlin, finishing under Radecke. 
After three years service at Albany, he ac- 
cepted a call to King's Chapel, Boston, and 
retained the position five years. In 1874, 
having meanwhile filled various engagements, 
he became organist of the Music Hall. He 
was also for some time at the head of the organ 
department of the New England Conservatory 
of Music. In May, 1878, he removed to Cin- 
cinnati as one of the principal organ instructors 
in the then newly established College of Mu- 
sic, and took charge of the great organ in the 
Music Hall, on which he has played at several 
Of the May Festivals. After fulfilling his con- 
tract at Cincinnati (for three years) he return- 
ed to his old position at the head of the organ 
department of the N. E. Conservatory of Mu- 
sic, Boston, where he now (May, 1S86) is. Mr. 
Whiting is one of the leading organists of this 
country, and ranks very high as a composer. 
The following isa list of his works: "The Or- 
ganist," containing 12 pieces for the organ ; 3 
preludes for the organ, in C and D minor; 
"The First Six Months on the Organ," con- 
sisting of 25 studies; 20 preludes for the or- 
gan, in 2 books; mass in C minor, for four 
solo voices, chorus, orchestra and organ, per- 
formed in 1872; mass in F minor, for chorus, 
orchestra and organ, written for the opening 
of the cathedral at Boston in 1874; prologue 

to Longfellow's "Golden Legend," for chorus 
and orchestra, performed in 1S73 ; "Dream 
Pictures," cantata, performed in 1877; "The 
Tale of the Viking," cantata, for solos, chorus 

[ and orchestra (Schirmer, N. Y.); a set of fig- 
ured vespers; "Lenora," contata, for 4 solo 
voices, chorus and orchestra, libretto by Bur- 
ger (in Ms.); concerto in I) minor, for 
piano; allegro brilliant, for orchestra; 
fantasia and fugue in E minor ; sonata in A 
minor ; fantasia in F; 3 concert etudes, A 
minor, F, and B flat; suite for violoncello and 
piano; concert overture, "The Princess;" 
about 50 songs for various voices ; a number 
of part songs ; several morning and evening 
services ; miscellaneous organ pieces. 

Whitney, Myron W., one of America's 
most celebrated bass singers, was born at 
Ashbury, Mass., Sep. 5, 1836. At the age of 
sixteen he went to Boston and studied with 
E. H. Frost, making his first public appear- 
ance at a Christmas performance of the "Mes- 
siah" given by the Handel and Haydn Society 
at Tremont Temple in 1858. Feeling dissat- 
isfied with his attainments after ten years of 
concert singing, he went to Florence and 
studied with Luigi Yennucini for some time. 
Proceeding to London he took lessons of Ran- 
degger in oratorio singing. He filled various 
engagements, one of which was a tour of Eng- 
land, Ireland and Scotland, and greatly in- 
creased his reputation by a masterly rendition 
of the part of Elijah at the Birmingham Fes- 
tival. He also appeared at Oxford University 

j in Handel's "Acis and Galatea," as Polyphe- 
mus, singing the music as originally written. 
Since 1876 he has refused all offers from 

1 abroad and remained in his native country. 

\ He has sung in nearly all of the May Festivals 

j (especially those of Cincinnati ), and at festi- 

vals in Boston, New York, Chicago, Pitts- 
burgh, Cleveland, Indianapolis, and other 
cities. His repertoire includes "Messiah," 
"Samson," "Joshua," "Tephtha," "Israel in 
Egypt," "Elijah,"- "St. Paul," "Son and 
Stranger," "Last Judgment," Bach's Passion 
Music, "Eli," "Twelfth Night," "Fridolin," 
"Creation," "Seasons," and other works of 
high order. As an oratorio singer he has 
few equals. He is in every way a great 
artist, and possesses a magnificent bass voice 
of nearly three octaves compass, extending 
from B flat below the bass staff upwards. 



Whitney, Samuel Brenton, was bom 
at Woodstock, Vermont, June 4, 1842. His 
early musical education was received from 
Carl Wels of New York. For four years he was 
organist of Christ Church, Montpelier, Vt., 
then of St. Peter's, Albany, and subsequently 
of St. Paul's, Burlington. In 1870 he went 
to Cambridge, Mass., where he continued his 
studies under J. K. Paine, playing for him at 
the Appleton Chapel, Harvard College. The 
following year he was appointed organist of 
the Church of the Advent, Boston, and after- 
wards director of the music, both of which 
posts he still (May, 1886) holds. He is also 
professor of the organ and lecturer in the Bos- 
ton University and the New England Conser- 
vatory of Music. In all matters pertaining to 
church music he is considered one of the best 
authorities in this country, and his articles are 
always clear and forcible. As an organist he 
excels in interpreting the works of Bach. He 
has organized and conducted numerous choir 
festivals in Boston and various towns of Ver- 
mont. Among Mr. Whitney's compositions 
are a piano trio, several church services for 
full choir, a few pieces for the organ, and 
some piano pieces and songs, all of which 
show originality and purity of form. He has, 
besides, made transcriptions of various clas- 
sical and modern works. He is a prominent 
member of some of Boston's best musical or- 
ganizations, and conducts various singing soci- 
eties, besides being one of the organ exam- 
iners of the American College of Musicians, 
and one of its two vice-presidents. 

White, Albert, was horn at 
Taunton, Mass., March 20, 1832. His early 
life was spent on a farm, but his love of music- 
evinced itself at an early age, and with a "fid- 
dle" made out of shingles and barrel hoops 
he experienced all the delights of a Paganini ! 
In a few years he became quite proficient on 
the violin, led an orchestra, and even com- 
posed some dance and ballet music. While 
professor in the Naval School at Newport he 
commenced his career as a song writer, in 
which he has been so successful. The favor 
with which his productions were received led 
him to conceive the idea of becoming his own 
publisher, and on Sep. I, 1868, he founded 
the music-publishing house of WHITE, SMITH 
& Co., which has rapidly .risen to an impor- 
tant position among those of this country. 

All the details of the business are under his 
personal supervision. Among Mr. White's 
most popular vocal productions are "Against 
the Tide," "Blue and Gray," "Come, Silver 
Moon," "Hesitation," "Moonlight on the 
Lake," "When 'Tis Moonlight," "My Love's 
a R >ver," "Sweet to the Milkmaid the Plow- 
boy Sang," and "When the Leaves begin to 

White, Smith & Co., Boston. This 
music-publishing house was founded Sep. 1, 
1868. The principal partners are C. A. 
White, well known as a composer, and W. F. 
Smith. Their catalogue comprises nearly 
10,000 publications, and is rapidly being 
added to. They have recently put into opera- 
tion a large lithographic press, and now com- 
pete in this respect with foreign publishers. 
A branch house has been established in Chi- 
cago, and they now rank among the leading 
music firms of the country. They publish a 
great number of popular pieces, and issue the 
"Folio," a 32-page monthly magazine devot- 
ed to musical matters. 

Wilcox & White, Meriden, Conn. 
This firm of organ manufacturers was formed 
in 1876, by a number of wealthy residents of 
Meriden, who opposed their money to the 
practical skill and experience of the Messrs. 
White, who for a number of years held lead- 
ing positions with J. Estey & Co., Brattleboro, 
Vt., ami who were accompanied by a number 
of Estey & Co.'s workmen. A four-story 
brick building, 200 feet long, with two wings 
100 feet long, was erected and provided with 
the best modern appliances. The business 
rapidly grew to such an extent that another 
building, five stories high and no feet long, 
was necessitated. The Wilcox & White or- 
gans are favorably known the world over, and 
the demand for them large, as is evidenced 
by the fact that about 5000 instruments are 
manufactured yearly. The officers of the 
Company are as follows: H. C. Wilcox, pres- 
ident ; J. H. White, secretary and treasurer; 
and H. K. White, manufacturing superinten- 
dent. The warerooms are located at 25 Union 
Square, New York. 

Willeox, Dr. John Henry, was born 
Oct. 6, 1827, at Savannah, Ga. Of his early 
life we have no particulars. He graduated at 
Trinity College, Hartford, Conn., Aug. 2, 
1840. The following year he took up his res- 


idence in Bosb a, and soon after became or- 
ganist of St. Paul's (Episcopal) Church, suc- 
ceeding Dr. S. P. Tucherman. Upon the 
establishment of the Church of the Immacu- 
late Conception, he was appointed organist 
thereof, and retained the post until July, 1874. 
The degree of Doctor of Music was conferred 
on him by the Georgetown College, "Trige- 
sina Juni MDCCCLXIV " (Junes, 1864). 
For some years previous to his death he per- 
ceptibly failed, both in body and mind. He 
died at Boston, June 10, 1875. During Ids 
residence in Boston he was at different times 
connected with Hook & Hastings, Georgi 
Simmons, and Hutchings, Plaisted & Co., 
organ builders, and there Was no part of the 
organ with which he was not familiar. It is 
said that he cculd remember the size, number 
and location of draw-stops, etc., of every or- 
gan he had ever seen. As an organist he had 
no little ability, but he mostly confined him- 
self to the lighter and more popular class ol 
music. He composed much music for the 
Catholic Church, some of which has been pub- 
lished, but most of which is in manuscript. 

Winailt, Emily, contralto singer, was 
horn about i860, and studied with the late 
Mme. Rudersdorff, from whom she acquired 
an excellent method. Her first public ap- 
pearance was at one of Remenyi's concerts, 
New York, in November, 1878. She has fre- 
quently sung at the Philharmonic and sym- 
phonic concerts, and was one of th<? soloists 
at the New York May Festival of 1S82. At 
present siie hold.-, a position in the choir of 
St. Thomas' Church. 

Winner, Septimus; one of America's 

most celebrated song writers, was bom at 
Philadelphia, May ri, 1827. His early days 
were spent much the same as those of other 
hoys. Having come into possession of an old 
violin, he managed, by dilligent practice, to 
become a very fair player in the course of a 
year. After this lie for a short time took les- 
sons of Leopold Meignen, then a well-known 
teacher. The violin remained his favorite 
instrument, but after attaining considerable 
proficiency upon this he took up the study of 
the organ, pi.' no, and various stringed instru- 
ments, on all of which he became a fair 
player. By the time he had arrived at the age 
of twenty he was a successful music teacher, 
for five years he was leader of the Philadel- 

phia Band, and in 1S53 he opened a music 
store in his native city. The panic of 1S57 
greatly demoralized trade, and the following 
year he removed his establishment to Wil- 
liamsport. At the end of a year, however, he 
returned to Philadelphia. He now has a 
branch store in Germantown (a part of Phila- 
delphia), where he has for along time resided. 
Mr. Winner was married in 1S48 to Miss Han- 
nah J. Guyer, by whom lit- has had several 
children, and who is still living. Five of the 
children are also living. Septimuf, Jr., is in 
partnership with his father, and Joseph has 
gained considerable reputation as a song wri- 
ter under the nameof "Jose] h Easlburn." 

Mr. Winner's songs, with which he Ik s been 
so successful, number several hundred, the 
words to all of them being by himself. His 
first song, as well as his first composition, was 
"How Sweet are the Roses,'' published by 
Lee & Walker, Philadelphia, in 1850. It ap- 
peared under the nom de plume of "Alice 
Hawthorne," an arrangement of his mother's 
maiden name, and was shortly followed by 
"What is Home Without a Mother," which 
constitutes the first of what afterwards came to 
be known as the " Hawthorne Ballads." Its 
popularity, though almost phenomenal, was 


bv that of 


Bird," which has probably been heard in 
some shape by everyone who knows anything 
at all about music. It is said that the idea of 
writing this song was suggested to Mr. Winner 
by the performances of a colored individual, 
Richard Milburn, commonly called "Whist- 
ling Dick," who was noted for his imitations 
of the mocking bird. It would be impossible, 
in an article like this, to specify all of Mr. 
Winner's songs, but others that may be men- 
tioned are "The Love of one fond Heart," 
"Pet of the Cradle," "Whispering Hope," 
"Our Good Old Friends," "Dreaming of the 
Loved Ones," "Just as of Old," "Lost Isabel," 
"Wherefore," "Side by Side," "Song of the 
Laimers," "Days Gone By," "What Care I," 
"Love once gone, is gone forever," "P'are- 
well song of Enoch Arden ; or, I'll sail the 
seas over" (suggested by Tennyson's beautiful 
poem), "Yes, I would the war were over," 
"Give us back our old Commander," "Aunt 
Jemima's Plaster," and "Ten Little Injuns." 
He has composed quite a number of insti li- 
nn nlal pieces, but is chiefly known in this 


' 77 

field for his arrangements for various instru- 
ments, which number upwards of 1500. His 
series of easy guides or methods has become 
very popular. It includes the following in- 
struments : Piano, reed organ, guitar, violin, 
flute, violoncello, accordeon and flutina, Ger- 
man accordeon, banjo, concertina, life, clari- 
net, flageolet, and cornet. For the most 
of them he has also edited collections of mu- 
sic. Mr. Winner has written under the names 
of "Percy Guyer," "Mark Mason," and "Paul 
Stenton," as well as his own name and that 
of "Alice Hawthorne." 

Wolfsollll, Carl, pianist and composer, 
was born at Alzey, Reinhessen, Germany, Dec. 
14, 1834. His musical talent early showed 
itself, and at the age of twelve he was placed 
under the care of Aloys Schmitt of Frankfort, 
with whom he remained two years, his studies 
at the end of that time being interrupted by the 
revolution of 1848. About this time he com- 
menced composing, and wrote some patriotic 
songs. In December, 184S, he made his ddbttt 
as a pianist at Mozart Hall, Frankfort, play- 
ing the piano part of Beethoven's Quintet. 
From Frankfort he went to Mannheim, where 
he studied with Mine. Heinfelter and Vincenz 
Lachner. In 185 1 he made a concert tour in 
Rhenish Bavaria, with the celebrated violin- 
ist, Therese Milanolo, and in 1852 went to 
London, remaining there two years. He then 
(1S54) came to the United States, and soon 
after took up his residence at Philadelphia, 
where he held a leading position in musical 
circles. In 1856 he made a concert tour 
throughout the States with Theodore Thomas, 
in conjunction with whom he for several years 
conducted a series of chamber concerts in 
Philadelphia. His first public appearance in 
New York was early in 1865, when he 
achieved a great success and was received 
with more than ordinary favor. He organized 
the Beethoven Society of Philadelphia in 1869, 
which is still flourishing, and on the occasion 
of the Beethoven Centennial Festival, Dec. 
17, 1870, made his debut as an orchestral con- 
ductor. After giving two seasons of symphony 
concerts he was obliged to suspend them on 
account of insufficient support. In the fall of 
1873, upon invitation, he removed to Chicago, 
which has since been his place of residence. 
Shortly after his removal lie organized a Bee- 
thoven Society similar to the one in Philadel- 

phia, which has given excellent performances 
of important works. 

Mr. Wolfsohn ranks among the leading ar- 
tists of this country, having a ^wz technique 
and at once entering into the spirit of the 
work, which he impresses upon each person 
of his audience. He is especially happy as an 
interpreter of Beethoven's sonatas, the entire 
series of which (33 in number) he has thrice 
played in public. He has also given numer- 
ous recitals from the works of Chopin, Schu- 
mann, and other great composers. As a com- 
poser he has not been very active. His pro- 
ductions consist of a transcription of airs from 
"Faust," a "Valse de Concert," numerous 
melodies for the violin, several concertos for 
piano and strings, and some songs and piano 
pieces, in all of which the hand of the musi- 
cian may be traced. 

Wollenliaupt, Hermann Adolph, pi- 
anist and composer, was born Sep. 27, 1827, 
at Schkenditz, Saxony. He studied under 
Julius Knorr and Hauptmann, and in 1845 
came to the United States, locating at New 
York. On various occasions he appeared as 
pianist at the Philharmonic and other con- 
certs, and came to be highly esteemed both 
as a teacher and as a composer. His compo- 
sitions are chiefly for the piano, and being 
written with more than usual care and taste 
have proved useful for teaching purposes. 
Many of them have been republished in 
Europe, making his name respected wherever 
known. He died at New York, Sep. 18, 
1S63. The following is a partial list of his 
works : 

Whispering Winds; Souvenir et Salut, an- 
dante and etude (op. 7); Belinda-Polka and 
Iris-Polka, 2 nos. (op. 8); Warrior's Joy 
March, impromptu (op. 9); Polka cli Bravura 
(op. 10); La Rose and La Violet, two polkas 
(op. 14); Nocturne (op. 15); La Campanella, 
etude de concert (op. 16); Morceau en forme 
d'etude (op. 22); Deux polkas de salon, No. 
1, L'Hirondelle, No. 2, La Gazelle (op. 23); 
Galop di Bravura (op. 24); Le Ruisseau, 
valse etude (op. 25); Helene, valse brilliant 
(op. 26); Deux morceaux de salon, No. 1. 
Mazurka, No. 2, Valse Styrienne (op. 27); 
Mazeppa, galop 'le concert, also arranged for 
4 hands (op. 43); Andante, elegique (op. 45); 
Fantasia, "II Trovatore" (op. 46); Grand 
Valse Styrienne (op. 47); Stories of Nocomis, 


four morceaux caracteristiqiies, for 4hantls 
(op. 48); A Bord de l'Arago, valse brilliant 
(°P- 33)' Sweetest Smile, polka (op. 49); 
Sparkling Diamonds, mazourka fantastique 
(op. 53); Song of the Syrens, valse brilliant 
(op. 54); Star Spangled Banner, paraphrase 
brilliant (op. 60); German March; Fleurs de 
Paradis, tnorceau de salon ; Deceitful Birds, 
soprano or alto voice ; Wanderer's Musings, 
soprano or alto. 

Woodbury, Isaac Baker, was horn 
Oct. iS, iSio, at Beverly, Mass. At an early 
age be was apprenticed to the blacksmith's 

trade at Boston, learning musie in his spare 
moments. In 1839 he joined a traveling 
vocal company, the "May State Glee Club," 
which gave performances in various New Eng- 
land towns. In 1S51 he visited Europe for 
the purpose of study, and after his return set- 
tled at New York, becoming actively e>. 
in composing and in editing various collec- 
tions of church and Sabbath school music. 
He was also well-known as a conductor of 
conventions, and was connected with several 
musical papers as editor or contributor. His 
music is fresh and sparkling, and was quite 
popular in its day. Many of his church tunes 
are now in general use, among which are 
"Rakem," "Eucharist," "S. lena," "Tamar," 
"Ozrem," and "Siloam." He died at Colum- 
bia, S. C., Oct. 26, 1858, at the age of thirty- 

"Work, Henry C, composer of popular 
songs, was born Oct. 1, 1832, at Middletown, 
Conn., and was of Scottish descent. When he 
was but an infant his father removed to Illi- 
nois, where his early years were spent. To 
his attendance upon the primitive camp- 
meetings "out West" his first musical impres- 
sions are due. When he had arrived at the 
age of fourteen years, the family returned to 
Connecticut, and it was decided that Henry 
■ must learn some trade. He was accordingly 
apprenticed to the printing business. During 
every spare moment he busied himself in 
studying such works on harmony as it was 
possible for him to secure, and finally he ven- 
tured to compose a song, which he called 
"We are (Joining, Sister Mary." This he 
submitted to Edwin 1'. Christy, of minstrel 
fame, who was so well pleased with it that he 
sang it at his conceits. It was afterwards 
published by Firth, Fond & Co. of New York. 

He wrote some other songs, hut becoming dis- 
satisfied with his own productions, he ceased 

to compose f>r sever.,' years. In 1861 ap- 
peared " Brave Boys are They," the first of a 
series of war songs, which includes "King- 
dom Coming," "Wake,Nicodemus," "Giafted 
int.. the Army," "Babylon is Fallen," "Song 
of a Thousand Years," "God Save the Na- 
tion," and "Marching Through Georgia." 
1 The last named, written during the wintei of 
1864-65, is alone sufficient to perpetuate the 
name of its author, and is fast becoming a na- 
tional melody. In 1S65 he took a trip to 
Europe, and after his return bought, with his 
brother, several hundred acres of land at 
Vineland, N. J., with a view of establishing a 
fruit farm, but the investment proved an un- 
profitable one. Ilissongs, among which must 
be mentioned the famous temperance one, 
"Come Home, Father," were principally 
published by Root & Cady, Chicago, but his 
contract with them was dissolved by the great 
Chicago fire of October, 1S71. For several 
years more he ceased to write, and then came 
before the public again with "The Magic 
Veil," "Sweet Echo Dell," "Grandfather's 
Clock," and equally popular songs. "Grand- 
father's Clock" was first sung by Sam Lucas 
in New Haven, and has had a circulation at- 
tained by few pieces. Among his other songs, 
which number nearly four score, may be men- 
tioned "Shadows on the Floor," "Mac 
O'Macorkity," "California bird Song," (Pity 
me, Loo ! ), "King Bibler's Army," "The 
Eire Bells are Ringing," and "Used-up Joe" 
(comic). Mr. Work was not a professional 
musician, and hence did not develope his 
talents as he might otherwise have clone. 
While composing he generally sought a quiet, 
retired place somewhere in the country. He 
died at Hartford, Conn., June S, 1SS4. 

Wyillllll, ADKISON P., was born at Cor- 
nish, N. H,, June 23, 1832. He early learned 
the violin, and taught both vocal and instru- 
mental music. In 1S59 he was employed at 
Wheeling, W. Ya., and in 1867 opened a 
music school at Claremont, N. H. He 
became widely known as a teacher and com- 
poser. His death occurred at Washington, 
Pa., April 15, 1872, and the remains were 
interred at his native place. Anne E., his 
wife, who died at boston, Sep. 24, 1871, was 
a fail soprano singer. Mr. Wyman's compo- 


1 79 

6itions are chiefly for (he piano, and some of 
them attained a wonderful popularity, which 
is not yet exhausted. Among them may be 
mentioned "Silvery Waves," "Woodland 
Echoes," "Music Among the Pines," "Wed- 
ding Bells March," "Fairy Visions," "Song 
of the Skylark," "Evening Parade March," 

"Moonlight Musings," and others. It is said 
that "Silvery Waves." which has already 
sold to the extent of nearly 1,000,000 copies, 
was retained by Messrs, S. Brainard's Sons, 
the music-publishers, for two years before 
it was issued, so fearful were they that it 
would not prove profitable; 

Yankee Doodle. An American nation- 
al melody written, curious as it may seem, by 
an Englishman. The . circumstances of its 
origin are as follows : In the summer of 1775 
the British army, under the command of Aber- 
crombie, lay encamped on the east bank of 
the Hudson, a little south of Albany, awaiting 
reinforcements of militia from the Eastern 
States, before beginning the campaign against 
the French. As company after company of 
the raw levies poured into camp during the 
month of June, each man differently armed 
and dressed from his neighbor, the scene was 
one to excite the mirth of a deacon. Their 
appearance was never equaled, except, per- 
haps, by the famous regiment of Sir fohn 
Falstaff. Among the British was a certain Dr. 
Shackburg or Shamburg, a surgeon, who, it 
seems, was also somewhat of a musician. 
He arranged the tune of Yankee Doodle to 
words of his own writing and dedicated it to 
the new comers. The joke took immensely 
and the tune thus passed to a permanent place 
in history. 

Yankee Doodle was not original with Dr. 
Shackburg. John W. Moore, in his "Ency- 
clopaedia of Music" (article "Song"), says 

that the tune can be traced back to the time 
of Charles I. There are two or three more 
ancient melodies closely resembling it, and 
> undoubtedly Dr. Shackburg did nothing more 
! than arrange it to suit his own purpose. Dur- 
! ing its somewhat extended existence, it has 
j been fitted with many different sets of words. 
In England (me set of words began with — 
"The Roundheads and Cavaliers," and anoth- 
er with "Nankee Doodle came to town." 
In the United States there was a set which 
! started off like this : "Lucy Locket lost her 
pocket." At a later period the lories had 
one, of which the first line was — "Yankee 
Doodle came to town." Francis Hopkinson 
of Philadelphia also wrote a set entitled "Bat- 
tle of the Kegs." While the British ships 
were stationed in the Delaware river, in 
December, 1777, David Bush nell prepared a 
large number of kegs of powder so arranged 
that they would explode on reaching the fleet. 
They were, however, dispersed by the ice 
and prematurely exploded. But the British 
were effectually aroused, and for many hours 
kept up a firing at every dark object in the 
river. We herewith give the melody and 
the words of Dr. Shackburg : 

i So 






I. Father and I went down to crnip, 
Along with Captain Goodwin, 
And there we saw the men and Loys 
As thick as hasty pudding. 

Refrain or Chorus — 

Yankee Doodle keep it up, 
Yankee Doodle dandy ; 
Mind the music and the step, 
And with the girls be handy. 

And there was Captain Washington 

Upon a slapping stallion ; 
And giving orders to his men, 

1 guess there was a million. 
And then the feathers on his hat, 

They looked so tarnal liney, 
I wanted peskily to get 

And give to my Jemima. 
And there they had a swamping gun 

As big r.s a log of maple, 
On a deuced little ear , 

A load for father's cattle. 
Ar.d every time they fired it off 

It took a horn of powder; 
It made a noise like father's gun, 

Only a nation louder. 
I went ,v near to it myself 

As Jacob's underpinnin', 
And father went as near again — 

I thought the deuce was in him. 
(It scared me so I ran the streets, 

Nor stopped, as I remember, 
Till I got home, and safely locked 

In granny's l.ttle chamber.) 
And there 1 see a little keg, 

Its heads were made of leather, 
They knocked upon't with little sticks 

To call the folks together. 
And there they'd fife away like fun, 

And play on corn-stalk fiddles: 
And seme had ribbons red as blood 

All bound around their middles. 
The troopers, too, would gallop up, 

And fire right in our faces; 
It scared me almost half to death 

To see them run such races. 
Uncle Sam came thereto change 

Some pancakes and some onions 
For 'lasses cakes to carry home 

To give his wife and young ones. 
But I can't tell you half I see, 

They kept up such a smother; 
So I took my hat off, made a bow, 

And scampered home to mother. 


Zenobia. A grand opeia in four acts. 
Both the libretto, the themes of which are 
taken from Ware's well-known work, ami the 
music are by Silas G. Pratt. It was begun in 
1878, and first produced, in concert form, at 
Chicago, June 15 and 16, 18S2. Its fiist pro- 
duction on the stage was at McVicker's The- 
atre, Chicago, March 26, 18S3, with Miss Dora 
Henninges in the title role. In spite of several 
drawbacks, one of which was the illness of 
the soprano, it was fairly well received, and 
more interest manifested in it than in any sim- 
ilar American work. After a week's repre- 
sentation it was withdrawn. The opera con- 
tains several very fine numbers. 

Zerralm, Carl, was bom at Malchow, 
Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Germany, July 28, 
1826. He began the study of music at an 
early age under the care of a teacher of his 
native town- From 1S41 to 1845 ^ le studied 
with I. F. Weber of Rostoch, in 1846 at Han- 
over, and during 1846 and 1847 at Berlin. In 
184S he came to the United States with the 
famous Germania Orchestra (see GERMANIA 
Orchestra), of which he remained a member 
until its dissolution in 1854. He conducted a 
series of six subscription concerts in 1855, with 
an orchestra of fifty-four players. Two years 
later he began the Philharmonic concerts, the 
programs of which were of unusually high 
order, and which were continued until 1S63. 
In 1866 the Harvard Musical Association re- 
solved to take up the work thus dropped, anil 
Mr. Zerralm was appointed conductor of the 
symphony concerts, a post which he ably filled 
and which he retained during the sixteen 
years they were continued. In 1882 he became 
leader of the Philharmonic Orchestra, then a 
recent organization. Besides his duties as j 
conductor in Boston, he also conducts several 
societies in various cities and towns of Massa- [ 
chusetts. Much of the musical success of the 
two great Peace Jubilees held in Boston was [ 
d.ue to his energy and ability. In 1877 he was I 
called to San Francisco to take charge of the 1 
musical festival held there during that year, 
which made his reputation a thoroughly na- 

tional one. Mr. Zerrahn is a good musician, 
and as a conductor deservedly occupies the 
foremost rank. For many years he has been 
a resident of Boston, where his efforts for the 
advancement of music are fully appreciated. 
As a gentleman lie is highly esteemed by all 
who know him. 

Zeuner, Charles, organist and compo- 
ser, was bom at Eisleben, nearGotha, Saxony, 
Sept. 20, T795, and baptised as HEINRICH 
Christopher Zeuner, but seems to have 
changed his given name on coming to the 
United States, which he did in 1824. He 
took up his residence at Boston, where he 
came to be highly esteemed. In 1S39 he pub- 
lished "The American Harp," containing 400 
pages. His oratorio of "Feast of Taberna- 
cles" was published in 1832, at which lime 
he was organist of Park Street Church, presi- 
dent of the Musical Professional Society, and 
organist of the Handel and Haydn Society. 
The latter position he held from 1830 to 1837. 
His second important book, "Ancient Lyre," 
contained 364 pages and was published in 
1848. Besides preparing several works him- 
self, he wrote much music for the publications 
of other authors. In 1854 he removed from 
Boston to Philadelphia, where he was first 
organist of St. Andrew's Episcopal Church, 
and subsequently of the Arch Street Presby- 
terian Church. For several years he exhibited 
symptoms of insanity, but they were not 
thought to be serious. On Saturday, Nov. 7, 
1857, he left his boarding place and proceeded 
to West Philadelphia. The same day his 
body was found in Smith's woods with the 
head shattered by a gun. It was evident that 
he had committed suicide. Mr. Zeuner was 
an excellent musician and respected by all 
who knew him. 

Ziegfeltl, Dr. Florf.ns, one of Ameri- 
ca's most prominent musical educators, was 
born at Jever, near the sea coast in the Grand 
Duchy of Oldenburg, Germany, June 10, 1841. 
His father, an official in the court of the grand 
duke, was passionately fond of music, and in 
him this same passion early developed. When 


six years of age he took his first piano lessons. 
Under the care of the best teachers he made 
very rapid progress, and at the age of ten 
played in both public and private concerts. : 
Through excessive study his health became ! 
undermined, and at the age of fifteen he came 
to New York to visit a brother there. In 1859 
he returned to Germany to finish his musical 
education. He entered the Consefvatorium 
at Leipzig, where for several years he studied 
under Moscheles, Richter, Plaidy, Wenzel, 
David, Papperitz, and others. In 1S63 he re- 
ceived a flattering offer to go to Russia and 
take charge of a large conservatory there, but 
declined, having already decided to make the 
United States his future home, lie arrived 
here for the second lime in 1S63, and in 
November settled in Chicago as teacher of 
music. In 1S67, under the name of the Chica- 
go Academy of Music, he laid the foundation 
of the Chicago Musical College (see- article 
Chicago). In 186S he gave his first concert | 
with his pupils in Crosby's Opera House, 
with great success. Such was the success of 
the school that in the fall of 1871 it occupied ; 
the entire building at No. 253 Wabash Ave- 
nue. The great fire of that year swept away 
everything. Within two months, however, ' 
the indomitable Doctor had re-opened the 
school under its present name. Dr. Ziegfeld j 
went to Europe in the interests of the Peace 
Jubilee, and his acquaintance with eminent 
musicians abroad enabled him to secure many | 
attractions. With Liszt, Wagner, and others, 
he maintained a correspondence more or less I 
extensive. Since settling in Chicago, he has 
visited Europe eleven times, occasionally ac- 
companied by some of his pupils. Dr. Zieg- 
feld is a true artist and musician, and one of 
which this country may well be proud. As 
he is yet in the prime of life, he will probably 
live to accomplish much more for his chosen 

Zlllltlf'l, John, was born in 1S15, atHoch- 
dorf, near Stuttgart, Germany, and received his 
first musical education at the Royal Academy 
of Esslingen, Wurtemburg, where he remained 
from 1829 to 1831. In 1833 he received the ap- I 
pointment of teacher of music in a seminary 
at Esslingen, at the same time studying the vio- 

lin under a pupil of Molique. Upon the ad- 
vice of E. F. Walcker, the organ builder, he 
relinquished that instrument for the organ, 
taking lessons first of J. G. French and sub- 
sequently of 11. Rinek at Darmstadt. In 1840 
he went to St. Petersburg for the purpose of 
giving a concert on one of Walcker's organs. 
Circumstances led him to temporarily take up 
his residence at St. Petersburg as organist and 
teacher. Through the representations of sev- 
eral Americans who resided at the Russian 
capital, he was induced to come to the United 
Slates, and landed at New York in October, 
1S47. At first he met with no success and. 
discouraged, was about to return to Russia, 
when he was persuaded to remain by Scharfen- 
berg & Louis, music-publishers of New York. 
In 1848 he was engaged as organist of the 
Unitarian Church (Dr. Farnley's), Brooklyn, 
and in 1850 of Plymouth Church. The latter 
, position he held until 1SC5, excepting the 
> years 1856 and 1857, when he was organist of 
\ Dr. Tyng's church and for the second time of 
, Dr. Farnley's, Brooklyn. In 1S65 he went 
i to Europe, seeking restoration of his wife's 
health, and remained abroad two years. On 
returning he resumed his duties at Plymouth 
Church, which he continued to discharge until 
1878, when he again went to Europe. He 
I died (according to David Baptie) at Cann- 
1 stadt, Germany, in July, 1SS2. Before de- 
parting he was presented with a substantial 
token in recognition of his long and valuable 
services, by the members of the church. 

Mr. Zundel's principal works are as follows : 

1. 250 Voluntaries and Interludes. 

2. A melodeon instructor. 

3. The Amateur Organist, a collection of vol- 
untaries, etc. 

4. Concert Variations, for the organ. 
c;. Six Voluntaries. 

6. 444 Interludes and Voluntaries. 

7. The First Year at the Organ. 

8. Grand Festival March. 
<>. Christian Heart Songs. Original tunes 

and anthems. 

10. Introitas Anthem. 

11. The School Harmonist. 

12. (band Te Deum Laudamus. 

13. Beyond the Smiling. Solo and quartet. 

14. Be Still, Heart. Mezzo-soprano and 

15. Treatise on Harmony and Modulation. 


Tie Family 

A Library ii 


The latest edition lias 

3000 more Words, 

in its vocabulary than 
are found in any other 

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and nearly three times 

the number 


In various Styles of JLSimliiir 

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Dictionary (nearly 

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Published by G. & C. MEBKIAM & CO., Springfield, Mass. 




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Two elegant editions of Classic and Modern Piano Compositions, selected from the works 
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